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HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 




How India Wrought 

\**r 
"mttnm "jjwu-m tjf 

For Freedom 





The Story of the Indian National Congress 



ANN!!: BhSANT 



UNDER TII8 AUSPICES OP 

Indian Institute of Applied Political Research 
By 

MICHHCQ Jt FANJATHAN 

KEWDEUii 




Published 1915 
Reprinted 1975 



92353 



. 3 

Mir 



Published by Moid Zaidi and printed at Sood Litho Press for Michiko 
& Panjathan, H.S. 14, Kailash Colony Market, New Delhi-110048. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

FOREWORD 
HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION i 

CHAPTER 

1. First Session of the Indian National Congress 
Bombay, 1885 1 

2. Second Session of the Indian National Congress 
Calcutta, 1886 15 

3. Third Session of the Indian National Congress 
Madras, 1887 35 

4. Fourth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Allahabad, 1888 54 

5. Fifth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Bombay, 1889 75 

6. Sixth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Calcutta, 1890 104 

7. Seventh Session of the Indian National Congress 
Nagpur, 1891 122 

8. Eighth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Allahabad, 1892 141 

9. Ninth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Lahore, 1893 162 

10. Tenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Madras, 1894 182 

11. Eleventh Session of the Indian National Congress 
Poona, 1895 206 

12. Twelfth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Calcutta, 1896 229 

13. Thirteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Amraoti, 1897 251 

14. Fourteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Madras, 1898 270 



Page 

15. Fifteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Lucknow, 1899 291 

16. Sixteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Lahore, 1900 311 

17. Seventeenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Calcutta, 1901 333 

18. Eighteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Ahmedabad, 1902 352 

19. Ninteenth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Madras, 1903 374 

20. Twentieth Session of the Indian National Congress 
Bombay, 1904 393 

21. Twenty-first Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Benares, 1905 415 

22. Twenty -second Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Calcutta, 1906 441 

23. Twenty- third Session of the Indian National Congress 

PART I Burnt, 1907 465 

PART II Madras, 1908 473 

24. Twenty-fourth Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Lahore, 1909 491 

25. Twenty- fifth Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Allahabad, 1910 509 

26. Twenty- sixth Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Calcutta, 1911 528 

27. Twenty-seventh Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Bankipur, 1912 551 

28. Twenty-eighth Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Karachi, 1913 552 

29. Twenty-ninth Session of the Indian National 
Congress, Madras, 1914 570 

APPENDIX : CHAPTER 27 595 

INDEX 611 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 707 

ERRATA 710 



FOREWORD 

Little is needed to explain the purpose of this book. It is a 
plain story of India's constitutional struggle for freedom, a story 
so pathetic in its patience, so strong in its endurance, so far-see- 
ing in its wisdom, that it is India's justification if any justifica- 
tion can be needed for asserting the right to Freedom for her 
demand for Home Rule. 

The younger generation are impatient under the repetition 
of disregarded demands, and they are right. The time has come 
for the definite agitation for Home Rule, to continue till it is 
granted. But they are wrong if they fail to recognise that these 
thirty years of work alone make it possible that the full demand 
for Freedom can now be effectively made. And they are doubly 
wrong if they are not grateful to these builders of the Indian 
nation, who, when all was dark around them, believed in the 
dawning of the Day. They have laid the foundation on which 
their youngers can build Homage then to the veterans, living 
still with us here, and living in the world beyond. That the 
younger generation may know how splendidly they wrought, 
this book is written. 

I fearlessly place this volume before the public, as a proof 
of India's fitness for Home Rule. The grasp of the questions 
dealt with, the sagacity of the remedies proposed for poverty 
and misrule, the sobriety of the claims urged, the knowledge of, 
and the sympathy with, the sorrows of the people, prove how 
much better off India would be under Self-Rule than under 
Others'-Rule. Let any unprejudiced student turn over the reso- 
lutions passed by the Congress during thirty years, and see how 
it laid bare the popular suffering, and how it pointed with uner- 
ring finger to the causes of that suffering the dram of Indian 
wealth to England, the exorbitant cost of the alien rule, the ever- 
increasing military expenditure, the sacrifice of Indian industries, 
the land-tax ever rising and condemning the peasantry to perpe- 
tual indebtedness, and to a hopeless poverty and semi-starva- 
tion that have no parallel in any civilised nation. It is these 
facts, covered up by officials, but laid bare by Congress, which 
make Home Rule necessary, if a catastrophe is to be avoided. 



The daily insult of the Arms Act, the constant oppress] 
of the Press and Seditious Meetings Acts, the exclusionof Indi* 
from the higher grades of the Array, the Police, the Educatioi 
Service, and a score of other wrongs, while bitterly felt tr 
high-spirited people, have not in them the immediate mens 
that lies in the grinding poverty of the masses of the populati< 
People become more or less accustomed to the "atmosphere 
inferiority," and oppression, long submitted to, at last dn 
pride and weakens self-respect. But people never become acci 
tomed to hunger, and they become desperate when they see 
hope of relief for themselves, nor for their children after the 
The danger to British Rule lies far more in the misery of 1 
masses than in the discontent of the educated. To call att< 
tion to that danger before it is too late, this book is issued. 

The Historical Introduction is the background of the stoi 
It is the testimony of 5,000 years to India's success in ruli 
herself. Let Indian history be set side by side with Europe 
history with what there is of the latter century by centu] 
and let us see whether India need blush at the comparison. Ta 
but the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth centuries, to go ba 
no further. Compare Akbar's tolerance with the persecution 
Protestants by Mary, of Roman Catholics by Elizabeth, and 
Puritans by James and Charles. Read the Penal Laws agaii 
Roman Catholics in Ireland, and ask if the English, who enact 
and enforced them, were fit for Self-Government See the mise 
and starvation of France m the eighteenth century ending in t 
Revolution. Review the Peasants' War in Germany, the consta 
Wars in Italy, the turbulence of Hungary and Poland, the roy 
murders and revolutions m England, and say if all these conn 
nes were more fit for Self-Government than India Yet the 
unworthy, took it, and have purified themselves by it, becor 
ing more fit in the using of it. India, more worthy than they 
take it, is deemed unfit. The only argument against India's fi 
ness is her submission. 

May this book help Britain to understand the shame of to 
autocratic rule in India, her broken pledges, her selfishness, hi 
preference of her own to India's interests. May it help India 1 
realise her duty to herself. 

ANNIE BESAlsT 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

A.ND SOME 

DEDUCTIONS AND ANTICIPATIONS 
THE DAWNING 

THE great Nations of the far Past spring suddenly 
on to the stage of history, as Bunsen said of Egypt, 
full-grown. Truer perhaps would be the simile, if we 
said that a curtain rises, and we see the Nation on the 
stage, full-panoplied, complete, as no Nation could be 
without centuries, perhaps millennia, of 6ivilisation 
behind it. This is true of India, as of Assyria, Persia, 
Egypt, but in one thing- India differs from those whose 
contemporary she was. They are dead. She still 
lives ; and in these modern days she" is showing a 
vigour and a strength which bid fair to plac her again 
in the forefront of the world's history. They are 
known by unburied cities, by ruins, by fragments, by 
papyri, by tiles, by coins, found by burrowing in their 
sepulchres. India is k continuous, with a history running 
backwards to most archaic times how ancient, who 
may say ? and she has a literature which ako runs 



11 HOW raiA WROUGHT TOR FEEBDOH 

backward, claiming an antiquity not yet acknowledged 
in the West : Yedas, Institutes, Puranas, Epic Poems, 
which, as regards the historical hooks the Puranas, 
and the Epics can be checked in their later records 
as regards dynasties, by Greek history, and yet more 
by the fragments of the past dug up from time to time. 
Says Vincent A. Smith : 

Modern writers have been inclined to disparage unduly the 
authority of the pauranic lists, but closer study finds in them much 
genuine and valuable historical tradition. For instance the Vifhwu, 
Pwrflna gives the outline of the history of the Maurya dynasty with 
a near approach to accuracy, and the Redcliffe manuscript of the 
Mafaya is equally trustworthy for Andhra history. Proof of the sur- 
prising extent to -which coins and inscriptions confirm the Matxya 
list of the Andhra Kings has recently been published. 1 

Entrancing as are the records of the far-off times, 
the stories of Sages and Warriors, of Ramachandra, 
the Hero-King of the Ramayana, of the doings in 
peace and war of the Kauravas and Pandavas and Shri 
Krshna, that make the story of the Mahabharata, of 
these who live by scores and hundreds enshrined in 
legend, tradition, drama, softg, and the greatest of 
them live still more vitally in Indian hearts and prayers 
. and ceremonies to-day, showing the historical continuity 
from all of these we must turn aside for want of space 
with only this one fact writ large : It is on this litera- 
ture and on the past embodied MI it that the foundation 
of Indian Nationality is indestructibly laid. The 
National SeK-consciousness strikes its roots deeply into 

Early Hittory of India, p. 10, Ed. 1908. In so brief a sketch, 
it In better not to overburden the pages with continuous referen- 
ces but * bibliography of the books consulted .on the history here 
condensed, which will guide the serious student in hisjresearcu, will 
be found at the end of this Introduction. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION ill 

this rich soil, a.nd whatever may contribute to its 
later growth and the contributions are enormous the 
Nation's Life and Unity are rooted here. He who 
knows nothing of the infinite wealth of this " unhistori- 
cal " past will never understand the Indian heart and 
mind, and Sir Valentine Ohirol, in his malicious and 
unscrupulous book on Indian Uwrest, saw accurately 
the truth that from the " Hindu Revival" was.born the 
National Movement of Modern India, as from a similar 
Revival was bom the Maratlia Confederacy. Moreover, 
very many o the institutions and customs of " histori- 
cal" times are continuous with those of the ^legendary" 
past, and a,re incomprehensible and without significance 
save for that past. The horse-sacrifices of Pushyamitra 
in the second century B.C., of Adityasenain the seventh 
century A.D., link with the tradition of that of Sagara, 
uncounted millennia backward, and with that of 
Yudhishthira in 3000 B.C. odd in each equally the 
sign of the acknowledged Lord Paramount of India as 
a whole. So again with the Panchayat, " the Five," 
whether the Council of Village Elders of time immemo- 
rial, or Chandragupta's Boards in the fourth century 
B.C. India is a continuum, and her Aryan civilisa- 
tion an unbroken whole. There are -invasions and 
conquests, periods of strength and weakness, of unity 
and division, in her seonian, story. Bui she is always 
India ; always Aryan, the MOTHER Imperishable, who 
has borne uncounted millions from her womb, but 
whose own birth no historian can guess at, whose death 
no prophet can foretell. And this it is well to 
remember, in our judgments of to-day. With ait 



IV HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

admitted history of nearly 5,000 years, from the 
commerce between India and Babylon, according to 
Dr. Sayce, in 3000 B.C., 1 and the proofs of high civilisa- 
tion and wealth then existing ; with an admitted 
literature of at least 7,000 years ; the period of English 
pule in India, barely a century and a half, is 
microscopically small, a tiny ripple on her ocean. 
Invasions flow and ebb ; conquerors come and go ; India 
assimilates what is left of them, is the richer for them, 
and remains herself. She did without England for 
millennia, and flourished amazingly; she could do 
without England for millennia to come ; but the two 
need each other, and will be the better for each other 
in the near future, and India desires to be linked with 
England in that future, but on a footing of perfect 
equality, and on> none other. 

INDIA'S MIDDLE HISTORY 

THE COMING OF THE ARYANS 

They were no wild tribos that crossed the Himala- 
yan passes and fiooc?c-d India in successive waves oi' 
invasion from 18000 B.C. onwards. a They came from 
an archaic Middle Asian ci*i)i&aition, the cradle of the 
Aryas, whence came successively the immigrants 
who made the Mediterranean civilisation, colonised 
Persia and Mesopotamia, and sent t)tt forefathers of 
the Latin, Slav and Teuton Nations to people Europe. 
Later, they came down into India, penetrated first to 

4 Hibbert Lecture*, 1887, quoted in YwUttn Shipping, p. 85, Ed. 1913. 
* Thin first paragraph, iff not ** histwic ". 



HISTOEIOAt INTRODUCTION V 

the south the Aryan Dravidians and later settled in 
the north. But this is still the region of dreams, and no 
sober western historian will yet accept it. And yet per- 
haps this is hardly so*, for Sir William Hunter, though he 
gives no dates, speaks of the Aryan home as in Central 
Asia, of settlements round the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, of a western offshoot founding Persia, of 
another becoming the Greek Nation, Italy and Rome, 
Spain and Britain, and of others descending through 
the passes of the Himalayas into India. 

It is not without significance, as Professor Badha- 
kurnud Mukerji points out in his Fundamental Unity 
of India, that India is one country in her religious 
literature. She is Jambudvlpa Ashoka is called 
" King of Jambudvipa/' and Bharatavarsha, Aryavarta; 
"India" is a name given by foreigners. In Hindu 
prayers, the names of the great rivers are recited, the 
northern only in the earlier, later the southern as well, 
as the Aryans spread southward. The sacred places 
range from Hardwar to Kanchi, and later, Badari- 
keclarnath to Rameshvara, from Dvaraka to Jagannath. 
And the people, over reciting these, knew them all as 
in their Motherland. Pilgrimages took the devout to 
all of t these as Hindu. The student will find in that 
useful little book many more proofs that India was a 
unity, had, even then, a National Self-consciousness in 
her religion. Patriotism was inspired and hallowed 
by these loving recitations. 

Despite the fact that "India's history only begins 
with Alexander," as western writers say, we submit in 
passing that, as above noted, Babylon was trading 



VI HOW INDIA WfiOTTOHl? K> EEBEBOM 

with her in 3000 B.C.; that Semiramis of Nineveh 
invaded India in 2034 3.0. and penetrated as far 
as Jammu, as stated on a column erected by her* 
and was finally pat to flight by an Indian Prince, 
named Strabrobates by Diodorus Siculus; that 
mummies in Egyptian tombs, dating from 2000 B.O. 
have been found wrapped in Indian muslin of 
the finest quality, and that their indigo dye is said 
to have come from India ; that Diodorus Siculus tells 
of an invasion of India, 981 B.C., by Barneses II ; that 
Hiram of Tyre, 980 B.C. traded with India from 
harbours in the Arabian Griilf, .and Tamil names for 
Indian products are found in the Hebrew Bible.- 
There ,is plenty of evidence by such contacts, apart 
from Indian literature, of a civilisation rivalling at 
least those of Egypt and Assyria. 

In A.D. 883, the first Englishman whose visit to 
India is recorded, was Sighelmas, Bishop of Sherborne, 
sent by King Alfred (A.D. 849-901) to visit the 
Christian Church, named after S. Thomas. He travelled 
comfortably^ and brought back to England "many 
splendi^ exotic gems and spices, such as that country 
plentifully yielded". 2 

"HISTORY" BEGINS 

For our purposes we can arbitrarily begin at the 
period recognised as " historical" by the wider western 

1 Indian Shipping, p. 89. 

9 These facts and many others of undoubted historicity, may be 
found summarised in the Manual of Administration of the Madras 
Presidency a, book containing a vast amount of information, with 
some astounding lapses of knowledge. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Vll 

historians, the middle of the 7th century B. c., when 
we find, as said above, highly civilised communities 
having existed there " for untold centuries," admits 
Vincent Smith commerce with foreign countries going 
on, making India " historical," the knowledge of 
writing widely spread, and the country between the 
Himalayas and the Nerbudda river divided into sixteen 
States some monarchical, some aristocratic-republican 
with great stretches of forests, jungles, and unsettled 
lands interspersed among them. The beginning of the 
seventh century, A.D. 600, sees the first "historical" 
dynasty ruling over Magadha (Bihar). In the time 
of the Lord Buddha a time of obviously high 
civilisation and much philosophical discussion (623 B.C. 
to 543 B.C. according to Sinhalese traditions, died 
487 B.C. according to Vincent Smith) Kosala (Oudh) 
and Magadha stand out prominently, Kosala being 
the premier Slate and having swallowed up Kashi 
(Benares). Very soon afterwards Magadha took 
the lead, including the territory from the Himalayas 
to the Granga, with Pataliputra (where Patna and 
Bankipur are now) as capital the first capital of 
India in " historical " times, as we shall see later. 

Ajatashatru, its founder and the King of Magadha, 
was contemporary with Darius of Persia (521-485 
B.C.), who annexed Sindh and part of the Panjab, and 
formed them into a Persian satrapy, interesting to us 
merely from the proof of the enormous wealth at that 
time of that part of India implying thereby high 
civilisation for it paid an annual tribute in gold-dust 
equal to one million pounds sterling. 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

We can pass on to the first " historical " Emperor of 
India,, Chandra Mori, or Chandragupta ; he came, 
according- to the pauranie lists, from a branch of the 
Pramaras, one of the thirty-six royal races, of the " line 
of the Sun," descended from King Ramachandra or 
one of his brothers ; the Pramaras were one of the fonr 
Agnikulas, " Fire Families," descended from his brother 
Bharata. Chandragapta was the founder of the Maurya 
dynasty, and seized the throne of Magadhain 321 B.C. 
Six years before that date Alexander, the Great had in- 
vaded what is now Afghanistan j crossing the Hindu 
Khush, fighting his way to the Indus, and, crossing it 
about March, 326 B C., he entered on Indian soil, 
" which no European traveller or invader," says 
Vincent Smith, "had ever before trodden" a rash 
and mistaken statement. Alexander did not remain 
long ; he advanced to and crossed the Jhelum, defeated 
Jr'oros, penetrated beyond Sialkot into Jarnmu, and 
then, much against his will, forced by a mutiny in his 
arrny, began his retreat in September of the same year, 
and quitted India finally about September, 325, and 
marched to Persia, reaching Susa in April-May, 324. 
His death in 323 put an end to his hopes, and young 
Chandragupta belonging to the Magadha royal 
family, but unfriendly to its head and in exile gather- 
ed an army, attacked the Greeks left in the Pan jab 
and Sinclh, drove them out and subdued the country. 
He then attacked the King of Magadha, and seated 
himself on his throne, added to his troops till he 
gathered an army of 690,000 men infantry, cavalry, 
chariots and elephants swept everything before him 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION IX 

with amazing celerity, and finally established himself 
as Emperor of India, ruling from the Hindu Khush to 
the Nerbudda, from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of 
Bengal. 

THE EMPERORS OF INDIA 

The organisation of his Empire by this extraordinary 
man was as marvellous as his military capacity. 
Megasthenes, the Greek, lived for some time in Patali- 
putra, Chandragupta 's capital, observed closely his 
administration in all its details, and left his observa- 
tions on record ; so we are on ground that cannot be 
challenged. Hunter sums up the views of Megas- 
thenes as follows : 

The Greek ambassador observed with admiration the abbonce 
ot slavery in India, the chastity of the women, and the courage ot 
the men. In valour they excelled all other Asiatics , they required 
no locks to their doors , above all, no Indian M\ as ever know n to tell 
a he. Sober and industrious, good farmers, and skilful artisans, they 
scarcely ever had recourse to a lawsuit, and lived peaceably under 
their native Chiefs. The kingly government is pprtrayed almost 
as described in the Code of Manu. Megasthenes mentions that 
India >\s drtided into 118 kingdoms , some of which, as the Fiasn 
under Chandragupta, exercised suzerain powers The village 
system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to the 
Greek an independent republic Megasthenes remarked the exemp- 
tion of the husbandmen (Vaishyas) from war and public services, 
and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics, and products (animal, 
vegetable, and mineral) of India. 1 

Megasthenes tells how Chandragupta had established 
a War Office of 30 members, divided into- six Boards 
each of five members Panchayatb ; I. Admiralty, in 

1 Hunter's Brief History of the Indian People, pp. 77, 78 (printed 
for the Madras Schools) 1881. Perhaps because intended to teach 
Indian boys, it is often unfair and prejudiced, e.g., in its jutoount of 
the great Shivaji. 



X HOW INDIA WROtJGH-S FOR FREEDOM 

touch with Admiral ; II, Transport, Commissariat, 
Army Service ; III. Infantry ; IV. Cavalry ; V, War- 
chariots ; VI. Elephants. The civil administration was 
similar, and Megasthenes describes specially the 
Municipality of Pataliputra, consisting again of 30 
members, divided into six Panchayats : I. is specially 
interesting as showing the care^ noticeable in the 
books describing '* pre-historic " times exercised by 
the State over Arts and Crafts; it - supervised all 
industrial matters, materials, wages, etc. II. looked 
after foreigners, acting as Consuls, Vincent Smith 
remarks, and giving proof that the Empire " was in 
constant intercourse with foreign States ". III. was in 
charge of the registration of births and deaths, rigidly 
kept as a basis for taxation. IV. looked after trade, 
and kept the official weights and measures to which all 
must conform. V. supervised manufactures, and VI. 
collected the tax of a tithe of the value of all goods 
sold. The Municipality as a whole was responsible for 
markets, harbours, temples, etc. The Empire was 
divided into Provinces ruled by Viceroys, and officers 
travelled over the land, inspecting. It is noticed, as so 
often in later times, that the Indians bore the highest 
reputation for truth and honesty. Irrigation had its 
own Department, which regulated " the sluices by which 
water is distributed into the branch canals, so that 
every one may enjoy his fair share ot -the benefit," says 
Megasthenes. A mass of details has been accumulated, 
and may be found in tlie Art: of Government, ascribed 
to Chanakya, Chandragupta's.Brahmana minister, that 
has been translated. The Emperor died 297 B.C., and 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XI 

was succeeded by Bindusara, his son, and either the 
father 'or son extendeji the Empire almost as far south 
as what is now Madras. He was followed by Ashoka, 
who added to the Empire the Kingdom of Kalinga on 
the Bay of Bengal, and he ruled for 40 years 273 or 
2 B.C. to 232 or Ifrom the Hindu Khush to Madras. 
The Andhra State (Andhradesha), between the 
Godaveri and the Kistna, had its own Raja, acknow- 
ledging Ashoka's overlordship, but the Pandya, 
Chola, Keralaputra and 8atyaputr*i States, occupying 
the extreme south, were independent. Four Viceroys 
administered the north-western, eastern, western and 
southern Provinces, Ashoka himself administering- the 
central. His wisdom, his power, his piety, his splendour, 
are they not written in his edicts, engraved on Rock 
and Pillar, and by these his Empire was ruled. Rock 
Edict II and Pillar Edict VII declare : 

On the roads I have had banyan trees planted to give shade to 
man and beast , I have had groves of mango-trees planted and at 
every half tos I have had wells dug . rest-houses have been erected ; 
and numerous watering-places have been prepared here and 
there for the enjoyment of man and beast. 

Care of the sick, distribution of drugs and herbs, 
hospitals for animals, were among his institutions. 

After his death, many Provinces broke away, until 
the sixth of his descendants, Brehidrita, or Brihadratha, 
was expelled from Magadha, 184 B.C., and seized 
Dhar and Ohittqor in Mewar, Rajputana, where his 
descendants ruled till A.D. 730. But Vincent Smith 
says he was assassinated by Pushyamitra, the command- 
er of his army. The Mori Chiefs certainly reigned in 
Mewar, and the transfer as stated is probable. In any 



xii HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

case, the Maurya dynasty in Magadha ended, and 
Pushyarnitra founded a new dynasty, the Snnga. 
Moreover he finally celebrated the horse-sacrifice a 
few yea k rs before his death, in 148 B.C., being acknow- 
ledged as Lord Paramount. His dynasty camo to an 
end in 74 B.C., and was succeeded by the Kanva 
dynasty of fou-r short-lived Kings, the last of whom 
perished in 27 B.C. at the hands of the ruler of thd 
great Andhra Kingdom. 

THE KINGDOMS OP INDIA 

The unity of India for the time had gone, as 
embodied in an Empire, and great Kingdoms arose 
and flourished. In the south the Andhra Nation 
(later the Telugu-speaking population), occupying the 
Deceau, which had acknowledged the overlordship 
of Ablioka, after his death became independent, in 
220 .<;., extended its sway as far as N.'isik, t'uis 
stretching across India, and corning into touch \v-th, 
and striving to hold, Gujarat and Kathiawar. From 
A.D. 80 138, the Andhras were constantly struggling 
on their western borders with invading foreigners, ami 
ultimately Kathiawar, Siridh and Cutch passed from 
Andhra hands into those of tho invaders. The Ainihivt 
kingdom lasted another hundred years, ending in 
A.D. &3G. 

South of the Kistna was the Tamil country, divided 
into four kingdoms : Pandya, in the south, with Madura 
as capital ; Chola, with, the river Pennar to the north 
and Pandya to the south; while Keralaputra lay 
between it and the western sea, the later Malabar ; and 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Xlii 

Satyaputra was a small State round the present 
Mangalore. The Tamil land was wealthy and civil- 
ised and inhabited by a great trading people. They 
exported pepper, pearls and beryls chiefly, and 
did an immense trade, especially with Egypt 
and Rome. We read of an embassy to congra- 
tulate Augustus Ca9sar in 20) B.C., mentioned by 
Strabo. The routes chiefly followed were those by 
the Persian G-ulf and the Red Sea, the monsoon weather, 
May to August, being avoided by the merchants. In 
the 14th century, Marino Sanuta, a Venetian noble, said 
that goods of small bulk and high value spices, 
pearls, gems went to a Persian Gulf port, then up the 
Tigris to Bassorah, thence to Baghdad. More bulky 
goods went by the Red Sea, crossed the desert, and 
down the Nile to Alexandria. Dacca fabrics were 
favourite wear in Rome in the imperial Court. This 
Roman trade led to the establishment of Roman 
Colonies among the Tamils during the first and second 
centuries A.D. Roman coins circulated, and some bronze 
vessels from the West have been dug up mthelSilgiris. 
Tamil literature grew abundantly during the first three 
centuries, and music, painting and sculpture flourished. 
The Manual of the Administration of the Madras 
Presidency , putting the events of the Ramdyana, at 
2000 B.C, (an absurdly late date from the Hindu 
standpoint), notes that Rama met Agastya, the great 
Sage of South India ; and that Agastya had- much in- 
fluence over an early Pandyan King, Kulashekara. 
For our purposes we may take the kingdom as it 
existed in 643 B.C., when Vijaya, from the Gangetic- 



XIV HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

region, in-vaded Ceylon, 'and married a. daughter of the 
Teiguing Pandyan King. Madura, the capital, was 
famous for its learning, and had a famous Sangha, or 
Collegium, an assembly of learned men, and, among 
them Tiruvalluvar, the author of the* famous poem, 
Knral. l The story of the Pandyan Kingdom's struggles 
with Chola, and of its invasions of Ceylon, shows a 
powerful State; and it continued, passing through 
many vicissitudes, down to 173 J, when its last Hindu 
Monarch died, leaving a widow, Minakshi Ammal, who 
adopted a son, but was attacked and betrayed, and 
poisoned herself in Trichinopoly Fort a Kingdom of 
more than 2,000 years within "historical" limits, 
ending in a tragedy in the frightful 18th century. 

The Chola Kingdom was, as we have seen, an inde- 
pendent State in the time of Ashoka, and like Pandya 
was actively commercial, sending its ships across the 
Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean eastwards, and 
internal commerce being also carried on, goods from 
the east going to Kerala and Kerala sending Egyptian 
merchandise to Chola. Both the Chola and the 
Paudya kingdoms suffered much from the depredations 
of the Pallavas, thought by some to be an immigrating 
offshoot from the Parthian Pahlavas, who invaded 
north-west India. When Hiuen Tsang in A.D. 640 
visited Kanchi, where the Pallavas had established 

1 The date of the Rural is a matter of dispute. Mr. V. Kanaka- 
sabhai, in The Tamils 1,800 'years ago, puts it between A. D. 100 
and 130. Dr. K. Graul, who translated it into German, says between, 
A. D. 200 and 800. The Rev. Mr. Pope, who translated it into English, 
says A.D., 800 to 1000. The Encyclopaedia Britannica offers from the 
9th or 10th century to the 13th. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XV 

themselves, lie mentions the Chola people, just then in 
a depressed condition. The Pallavas haji no fixed 
borders, bat are said to have lived as a predatory 
tribe j this seems scarcely likely, as they were powerful 
from the 4th to the 8th century A.D., but they were 
crushed, to the satisfaction of all, by a Chola Raja 
Aditya, between about 880 and $07. Then the Chola 
Kingdom grew and flourished exceedingly, until the 
beginning of the fourteenth century; its capitals at 
different periods were Warriore, a suburb of Tri- 
chinopoly, Kumbhakonam and Tanjore. It was crippled 
by the Muhammadan invasion of South India in 1310, 
and though the invaders were driven out again in 1347, 
Chola soon after disappears. 

Kerala occupied the western coast, comprising the 
present Travancore, Cochin and Malabar, trading 
chiefly with Egypt and Arabia. Its history has been 
largely recovered of late years, and teems with interest, 
most of it living unbrokenly from its ancient past right 
down to the present day, under its own Princes. Owing 
to the constant communication with the West, Christ- 
ianity was early introduced into Kerala, some say in 
the first century A.D. by S, Thomas ; others, including 
Vincent Smith, in the sixth century from the -Syrian 
Church. The matter is not important for us, as 
Christianity made no way outside Kerala and is not a 
factor in India during her long and prosperous life. 
It came to her with European trading companies, and 
her loss of power and prosperity. 

In Northern India, owing to the powerful Kingdoms 
beyond the north-west frontier and als.o to r.aids and, 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOJI FREEDOM 

immigrations from China and Central Asia, the break 
up of the Mauryan' Empire brought about disturbed 
conditions for many centuries; Bactria and Parthia, 
ruled by Princes of Greek descent, became independent 
States, breaking the yoke of the Seleukidae in the 
middle of the third century B.C.; they invaded the 
north-western districts from time to time, and much of 
the Panjab and the Indus valley was definitely under 
Greco-Parthian rule (Iiido-Parthian or Tndo-Greek), 
from about 190 B.C. to A JD. 50, and these were finally 
crushed by the Kustaiia about A.D. 90. These invasions 
produced but little effect and wrought little destruction. 
It was other with hordes of nomad tribes, which swept 
down from the Central Asian steppes and China, 
destroying as they passed, from 170 B.C. onwards, some 
even reaching Kathiawar, where they settled, founding 
a Saka dynasty, destroyed A.D. 390. Among these the 
Yuch-chi from China definitely established themselves, 
crushing out the Indo-Parthian kingdom, and establish- 
ing their ownthe Kushan dynastyunder Kadphises 
I and II, the latter sending an embassy to Home to 
Trajan, about A.D. 99, to announce his conquests. He 
rulpd tbe ' whole north-west of India, from Benares as 
easternmost' point, as well as Afghanistan to the 
Hindu Khush, and his successor added Kashmir. 
This successor, Kanishka (about A. D. 120150) 
is interesting for his famous Buddhist tower 13 
fttoreys highhis splendid monastery for Buddhist 
education still existing in the ninth century, the 1 
Buddhist council called by him, at which Ashvaghosha 
was vice-president, held, in Kashmir, The dynasty 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XYU 

perished in the third century, about the same time as 
the Andhra Kingdom in the Deccan, so far as India 
was concerned, but Kushan Kings were reigning in 
Kabul in the fifth century, when they were conquered 
by the Huns. 

ANOTHER EMPIRE 

Another vast Empire rises out of the darkness of 
seventy years which covers northern India from 
historical eyes, from the disappearance of the Kushan 
Kingdom, about A. D. 240, until A.D. 308, when Chandra- 
gupta, a Prince reigning in Pataliputra, weds si Lich- 
chavi Princess, Kumari Devi, and the royal pair, 
between them, come to rule a Kingdom comprising 
Bihar, Oudh, Tirhut, and some adjacent lands. 
Chandragupta I became " Maharaja of Mahaiiijas," 
and started an era, the Gupta era, from February 26, 
A. D. 320. To him was born a son, Samudragupta, who 
ruled from 326 to about 37."), and built a new Empire. 

He subdued all the Chiefs of the Gangetic plain and 
then those of the centre, then invaded the south, ^oing 
by the east coast and returning by the west, but invad- 
ing and gathering huge spoils, not holding, the southern 
States ; he incorporated in his Empire half Bengal 
from the Hooghly westwards, and all the country right 
across India including Gujerat, with the Nerbudda for 
southern boundary, the Central and United Provinces, 
much of Pan jab, with almost all the rest of it 
and north Raj pu tana as a Protectorate, and many 
outlying States and the South acknowledged him as 
Overlord; he finally performed the* horse-sacrifiee 



XV 111 HOW INDIA WROUGHT tfOfc FREEDOM 

aw Lord Paramount of India, probably about A.. D 
3*10. lie died about 375. His son and successor 
wa^ Chandragupta IT, sometimes called Chandragupta- 
Vikramaditya. He must not be confused with the 
rult*r of the same name, whose era, called alsc 
Sam vat, began 56 B. c., the Vikramaditya at whose 
Courh was the famous poet-minister, Bhattumurti. 

He added to the Empire Malwa and Surashtra 
abolished the Saka dynasty in the latter, and diec 
in A. p. 413. Fa-Hien, the Chinese traveller wh( 
visited India at tho beginning of the 5th century 
spent six years in the Empire, during three of whicl 
he studied Samskrit in one of the large Buddhis 
monasteries at Pataliputra. He speaks with intense 
admiration of the wealth, prosperity, virtue, am 
happiness of the people, and the great liberty the; 
enjoyed, "Those who want to go away may go; thos 
who want to stop may stop." Most offences wer 
punished by fines, and there was no capital punish 
ment, and 'no judicial torture. Repeated rebellioi 
however, was punished by cutting off the right hanc 
"but such a penalty was exceptional". The roac 
were safe, for in all his travels Fa-Hien was not one 
attacked by robbers, "They do not keep pigs < 
fowls, there aro no dealings in cattle, no butcher 
shops, or distilleries." " No one kills any living thinj 
or drinks wine, or eats onions or garlic." Charitable i 
stitutions were numerous, rest-houses were kept ontl 
roads. In the capital was a free hospital, supporte 
by the voluntary contributions of the rich. Fa-Hi< 
says: 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

Hither come all poor or helpless patients suffering from all 
kinds of infirmities. They are well taken care of, and a doctor 
attends them ; food and medicine being supplied according to their 
wants. Thus they are made quite comfortable, and when they are 
well 'they may go away. 

(The first hospital in Europe was the Maison Dieu 
in Paris, in the seventh century.) It is worthy of 
notice that the King was a Hindu, and Fa-Hien a 
Buddhist, so he was the less likely to praise overmuch. 

Some think that the last recension of the great 
Puranas and of the legal Institutes was made at this 
time. Sure, it is that Samskrit was sedulously honour- 
ed, while art prospered, and architecture became 
ornate and splendid. 

Chandragupta's son, Kumaragupta I, succeeded in 
A.D. 413 and Vincent Smith thinks he must have added 
to the Empire, as he celebrated the horse-sacrifice :; he 
died in 455, leaving his son and successor Skandagupta 
to bear the burden of Empire, and to face the oncoming 
Huns He defeated them at the beginning of his reign, 
if not as Yuvaraja (Crown Prince), but they returned 
about 470 and pressed him hardly, and when he died 
ten years later, the Empire died with him, though his 
half-brother succeeded to the throne and reigned in 
Magadha, its centre, the family continuing there till 
A.D, 720; while other members of the Gupta family 
ruled other portions, and a descendant of it was the 
grandmother of Harsha of Thanesar, in the Panjab, 
who became famous. 

The fall of the Empire was due to the appearance of 
the" Huns, who invaded India and Europe in two 
mighty streams, crushing Persia, and over-running the 



XX HOW INDIA WROUGHT flOR FREEDOM 

civilised world. Their power was broken by the Turks, 
in the middle of the sixth century, after they had 
devastated both Europe and Northern India. 

Harsha, who came to the 'throne in A.D. 606 restored 
and somewhat enlarged on the east the Gupta Empire, 
but it was less in Rajputana. His rule was much 
approved by Hiuen Tsang, who visited India 630 and 
644, but it did not reach the level of the Gupta admini- 
stration. After many years of War, Harsha was more 
or less attracted to Buddhism by Hiuen Tsang, and was 
fond of religious debates, a fondness shared by his 
widowed sister, who attended them with him and was a 
most learned lady. He died in A.D. 648. After his death, 
Adityasena of the Gupta dynasty performed the %orse- 
sacrifice, for no very definite reason known to history ; 
there is no record of any later performance thereof. 
Sixty-four years 'after Haraha's death, in A.D. 710-11, 
the Arabs from Bassorah who had conquered Mukuram 
(Baluchistan) and were settled there by A.D. 644 under 
Muhammad Ben Kasim, crossed the Indus, overran 
Sindh, which was held by Musalmans thereafter, and 
advanced into Rajputana. Young Bappa, a lad of 15, 
a Mori of Ohittoor, led an army against them and 
defeated them, but the Crescent of Islam had risen 
over India's horizon, a New Bra had begun. 

Before passing on into the Muhammadan invasions, 
it is well to pause at this point for a moment, for 
western historians have failed to note the general 
prosperity and happiness of the Indian populations, 
save where such incursions as the nomads and Huns 
temporarily ravaged a part of the country. They hare 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXI 

glanced lightly over the wealth, the trade, the happiness 
of the masses of the people, during an acknowledged 
period, from Semiramis to Muhammad Ghori, of 3,000 
years to say nothing of the " untold centuries " 
beyond and have fixed their gaze on the local wars, 
ignoring the vast accumulation of wealth, which proved 
that the industrial life and prosperity of the people went 
steadily on, unaffected by temporary and local disturb- 
ances, in a huge stream of content and progress. If this 
be compared with the state of Grermany\\ before the 
Peasants* War, with the state of France before the 
great Revolution, western nations may begin to realise 
that eastern nations may have something io say for 
themselves, and that the " blessings" of foreign 
occupation are not fully recognised in India. 

A very striking illustration of this was the seventy- 
five days' festival of Harsha, in A.D. 644, held at the con- 
fluence of the Granga and Jumna at Prayag (Allahabad) , 
at which Hiuen Tsang was present. Harsha had held 
such a festival every five years for thirty years, " in 
accordance with the custom of his ancestors," to distri- 
bute among ascetics, religious orders and the poor, 
the accumulation*! of wealth of the preceding five years. 
About half a million of people assembled, gifts were 
distributed on the first three days in the name of the 
Buddha, the Sun, and Shiva ; on the fourth day, to 
10,000 Buddhist monks, who each received 100 gold 
coins, a pearl and a cotton garment; then, for twenty 
days, gifts to Brahmanas, for ten days to " heretics " j for 
a month to the poor, destitute and orphans. Harsha 
gave everything, except horses, elephants and army 



XXli HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

equipments, down to his personal jewels. And this 
was done every five years. The great festival is still 
held every twelfth year, but there is no King Harsha, 
and no distribution of gifts. Nor; if there were such 
a Monarch, could the country support such quin- 
quennial accumulations. Only a huge and well-to-do 
manual labour class could have rendered possible the 
great trading, manufacturing and commercial classes, 
who existed at the coming of the Bast India Company ; 
history confirms these facts. The Emperors, Kings and 
Chiefs were enormously wealthy because they ruled a 
wealthy people, and nurtured their prosperity. When 
Sir William Hunter wrote, "40,000,000 of the people 
never had a full meal," and a larger number are in 
that condition to-day. 

So long as the wars were internecine, between 
Hindu Kingdoms? the caste system confined the fight- 
ing to the Kshattriya (military) order ; the universal 
Pafichayats of the village organisation carried on 
smoothly the all-important village life, and Hiueu Tsang 
notes that villagers -quietly went on with their agricul- 
tural work while a battle was proceeding close by ; it 
was the policy of the contending Chiefs to safeguard the 
peasantry, on whose labour depended the prosperity 
of the land they hoped to rule. Only raiders like the 
Huns devastated, and their devastations were local. 

How much the ordinary life runs on with little 
change may be judged by comparing life in Malabar 
to-day with Marco Polo's description of what he 
observed in the same "district, then Kerala, in A.D. 
1292. He said that the people wear but one cloth. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XX111 

Women burn themselves with their dead husbands. 
Many worship the cow. They rub their houses with 
cow-dung and sit on the ground. They chew " tembal n 
(Persian for "betel")* Gail (Canyal in Tinnevelly) 
is a great and noble city where touch all ships from the 
west. Coilum (Quilon) produces ginger, pepper and 
fine indigo. No corn is grown, only rice. Gozurat 
(Gujarat) produces pepper, ginger, indigo and cotton, 
and manufactures beautiful mats. Tannah (near 
Bombay) exports leather, buckram and cotton, 
and imports gold, silver, copper and other articles, 
Fine buckrams seem to have been very largely ex- 
ported. Other travellers in the 14th, 15th and 16th 
centuries give similar testimony. India's trade for 
thousands of years was enormous, and Pliny the Elder 
in his Natural History (about A.D. 77) x complains that 
the annual drain of gold from the Roman Empire 
to India, Arabia, and China, was never less than 
100,000,000 sestercia, " giving back her own wares in 
exchange, which are sold at fully one hundred times 
their prime cost ". " That is what our. luxuries and 
women cost us," says he sardonically. a 

ISLAM IN INDIA 

A new element now enters into Indian history, an 
element which is still only in process of assimilation, 

I Edition Mayhoff, Leipzig, 1906, Bk. VI, p. 101, The readings 
vary, some giving 500 X 100,000=60,000,000^ others 55,000,000, as 
adopted in the Imperial Gazetteer. 

II The Imperial Qaxetteer of the Indian Empire allots 55,000,000 
of this 100,000,000 to India, from another reading, and reckons this 
at 458,000. This calculation again is vitiated by the fact that the 
value of the sesteroium varied from 2*1 to 2'4 pence. 



XXIV HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE PKEEDOM 

' which caused inevitably disturbance and much evil 
feeling on both sides, but brought to the building of 
the Indian Nation most precious materials, enriching 
the Nationality and adding new aspects to its many- 
faced splendour. As " Saxon and Norman and 
Dane," to say nothing ot other elements, are the 
English, and as English and Scotch and Irish 
art 3 - forming one Kingdom, the Irish, after eight 
hundred years, yet imassiniilated, so in India, 
Inditrtb, Persians (.Parsls) and Musalmans are not 
yet wholly one Nation, though becoming one 
with p'cat- rapidity. "We must now, as roughly as 
beiWo, trace the outline of tins Aluhammadan entrance 
info a at! fixation in India, up to this time a Hindu 
Nation. 

\V have seen that the Arabs invaded and conquered 
Sindh eai ly in the eighth century, and were thrown 
back from Rajputana by Bappa. Rajputana was a 
congeries of States, each with its own Chief,, war- 
loving, chivalrous, and quarrelling constantly with 
each Athti a poor barrier, therefore, against warriors 
of a i'*i:*th resting on one Prophet, one book and a 
sword consecrated to both. The whole story is one 
of hi'i oic, incredible valour, rendered futile by cease- 
less Jisseusiuns, which led fco angry alliances with the 
tiomiijoii foe against the estranged brother. 

A Kijjplom comprising the greater part of the 
Piinju^ and the upper Indus was the first, after the 
Rajput repulse, to face tho Muslims, when Sahuktinin, 
Sultan of Uhazni, Afghanistan, invaded India in A,D. 
986, and alter some battles established himself in 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXV 

Peshawar. His son, Muhammad, raided Indian terri- 
tory seventeen times between A.D. 1001 and 1024, 
starting in October on a three months 3 march into the 
interior, and returning when he had satisfied himself 
with plunder, but holding Lahore strongly from 1021. 
He died A.]). 1030. Five centuries followed of 
incessant struggle. In the Empire, broken into pieces, 
each fragment had its Chief, fighting his neighbour. 
The rule of the Huns seemed to have bred divisions. 
As the robber Barons fought in Europe, after the 
breaking up of the Constantinople Empire, so the 
clans and their Chiefs fought in India. The in- 
vaders naturally took advantage of it, siding with 
either party, the weaker for preference, to destroy 
that weaker when the stronger was crushed. Hajput 
Chiefs, both in llajputana and Pan jab, battled un- 
ceasingly against each other, and alas, with Muslims 
against Rajputa, with varied fortunes; Pritkviraj 
siuvceoded to the gadi of Delhi in A.u. 1164, rolled 
back the Musalmfms, broken, on Lahore, but fought 
his last battle in 1193, the flower of Kaj put chivalry 
around linn but some Rajputs against him, fought 
until the dead lay in swathes on the field, 13,000 of 
them "asleep, on the banks of the Ghuggur"; and 
he, the darling of the bards, .seeking death, alas, 
in vain, was caught under his fallen horse, was 
taken prisoner, answered a taunt from his capturers 
with a bitter jest, and was stabbed ; the Hindu throne 
of Delhi was empty. The Pathan seated himself 
thereon, ruled, and set up other kingdoms in India, and 
fought, conquered and was conquered ; and so fierce 



XXVI HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

battles raged up and down the northern lands, with 
inroads from Afghanistan, and rival Muhammadan 
Chiefs and changes, Pathans, Tartars, Mughals, until 
Babar and his Turks arid Mughals came in J519, and 
1520, and 1524, and finally fought the battle of 
Panipat against Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, the Pathan, in 
1526, and was proclaimed Emperor of India at Delhi, 
the first of the "^ great Moguls ". 

But we must turn aside for a moment, and run 
backwards to take a bird's eye-view of the south, 
where later, Musalman and Hindu fought for rule, until 
the Maratha Power rose to dominance. The Andhra 
Kingdom had disappeared, we know, about A.D. 230, and 
the great table-land of the Deccan, south of the Ner- 
budda, becomes again the scene of pregnant history, 
when the Chief of the Chalukyas, or Solankis, a Kajput 
Agnikula clan, conquered the Deccan and built a King- 
dom about A.D. 550, and reigned in Vatapi, in the Brjapur 
District, gloriously and well. In a century the dynasty 
had grown strong and famous, and ex changed embassies 
with Khusru II of Persia as shown in a fresco in an 
Ajanta cave. JVfany fights with Pallavas and others 
need not detain us j enough that the Chalukya kingdom 
in the Deccan and Maharashtra continued to A.D. 1190; 
just before the Pathan, Muhammad G-hori, seated 
himself on Delhi throne. A hundred years later, in 
1294, the Sultan Ala-ud-din, after the sack of Chittoor, 
invaded the Deccan, and crushed the Gadavas who had 
succeeded the Chalukyas, and took as ransom six maunds 
of pearls, two inaunds of diamonds and other gems. 
(A maund=82 Ib. avoirdupois.) In 1309 came the 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXV11 

invasion* of his lieutenant Malik Kafur, who overran 
the south, right down to Rameshvara, where he built a 
Mosque, and then returned whence he came ; and in 
1.336, south of the Krishna and west of the Tunga- 
bhadra river, dividing it from theChola Kingdom, rose 
the great Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar, that held 
its own for two centuries of pride, despite the growing 
power of the Muslims. 

Babar, we resume, of Turki race, descendant of Tamer- 
lane, sat enthroned in Delhi, the founder of the splendid 
Mughal dynasty. Two years after Panipat, a great 
battle was fought at Fatehpur Sikri between the new 
Emperor and the Rajputs, and he conquered, only to 
die four years later, in 1530. Then Humayun, his son, 
became Emperor, but was driven out by a Pathan 
Chief, and fled to Kandahar in 1543, coming back in 
1555 ; for his twelve-year old son, Akbar, conquered 
the Pathan, and re-opened to his father the gates of 
Delhi. Akbar succeeded to the throne in 1556, to be 
India's greatest Muhammadan Emperor ; perhaps the 
only serious stain upon his name and he was then only 
fourteen years old is the sack of Chittoor in 1557. 
So great was he, so tolerant, that he welded together 
Hindu and Musalmanj Hindu Princesses were the 
mothers of the Emperors Jehangir (Salim) and Shah 
Jahan; Rajputs were generals in his army, and minis- 
ters in his State ; the Rajput Man Sinha was his greatest 
general, Raja Toda Mall his greatest minister. Akbar's 
dream was a United India, and he renewed the Empire 
of Chandragupta Maurya, though some Rajput States 
defied him to the end. He " laid down the principle 



XXViii HOW INDIA WROUGHT J'OR FREEDOM 

that men of all faiths were to be treated alike by th 
law ; he bad opened all posts of authority to men of 
ability, without restriction of creed ; he hud abolished 
the slavery of captives, the capitation tax on non- 
Musalmfnis, and the tax on Hindu pilgrims. He forbade 
the forcing of a widow to burn herself on her husband's 
funeral pyre, sanctioned widow re-marriage, forbade; 
child -marriage, and the killing of animals for sacrifice/' 
He also laid down a land-system which caused great 
content. Three classes of land were made, according to 
fertility. The value of the produce was decided by 
an average of nineteen years. The Government took 
one-third, for land revenue and support of militia, 
amounting to 22 millions sterling a year, the land-tax 
bringing in from 16 to 17| millions ; all* other taxes were 
abolished. A settlement was made every ten years. 
The Emperor Jehangir, succeeding to the throne in 

160t5j did naught to strengthen his father's work, but 
he did one thing pregnant with ruin for his house. In 
1613, he gave permission to the English to trade in his 
dominions, and factories were established in Surat, 
Oambay, (logo and Ahmedabad. Two years latei 
Sir Thomas Roe came to him as ambassador from 
James I. Hjs land-tax amounted to 174 millions. 
Shah Jahan, 1627-1058, under whom, by new con- 
quests, the land-tax came to 22 millions, continued 
his grjwidl'Ather'.s policy; and had others followed in 
the stops of these twjiin, there had been no Hindu- 
Musalnmn question in modern India. But Aurungzeb, 
the destroyer, succeeded, and his persecutions and 
his cruelties drove his subjects into rebellion. " At last 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXIX 

revolts broke out on every side, his sons rebelled, 
debts accumulated, disorders of every kind arose, and 
in 1706 he died, alone and miserable, amid the ruins 
of the Empire he had shattered. With his accession 
the hope of a United India vanished, and at his death 
the work of Akbar was destroyed." Materially his 
wealth was immense ; his conquests added again to the 
land revenue, and raised it to 38 millions sterling. A 
hundred years later it was still 34,506,640. 

In the year of Shah Jahan's accession to the 
Imperial throne was born a child destined to lead in 
the shaking of the Mughal Power ; it was Shivaji, 
u crowned in Raigad in 1674, as the Hindu Emperor, 
and the Maratha Kingdom of the South faced the 
Mughal Kingdom of the North ". 

THE STATE OF THE PEOPLE 

During these centuries of war, raids and forays, 
what was the condition of the people of northern 
India ? The answer comes from the travellers who 
observed it, from the merchants who struggled and 
intrigued for the right to exploit it. They were bitterly 
prejudiced and speak of "heathen" and " heathen 
customs," but they drove good bargains and bought, 
bought largely, to sell again at huge profits, and die 
in Europe, wealthy from their trading. 

Bernier, in his letter to Colbert, complains, even 
more vigorously than Pliny, seventeen centuries before, 
that " this Hindustan is an abyss into which a great 

1 The extracts axe from Children of the Motherland, pp. 143, 146, 



XXX HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

part of the gold and silver of the world finds plenty 
of ways of going in from all sides, and hardly one 
way out w . After a vivid description of the military 
strength of the great Mughal, he speaks of his 
immense treasures, gold and silver and jewellery, 
" a prodigious quantity of pearls and precious stones 
of all sorts . . . one throne is all covered with them ". 
Woman wear rings and anklets, chains, ear-rings and 
nose-rings j most of all he marvels over the incredible 
quantity of manufactured goods, " embroideries, streak- 
ed silks, tufts of gold for turbans, silver and gold cloth, 
brocades, network of gold " he is evidently dazed. 
He can hardly find words to describe the Emperor, with 
his golden turban, and his spray of diamonds, and a 
matchless topaz that shone like a little sun, and his 
huge collar of rows of pearls down to his waist, and so 
on and on for pages. Ta vernier describes him on 
similar lines, with his seven thrones, and the marvel- 
lous peacock throne, with the natural colours of the 
peacock's tail .worked out in jewels, valued by him at 
6i millions sterling; he gives very full descriptions of 
the manufactured goods. .Kasembasar, " a village in 
the kingdom of Bengal," exported yearly 22,000 bales 
of silk, weighing " 2,200,000 pounds, at 16 oz. to the 
pound ". Garpets of silk and gold, satins with streaks 
of gold and silver, endless lists of exquisite works, of 
minute carvings, and other choice objets d'art. The 
facts speak for themselves.- It was this enormous 
wealth that drew Europeans to come hither to " shake 
the pagoda tree " j the stories carried back by success^ 
ful shakers, drew others to the golden land. This was 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXxi 

the country of which Phillimore wrote in the middle 
of the 18th century, that " the droppings of her soil 
fed distant Nations". To share in this incredible 
wealth, the first English factories were established on 
the western coast. 

The proof of India's prosperity under Indian rale, 
Musalman as well as Hindu, lies in India's wealth. 
The wars scratched the country here and there, now 
and then ; the peasants, artisans, traders, wrought in- 
dustriously everywhere, always. The invading raiders 
laid all waste, and travellers come across such 
scenes and describe them, as though they pictured 
the normal state of the country They carried 
away enormous wealth, but the pi*oducers remained 
and piled it up again. But wheji the Musalmans 
settled down as rulers, their own prosperity depended 
on that of the people and they took with discrimina- 
tion. Firoze of the Toghlak dynasty (A.D. 13511388), 
like Hindu Rulers before him, constructed great 
irrigation works, canals, etc. It was this care for 
irrigation, characteristic of Indian Rulers, which 
gave such marvellous fertility to the soil through the 
centuries. Ever the immense foreign trade went on, 
enriching the land, and they exported luxuries and 
surplus, never the food wanted to feed the people \ 
that remained from the fat years against the lean. 
A disadvantage of the swift communication between 
Britain and India how is that the rulers no longer 
come to stay; but, under the decencies of modern 
ways, gather wealth like the old raiders, and like 
them carry it abroad for enjoyment. 



XXX11 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

THE MARATHA CONFEDERACY 
The Hon. Mr. Justice Ranade, in his small volume 
on the ff/fl of the Mamtha Power, has done more than 
any other writer to point out the significance of the 
Maratlia story in the long history of India, and to 
make the reader feel its inspiration and its teaching. 

While Delhi was the seat of Mughal Power, the 
Musalmnns in the Deccan had made themselves inde- 
pendent of it in A.D. 1347, and had chosen Ala-ud-din 
Hasan as King, who founded the Balmmani kingdom, 
which broke up from 1484 to 1572 into the five king- 
doms of Berar, Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Bidar and 
Golconda, whose quarrels with the Delhi Empire 
facilitated the breaking up of the Musalman domina- 
tion. The rise of the Maratha Power was preceded by 
a great Hindu Revival, Tukaram, Veman Pandit, 
Rknath and Ramdas, the Guru of Shivaji, were its 
inspiration. Shivaji himself was a Mystic, materialised 
into a man of action. His. aim was the building of a 
Nation ; his means patriotism and union. His spirit, 
his aim, his means, are the spirit, the aim, the means 
of the National party in India to-day; a Hindu Revival 
preceded the modern National movement ; its one aim 
i& India, a Nation ; its fervent patriotism and its 
striving after union are its means to success. 
Where it differs from its forerunner is that instead 
of fighting against the Musalmans it welcomes them 
as a part of the Nation, instead of using the sword, it 
uses as weapons, education, the platform and the pen. 
Shivaji's careful organisation of the Government 
recalls the work of Chandragupta-Maurya. First 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION TXX1I1 

came the Peshwa, or Prime Minister; then the 
Minister of War (Senapati Army Lord); the Min- 
ister of Finance (Amatya) ; the Accountant-Gen eral 
(Panb Sachiv) ; the Private Secretary (Mantri) ; 
the Foreign Secretary (Sumant) ; the Minister of 
Religion (Panditrao) ; the Chief Justice. But it was 
Shivaji himself who created the new Maharash- 
tra, and made the men, who, after his death, 
broke the Mughal power. The building up of his 
great Kingdom from Surat in the north to Hubli in 
the South, from the sea on the west to Berar, G-olconda 
and Bijapur on the east, his coronation at Kaipur in 
1674 as Padshaha, his recognition by the rulers of 
Golconda and Bijapur as Suzerain by the paying of 
tribute, hKs death in 1680 all this may be read at 
leisure?. He died, but he had " created a Nation," 
and when Aurungzeb came in 1682 to crush the 
Marathas and the Musalman Kingdoms, although 
he with his huge army carried everything before him, 
Shivaji'd younger son, Rajaram, rallied the Maratha 
leaders round him, and began the great twenty-years' 
War of Independence; at his dath his nephew 
Shaku succeeded him and the War went on, till in 
1705 a treaty was made, though not kept ; Aurungzeb 
died two years later, broken-hearted, "after a war of 
25 years, which ended in failure. Shalsu was crowned, 
regaining his grandfather's realm. 7 Thus Svaraj, 
"own-rule," was gained, and, after a period of 
quarrelling and unrest, Balaji Vishvanath became the 
Peshwa of the Maratha Kingdom, and is called in 
Hunter's history and even in Ranade's, the First 



XXXIV HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB, FREEDOM 

Peshwa. He it was who bound together the great 
Maratha Chiefs, built up the Confederacy that last- 
ed for a hundred years, that broke the Mughal 
Empire, and practically ruled India. Balaji march- 
ed to Delhi in 1718, and in the next year com-. 
pelted the Emperor to recognise the right of Shaku to 
a quarter and a tenth of the land revenue of the 
Deccan (the chouth and sardeshmukti), and when he 
was succeeded in 1720 by his son, Baji Rao, he left the 
Confederacy so strong that it was able to extend its 
power gradually under the second and third Peshwas 
from Gujerat and Kathiawar to Bengal and Orissa, 
from Delhi to Maharashtra. 

The Peshwa at Poona represented the centre of the 
great Confederacy; the Bhonsla General was at 
Nagpur; Holkar was atlndore; Scindia at Gwalior ; 
the Gaekwar at Baroda. These five represented the 
five Maratha Branches, each with its Chief. Tht> great 
defeat of the Marathas at Panipat, fighting against the 
Afghans, threw them back from the extreme north, 
but they regained their power there, and held the 
Delhi Emperor as their puppet in 1803. In fact the 
Marathas ruled India, save where a new Power was 
making its way, a Power against which they broke, as 
the power of the Musalmfins had broken against them. 
It was that of Great Britain, 

THE BRITISH IN INDIA 

Long and strange was the struggle for European 
Empire in India from the days when the Mughal 
Empire was in the heights of its splendour, through the 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION XXXV 

Maratha Empire, until the final triumph of the British. 
Portuguese, Dutch, French, British such the succes- 
sion of the foreign ventures, with a gleam of Denmark 
in 1620 ; of the German Empire headed by Austria, the 
" Ostend Company " in 1722 ; of Prussia, the Emden 
Company in 1744 ghosts flitting across the Indian stage. 
They wer,e all seeking for trade. It was a traders' war 
when they fought ; the soldiers were mostly adventur- 
ers ; European G-overnments looked on complacently 
and helped with a few soldiers now and then. But the 
flag followed trade, not trade the flag. And the fight- 
ing was traders' fighting rather than that of soldiers, 
not careful of honour, nor treaty, but only of gain. 
Bold unscrupulous adventurers, they were for the most- 
part, the " bad boys " of the family, like Clive. Punch 
wrote a fearful epitaph on " John Company " and his 
crimes, after the Sepoy War, and when the Crown* 
took over the Empire the Company had made, it 
marked the New Era with the noble proclamation of 
Queen Victoria, the Magna Carta of India. But the 
making of that Empire by the adventurers is a wonder- 
ful story of courage, craft, unscrupulousness were 
they not dealing with " heathen " ? ability rising to 
genius, as in Clive, and great administrators after great 
soldiers. At the beginning conquest was not thought 
of, no one made any pretence that he was here for 
"the good of India". Quite frankly, it was the 
immense wealth of India that lured them, wealth to be 
earned "home" for enjoyment; the "white man's 
burden " was golden. The breaking up of the Mughal 
Empire and the quarrels of Viceroys who became 



XXXVI HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Kings, of Generals who became Chiefs, these gave the 
opportunity. Britain succeeded, because she was the 
Power that held in her the most fertile seed of free 
institutions, because she was on the eve of establishing 
democratic Government on her own soil on the surest 
basis, so that while she might enthrall for a time, 
ultimate freedom under her rule was inevitable. 
France had behind her then only the traditions of 
tyranny ; the Bourbons ruled and rioted. India needed 
for her future a steady pressure, that would weld her 
into one Nation on a modern basis, that she might 
become a Free Nation among the Free. The High 
Pqwers that guide the destinies of Nations saw Britain 
as fittest for this intermediate and disciplinary stage. 

Early in the sixteenth century the Portuguese 
formed trading settlements on the western coast in 
Calicut and Goa. Early in the seventeenth century, 
the Dutch traded on the eastern coasts, established 
very many factories, but finally settled down, after 
many vicissitudes, struggles and battles, in Java, etc., 
" the Dutch Indies". France began to nibble in 1537, 
and established her first factories in Surat and Ool- 
coiida in 1068, and in 1672 bought the site of Pondi- 
cherry ; she made a great bid for an Indian Empire in 
the eighteenth century through, the genius of Dupleix 
chiefly, and failed. 

Denmark WHS stirred to rivalry in 1612, and made 
an Hast India Company, but never was strong enough 
ior the Empire game. She began by a shipwreck on 
the Tanjore coast in If320, the survivors from, the 
shipwreck, except the Capt/ain, Roelant Crape, being 



HISTORICAL INTBODUCTION XXXV11 

murdered. The Raja of Tanjore gave him permission 
to settle at Tranquebar. The settlement was never 
important, but it started the Protestant missionaries 
in India in 1706, and Schwarz (1750-1798) founded 
the missions in Trichinopoly, Tanjore, and Tinnevelly, 
still the strongest missionary centres in India. England 
bought the settlement finally in 1845, with Balasore, 
and with another missionary settlement in Serampur, 
Bengal. In 1847, the Tranquebar mission was handed 
over to the Lutherans. From the 18th century 
onwards all the missionary Nations German, 
American, French, Italian, Swiss have freely estab- 
lished their missions in India, imperia in imperio, a 
dangerous policy, a menace to British rule, and a 
running annoyance and irritation to Indians. 

Britain began humbly. On December 31, 1600, 
Elisabeth chartered " The G-overnor and Company 
of Merchants of London trading in the East Indies " 
for exclusive trading there at that time no trading 
having been done and they fitted out some ships, 
one, under Captain Hawkins, reaching Surat, on the 
West Coast, in 1606. In 1611, a Captain Hippon, on 
his own account, set up a little trading establishment 
on the East Coast at Pettapoh, and another at 
Masulipatam. In 1613, the Emperor Shah Jahan gave 
duly written permission for setting up factories at 
Surat and Cambay, Gogo and Ahmedabad, and in 1616 
the Zamoriii of Calicut allowed a factory to be set up 
m his capital city. Thus was a footing made on 
the West Coast, and Surat became a Presidency 
Town in the time of Cromwell, (1658), and moved it&* 



HOW INDIA. WBOTTGHT FOB FBEEDOM 

Government in 1661 to the island of Bombay, given by 
Portugal as a kind of wedding gift, when Charles II 
married Catherine of Braganza. 

Meanwhile the East Coast was factorised, and in 
1626, a factory was established at Argeman, 70 miles 
north of Madras, with a fort to protect it. Factory, 
fort, town, "necessary" extensions so it went thence- 
forth, all natural and inevitable. In 1634, Shah Jahan 
allowed another trading centre, at Pipli, in Bengal, 
and in the next year, Charles I issued another charter. 
But Argeman was not convenient, and the kind Raja 
of Chandragiri, descendant of the royal house of 
Vijayanagar, in 1639, gives Mr. Day permission to 
have a factory at Chennaputnam, with land one mile 
broad and six miles along the shore, and he generously 
builds them a fort to protect it, Port S. George. And 
Day builds a wall round the fort, on the island made 
by the two branches of the Coum River, 400 yards 
long and 100 wide, and allows only white people to 
live inside his wall, any Nation, if only white White 
Town; and outside it an Indian town grows up 
Black Town. And these twain are Madraspatam 
Madras. In 1564, it had a garrison of 26 men. Its 
official records begin from 1670. Cromwell lets the 
two companies of Elisabeth and Charles I amalgamate, 
and makes Fort S. George a Presidency, in 1653, with 
authority over the Bengal factories. 

In 1690, Job Charnock sets up a factory in Calcutta, 
though trading privileges were not granted to the 
English in Bengal until between 1713 and 1719 by the 
Mnghal Emperor Firokshere, and builds a fort; so we 



HISTORICAL INTBODUOTION XXXIX 

have three big forts ere the end of the first quarter of 
the 18th century Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, a Fort 
S. David also, a mile from Cuddalore; in 1686, Sir 
John Child, at Bombay, makes the ominous announce- 
ment, that thenceforth if the " natives " the owners 
of the country attack, he will retaliate. Until then, 
they had been yielding and submissive, as became 
foreign traders. In 1702, various Companies having 
arisen in England, who all quarrelled bitterly, it was 
thought well to amalgamate them, and so present a 
solid front; and amalgamated they were, as the United 
East India -Company, in 1702. The position was a 
most peculiar one. Here was a Company, to all 
intents and purposes independent; it was ruled 
by a Board of Directors in London; it chose its 
own agents, it made its own armies ; after a time it 
appointed a Governor, then a Governor-General ; 
it applied for Charters, for Courts of Justice, and got 
them with subsequent horrors related by Macaulay. 
There was no effective control over its proceedings* 
although Parliament interfered for the first time in 
1773, and a Board of Control was established in 1784, 
and the Court of Directors placed under it a clumsy 
dual arrangement, making no real difference. The 
one useful thing was the renewal of the Charter, 
preceded by an enquiry, which at least revealed the 
state of things and terrible are the records. When 
things became too outrageous, Parliament interfer- 
ed, as in the impeachment of Warren Hastings ; but, 
for the most part, Britain was far too busy with her own 
troubles, her loss of her American Colonies, her 



3d HO:W INDIA WBOTTGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Napoleonic Wars, the struggles of her rising Demo- 
cracy, the miserable condition of her people, her 
Chartists, her agricultural riots, and the rest, to 
trouble much about what a trading Company was 
doing in far-away heathen India ; the Company made 
treaties and broke them, or forged them, if more con- 
venient ; it cheated, robbed, murdered, oppressed, and 
built an Empire in about a century. Clive was the 
first (3-overnor under the East India Company in 1758 ; 
Earl Canning the last in 1856. The Company ended 
in the Sepoy War of 1857, and the Crown assumed 
the sovereignty in 1858. 

The policy of the Company was shrewd and effect- 
ive. The Indian rulers borrowed European offi- 
cers to drill their soldiers, borrowed European 
slbldiers too. .Presently, if 'French officers and 
men were with one Chief, English officers and 
men were with the rival. Dupleix had allied him- 
self with one claimant to the throne o{ the dead 
Nizam of the I^eccai}; the English therefore were 
with the Nawab of the Oarnatic, w?*o had an eye to a 
possible chance. Prirwew, ftuglish and French all 
tried to use each other the Princes to play oiT English 
against French, the English anil French severally to 
use opposing Princes against each other. It is a 
sorry story of intrigue, of utter disregard of honour 
and good faith on all sides, Dapleix, that French 
genius, master of the military art and of unscrupulous 
statecraft, was carrying all before him and carving 
out a French Empire in Southern India, when Robert 
Clive, a writer in the service 'of the Company, who was 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION xli 

also a captain for the nonce, offered a bold plan of 
attack, and was bidden cany it out ; marched rapidly 
to Arcot (1751) with 200 English and 300 sepoys, 
seized it, held it against all comers, struck here, 
struck there, won everywhere, and laid the first stone 
of the British Empire in India. The French hopes in 
the South were finally destroyed by the victory of 
Colonel Coote at Wandiwash in 1760. 

After a visit to England, the Directors made Olive 
Governor of Fort S. David, and he returned- to 
India in ] 755 for five marvellous years of glory and 
shame. Trouble in Bengal, where Siraj-ud-daula 
was Viceroy for Delhi, and had attacked ami captured 
Fort William ; he thrust his 146 captives, for the night 
into the Fort military gaol, the " Black Hole," a room 
18 feet square with two small windows, and, says the 
Imperial Gazetteer, " although the Nawab does' not 
seem to have been aware of the consequences, it meant 
death to a huddled mass of English prisoners in the 
stifling heat of June" (n ; 474). Only 23 survived 
that night of agony. Clive started for Calcutta, 
managed, despite the Black Hole, to persuade the 
Nawab that he was a friend" I will . . . stand by him 
as long as I have a man left," wrote he seduced by 
bribery some of the Nawab's officers, forged a treaty, 
and Admiral Watson's signature thereto, to- deceive 
Omichand, himself a traitor, defeated his dear friend 
the Nawab at Plassey (June 23, 1757), and sold 
his throne our 'Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to Mir 
Jafar for a sum 'that amounted to 2,340,000 sterling, 
of which Clive received 200,000, Omichand, when 



xlii HOW INDIA WBOTTGHT FOR 

he found the treaty was forged, swooned, and never 
recovered the shock; Olive advised him to go on a 
pilgrimage, but the wretched man sank into idiocy, 
"languished a few months and then died". Macaulay, 
though he makes excuses for his hero of meeting 
craft with craft, says of his general policy, that "he 
descended, without scruple, to falsehood, to hypo- 
critical caresses, to the substitution of documents and 
to the counterfeiting of hands" (Essays, ii. 101, 102. 
JJd. 1864*). By these means, joined to marvellous 
courage and military genius, he founded the British 
Empire in India, which historians date from Plassey, 
Olive obtained in addition from Mir t Jafar a tract 
of 882 square miles the 24 Perganas to go to the 
Company after his death, he having meanwhile the 
rental; this rental was paid to him by the Company 
from 1765 when they took over the land till he 
died in 1774 ; the quit-rent was about 30,000 sterling 
a year. At the age of 34, starting with nothing, he 
had accumulated, between 1755 and 1760, admittedly, 
220,000 remitted tobusiness houses in England ; 25,000 
in diamonds; "considerable" sums and a "great mass 
of ready money," as well as the huge estate, which he 
valued at 27,000 a year. All this was challenged in 
the House of Commons, in 1773, after his last return 
to England (1767), and a vote of censure was shelved- 
by the previous question, and the words -that "he 
did, at the, same time, render great and meritorious 
services to his country". 'He committed suicide 
in 1774. Macaulay says of the enquiry: "It 
was clear that Clive had been guilty of some 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION xliii 

acts which it was impossible to vindicate without 
attacking the authority of all the most sacred lawn 
which regulate the intercourse of individuals and of 
States. But it was equally clear that he had displayed 
great talents, and even great virtues" talents, 
undoubtedly. Macaulay thinks that the enmity he 
roused was due .to his efforts to stop corruption; 
for, in 1765, he had returned to India fora year and 
a half as Governor, and had dpvoted himself to the 
purifying of the administration, perhaps repenting 
of his own rapacity. That, at least remains to his 
credit, but he kept hold of his own ill-gotten wealth. 
His new ardour for purity had been more admirable, 
had he disgorged his own spoils, and it may well 
be that the attack on him was largely due to the 
fact that he had enriched himself by methods which 
he forbade to others. 

Macaulay gives a terrible account of the op- 
pressions of the Company at this time : " thirty 
millions of human beings were reduced to the 
e'xtremity of wretchedness. They had been accus- 
tomed to live under tyranny, but never under tyranny 
like this . . . That Government, oppressive as the 
most oppressive form of barbarian despotism, was 
strong with all the strength of civilisation." He 
quotes a Musalman historian, who praises the extra- 
ordinary courage and military skill of the English : 
" but the people under their dominion groan every- 
where, and are reduced to poverty and distress. 
God ! come to the assistance of thy afflicted servants, 
and deliver them from the oppressions which they 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

suffer." In 1770 there ' was an awful famine ; " the 
Hooghly every day rolled down thousands of corpses 
close to the porticoes and gardens of the English 
conquerors. The very streets of Calcutta were 
blocked up by the dying and the dead." It 
was "officially reported to have swept away two- 
thirds of the inhabitants " (Imperial (razGtteer, ii, 
480), or 10,000,000 persons. 

The terrible years roll on; Macaulay again lays 
stress on them in his Essay on Warren Hastings ; of 
his ability, again, there is as little doubt as of his 
crimes. He was Governor from 1772 to 1785, taking 
in 1774 the title of (rovernor-G-eneral. He laboured at 
administration, arid filled the Company's cotters with 
gold. The gathering of this seems to have been his 
chief object, arid was the cause of his greatest 
crimes. The Nawab of Bengal had had an income 
of 53 lakhs promised him by Chve, when deprived 
of his power; Chve cut the allowance down to 
41 lakhs on the accession of a new Nawab, arid 
the third was reduced to 32 lakhs. Hastings found 
a child as the fourth, and, the child being helpless, cut 
him down to 16 lakhs. He sold Allahabad and Kora 
to Oudh for 50 lakhs (then worth half a million 
pounds sterling), and stopped the tribute of 26 
lakhs guaranteed to the Emperor of Delhi in return 
for Bengal. To these " conquerors" every treaty was 
a mere " scrap of paper," to be repudiated at pleasure. 
These " economies" were highly appreciated by the 
Company; they left the Company wealthy in gold, 
but bankrupt in honour. Had they only stained their 



HISTOEICAL INTRODUCTION 

own honour, it would have been their own business. 
But they stained the honour of England in India's eyes. 
These were the first " English " whom she knew 
England made some amends by giving English edu- 
cation with its liberty-inspiring ideals. She will make 
her final amends by co-operating with India, as she has. 
co-operated with Ireland, to shape Home Rule. 

But worse crimes followed this auspicious beginning; 
the sale of the Rohillas to pillage and slaughter : 
the hanging of .Nanda-kumara ; the coercion of the 
Princesses of Oudh. The Rohillas were a long- 
Indianised Afghan people ? whose "little territory" 
says Macaulay (Essays, ii. 193), " en joyed the blessings 
of repose under the guardianship of valour. Agricul- 
ture and commerce flourished among them ; nor were 
they negligent of rhetoric and poetry." JSujah Daula, 
Nawab of Oudh, coveted tins rich territory, but 
feared the valour of the Rohillas, numbering some 
80,000 warriors. Hastings ?old him the use of the 
British army lor 400,000 sterling, and they, with 
the Nawab's troops, were let loose on this noble 
people. Fire and sword devastated the land and 
slew the people, and " the rich province which had 
tempted the cupidity of Sujah Daula became the 
most miserable part even of his miserable dominions ". 
In two years, by such transactions, Hastings gave 
the Company about a million sterling and 450,000 
increase of annual income. He also had saved Bengal 
from an annual military expenditure of 250,000. 

Nanda-kumara was a wealthy Briihmana who 
accused Hastings of some of his crimes; before 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

this, there was a long story of antagonism ; he was 
a man of high rank, talent and wealth. His accusa- 
tion was met by his arrest for an alleged forgery 
six years before. The infamous Sir Elijah Impey 
was the judge, the jury English. The verdict was a 
foregone conclusion, and Irapey pronounced a sentence 
of death. He died with peaceful dignity, hanged on 
the public gallows before an enormous crowd, amid 
shrieks and shouts of horror and despair. 

The Princesses of Oudh, the mother and widow of 
Suraj Daula were enormously wealthy, reputed to 
possess a treasure of 3,000,000 sterling, and great 
revenues from land. The safety of their wealth was 
guaranteed to them by the Government of Bengal. 
But what of that ? They were accused of complicity 
in some rioting, but as there was no evidence they 
were not brought to trial j Hastings and the new 
Nawab, grandson and son of the Princesses, agreed to 
an act of confiscation, stripping them of everything. The 
son repented, but not so Hastings. He imprisoned the 
Princesses. He then seized the two eunuchs who were at 
the head of their household, imprisoned, ironed, starved 
them, and at last gave them up to torture, the Nawab's 
officers being empowered in writing to "have free 
access to the prisoners and be permitted to do with 
them as they shall *See proper," as the Nawab had 
"determined to inflict corporal punishment" on them. 
Their only crime was their refusal to surrender the 
charge given to them by their dead lord. The Princesses 
were kept in prison half-starved, till they had paid 
1,200,000. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION xlvii 

Warren Hastings waatt man of magnificent abilities, 
and made a strong administration, but the record of 
his crimes is long and terrible. He left India in ] 785, 
and was impeached by the House of Commons, which 
had before censured him, after long debate, for his 
crimes, while the King favoured him, the Company- 
adored him, Lord Chancellor Thurlow protected 
him; the result was sure, despite the marvellous 
eloquence of Burke. In vain his passionate peroration 
rang out : 

I impeach him in the name of the Commons' House of 
Parliament, whose trust he has betrayed I impeach him in the name 
of the English Nation, whose ancient honour he has sullied I im- 
peach him in the name of the people of India, whose rights he has 
trodden under foot, and whose country he has turned into a desert. 
Lastly, in the name of human nature itself, in the name of 
both sexes, in the name of every age, in the name of every rank, I 
impeach the common enemy and oppressor of all ' 

The trial began in 1788 and the decision was pro- 
nounced in 1795. 160 nobles began the trial j 29 voted 
at the close, a majority in his favour. Meanwhile 
Hastings, secure in the King's favour, had spent 40,000 
in building a house and in laying out its grounds. 

Withm our limits we cannot trace fully the growth of 
the Indian Empire: Lord Cornwallis followed Hastings 
in 1786 and left his mark in the Permanent Settlement 
of Bengal. Fighting as usual went on in the South, and 
in the Third Mysore War (1790-92), Lord Cornwallis, 
Governor-General, allied with the Nizam of the Deccan 
and the Maratha Confederacy, conquered Tipu Sultan 
of Mysore, robbed him of half his territories which 
they divided between them and exacted from him 
three million pounds sterling, thus ensuring another war. 



xlviii HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Marquess Wellesley and the Nizam, in the fourth 
Mysore War (1799), finished him, and he died, fighting 
gallantly to the end, in the breach at the storming 
of Seringapatam. This added the Carnatic to the 
Madras Presidency. The quarrels of the Maratha 
Chiefs enabled Marquess Wellesley to detach the 
Peshwa from them, and he became a vassal of the 
Company; the third Maratha War followed (1802-04), 
and in 1817-18, the last, the Maratha Empire perished, 
and left its Princes as feudatories ot the English. 

Eanjit Singh, the " Lion of the Panjab," who created 
the Sikh kingdom, and seized Lahore as his capital in 
1799, when only 19 years of age, was the creator of 
the last Power the British had to meet. His army was 
united by religion not by territory; they were the 
Sikhs, the disciples of the ten Gurus who had built up 
the Khalsa (Society), from Nanak the Saint to Govmtla 
Singh, the Warrior (1675-1708). He made his Kingdom 
in the Panjab as far south as Multan ; in 1809, Metcalfe 
visited Ranjit Singh as envoy from the British, and 
concluded a treaty with him, making the Hutlej Biver 
the boundary between his Kingdom and the British 
territory. With him there was peace til] his death in 
1889, but in 1845 the Sikh army crossed the? Sutlej, 
and lifter four battlon wa,H driven back. Jn 1848 
the second Sikh War broke out; the Britinh were 
defeated at Uhilianwala (1840), hut soon after Multan 
was stormed, the victory of Gujrut won, and the 
Panjab was annexed two uumthH later. 

Lord Dalhousie (1848-56) started the convenient 
theory that "Native States" were loss well governed 



L INTRODUCTION 

than British Provinces, and should be annexed wher- 
fever possible, e.g<, as when a ruler died without a son. 
Under these conditions he annexed Satara in 1849, 
Jhansi in 1853, ^fepur in 1853. biidh he annexed in 

1856, on high moral grounoX because its administra- 
tion was "fraught with siiftering to millions "-a 
dangerous argument from an official of the East India 
t/ompany . It was looked on with alarm >>y the " Natives," 
and contributed to tn'e Bepoy Ifcevblt of 1857, when 
Lord Canning was Viceroy, this broke out in May lO, 

1857, in Meerut, and ended in January, 1859. 
frrom that time 'we may date* the famous "Pax 

Britannica," for until that time tnere were continual 
wars and annexations, while since then there have 
been none further within India itself. There have 
been frontier' wars, the iniquitous Afghan wars, the 
annexation of Burma, but internal order has been 
maintained. 

On November 1, 1858, was held the Darb'ar of 
Allahabad, in which was published the Qoeen's 
Proclamation, assuming the Government of India, and 
making the Governor-General a Viceroy. The 
Company perished in the Sepoy Rebellion, in which 
poured out the hatreds accumulating since Plassey, in 
J757. The Queen's Proclamation contained the 
memorable words : 

"It is our further will that, so for as may be, our subjects, of 
whatever race and creed, be t'l-eoly and impartially admitted to 
office in our service, the duties of which they may be qualified by 
their education, ability and credit duly to discharge. In iheir 
prosperity will be* our strength ; in their contentment our security j 
and in their gratitude our besfc reward. 



,B 



1 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Fifty-seven years have rolled away since those noble 
words were spoken ; they remain unfulfilled, and, as 
the inevitable, consequence, the security of contentment 
is not yet ours. 

The existing conditions in India, bearing on the 
religious, economic, educational and political problems 
of the present, are dealt with in the Congress story. 
They will be better understood against the historical 
background, which shows that Indian Nationality is 
not a plant of mushroom growth, but a giant of the 
forest, with millennia behind it. 

India is now full of unrest, righteous unrest ; she is 
consequently held down by a series of enactments 
unparalleled in any modern civilised country ; Lord 
Morley has had the audacity to state, according to Sir 
Valentine Chirol (Indian Unrest, 154, ed.^ 1910) that 
1&e Government of India " must be an autocracy," and 
India loathes autocracy. She has enjoyed all the 
Benefits which flow from it during her childhood and 
youth as a Nation, and she has felt its weight in British 
hands j she i now mature; she demands freedom, and 
she is resolute to take her destiny into her own hands,, 
as one of the Free Nations in a Crowned Common- 
wealth, if Britain will work with her, in making the 
transit. Vincent A. Smith (Early History of India, 
p. 331), in tracing the annals of some " Indian petty 
States," says that they show " what India always has 
been when released from the control of a supreme au- 
thority, and what she would be again, if the hand of the 
benevolent despotism which now holds her in its iron 
grasp, should be withdrawn ". If a central authority 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION H 

is wanted, and all Free Nations need it, to prevent 
centrifugal forces from causing disintegration, India 
demands that it shall be her own Parliament. Why 
should she, alone among civilised modern Nations, 
require a foreign supreme authority ? 

But there is one danger to India's future which it is 
well to recognise the effect of the concomitants of the 
famous Pax Britannica of fifty-seven years. India has 
never before been under foreign domination as a whole. 
If one part of her was invaded, other parts were 
tranquil : if there was a foreign conquest, the new 
rulers settled down on the old lines ; there were no 
barriers put up round State offices, differentiating 
between the new-comers and the earlier inhabitants ; 
in fact the aim of the new was assimilation with tile 
older elements in a common civic life, and when the 
Musalmans made their Kingdoms and Empire, every- 
thing was done to induce the people to accept the new 
rulers and live in peace. Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal 
Emperor, was the first persecutor, and his brutalities 
broke the Mughal power. The British policy has been 
different ; the whole administration of British India has 
been in its own hands, and all the chief positions of 
responsibility and power have been rigidly confinod to 
the foreigners ; it is thought a wonderful concession 
that the Minto-Morley reforms allowed one Indian to 
enter the Imperial Council ! All initiative, all original- 
ity have been rigorously repressed, while manly 
independence has Jbeen resented, and even punished. 
It has seemed as though it were the British aim to 
turn the whole Indian Nation into a race of clerks. 



HOW IttDIA WBOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

steady crushing pressure over the whole popula- 
tion has produced a serious result, and has emasculated 
the Nation Indians hesitate, where they should act ; 
they ask, where they should take ; they submit, where 
they should resist j they lack- self-confidence and the 
audacity that commands success. Prompt, resolute, 
effective action is but too rare ; they lack fire and 
decision. Mr. Gokhale, in his answer before, the 
JEtoyal Commission on Indian Expenditure (Ans. 
18,331), voiced the same idea, after pointing to the 
2,388 officials drawing annual salaries of Ra. 10,000 
and upwards, of whom only 60 were Indians. " The 
excessive costliness of the' foreign agency is not, how- 
ever, its only evil There is a moral evil, which, if 
anything, is even greater. A kind of dwarfing or 
stunting of the Indian race is going on under the 
present system. We must live all the days of our life 
in an atmosphere of inferiority, and the tallest of us 
must bend in order "that the exigencies of the existing 
system may be satisfied." This is-the deepest, gravest, 
wrong that Great Britain has inflicted on a once 
mighty and imperial race. Unless Indians can again 
develop the old vigour, courage and initiative, India 
can have no future* , But the old spirit is awaking 
on every side, and therein lies our hope. 

We doubt if those, who read and verify the above, 
will think that she has got on so badly in the past 
left to her own resources. 

SOME DEDUCTIONS AND ANTICIPATIONS 
We submit from,, a review of this rough sketch 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 



liii 



That India, despite foreign invasions and local dis- 
turbances, which all nations have suffered in their 
timewhat peace had England from the Conquest up to 
the final defeat of Charles Edward in 1745 ? was a 
prosperous and wealthy Nation before -the coming of 
the East India Company, and that her huge wealth, 
down to the end of the 18th century, is a proof of 
general industry and security and immense industrial 
output among the masses, while the wealth of the 
merchants, and of the banking and trading communi- 
ties shows a settled condition, where credit was good ; 
that commercial integrity was so great that receipts 
and bonds were not demanded in financial transac- 
tions. 

That the English connection, under the Company, 
reduced India to poverty, and dislocated her industries, 
and that, under the Crown, the Government still 
hamper her industries, make a cruelly severe drain 
upon the country, and by their fiscal arrangements 
prevent the return of prosperity. That between 1770 
a-nd 1900 130 years there have been twenty-two 
famines, eighteen according to the Report of the 
Famine Commission of 1880 and four after 1880. 
In 1770, as we have seen*, there was a famine in 
Bengal, with 10,000,000 deaths; in 17#3 in Madras ; in 
1784, in Upper India, which left Oudh in a pitiable 
condition; in 1792 in Bombay and Madras; in ISO'S in 
Bombay; in 1804 in northern India; in 1807 in Madras ; 
in 181? in Bombay ; in 1823 in Madras ; in 1833 in Madras, 
where in one district, Guncur, 200,000 died out of 500,000 
population, and the dead lay unburied about Madras, 



Hv HOW INDIA WKOUGHT FOR FEEBDOM 

Masulipatam and Nellore ; in 1837 in north India, in 
which a calculation of 800,000 deaths is thought too low 
by the Famine Commission ; in 1854 in Madras ; in I860 1 
in northern India, about 200,000 deaths; in 1866 in 
Orissa and Madras, in Orissa a third of the people 
died, about 1,000,000, in Madras about 450,000; in 
1869 in north India, about 1,200,000 deaths ; in 1874 
in Bengal, over 1,000,000 were relieved and life was 
saved; in 1877 in Madras, 5,250,000 deaths; in 1868 in 
north India, 1,250,000 deaths ; in 1889 in Madras and 
Orissa ; in 1892 in Madras, Bengal and Rajputana ; in 
1896-7 in North India, Bengal, Madras and Bombay the 
number of deaths is not given, but 4,OOQ,000 persons 
received relief; and in 1899-0, in north India, Central 
Provinces and Bombay, 6,500,000 persons were in 
receipt of relief the worst famine on record. In 
1892 and 1897, Burma also suffered from famine. In 
1896, bubonic plague broke out in Bombay, and has 
slain its, millions. 

That even if Self -Government should cause as we 
do not think it "would any recrudescence of local 
jealousies and divisions, they would be local and 
temporary troubles, out of which India would emerge 
prosperously, as she has done before. 

That after an admitted prosperous and wealthy 
existence for 5,000 years under eastern rulers, she 
could not fall into barbarism even by the total and 
sudden withdrawal of a rule that has onlyjbeen here 
in any kind of power for a poor 158 years, of which 
the first fifty were spent entirely in plunderm^, nd 
which only stopped constant wars and annexations in 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Iv 

1856. -.Has the history of British rule in India proved 
to be more peaceful than the worst of its predecessors 
up to the Sepoy Rebellion ? And it must not be 
forgotten that nearly all the current history is the 
special pleading of an advocate, who is representing 
his own side and blackening his antagonists, minimising 
every wrong committed by his own side, exaggerating 
every wrong done upon the other. 

That in the very limited educational work she has 
done, Britain has been immensely useful, for the study 
of her own history has strengthened and given point 
to the National feeling that was powerfully aroused in 
the rise of the Marathas; from 1833 she took up 
education, and though it has spread very slowly, and is 
doing badly now in consequence of the strangling 
policy initiated by the Universities Act of 1904, 
India's clebt here to Britain is great and is fully 
recognised. 

That Britain has done much in railways of mixed 
benefit, being chiefly strategic instead of economic, but 
on- the whole desirable; much less well than the old 
rulers in irrigation works, in forestry, in village 
government, and in sanitation. 

That India welcomes English co-operation, but is 
getting very tired of English domination j that she is 
determined to get rid of coercive legislation, and to 
enjoy Self -Government. That she earnestly desires to 
have it with English help, but is resolved -to have it. 

That she is perfectly well aware that England did 
not " conquer her by the sword," but by the help of her 
own swords, by bribery, intrigue, and most acute 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOll 

diplomacy, fomenting of divisions, ancl playing of one 
party against another. But she is willing to let bye- 
gones be bye-gones, if Britain will now treat with, her 
oh equal terms, and welcome her as a partner, not a 
dependent. 

INDIA WANTS SSLF-GtovERNttBNi? BECAUSE: 

1. British Tnle has destroyed her Village and 
Council Government, and has put in its place a hybrid 
system of Boards and Councils which are impotent for 
good, because well-informed Indian opinion is over- 
ruled by officials who come, 'knowing nothing of 
India, and seek to impose English methods on an 
ancient land which lias its own traditions. They then 
complain that their hybrid is sterile. It is the way 
with hybrids. India wants to rebuild arid improve 
her own system, beginning with Panchayats, and 
working upwards, untrammelled by foreign experts. 

2. British rule after eighty years of its education 
is educating 2'6 of the population, and bases her 
denial of liberty on the " microscopical minority " of 
the educated, due to her own policy. Japan, under 
eastern rule, has educated her whole population in 
40 years. British education is not only microscopic, 
but it is ill-directed ; it was arranged with a vi$w of 
supplying clerks and some professional men in order 
to enable the British Government to be carried o"n, 
India wants a system which wilJ develop her resources 
by supplying scientific experts in every branch where- 
in applied science is needed, -by supplying practical 
experts in all industries and crafts ; a system which 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 

will educate her whole population for useful ends, as 
the United States ' and Germany have done for their 
populations and Britain is now doing for hers. India 
also desires to check the lavish expenditure of her 
money on the schools and colleges of foreign missions 
British, Scotch, American, German, Danish, French, 
Swiss, Italian while those under her own control 
are discouraged and crippled in their natural develop- 
ment on lines shaped by Indians. 

3. British rule ha-s destroyed India's finest arts and 
industries in order to favour the importation of cheap 
foreign goods, and even in machine industry, such as 
cotton, taxes the home-produce in order to balance 
the customs duty on imported goods. It encourages 
the export of raw materials, which come back as manu- 
factured articles, thus paralysing Indian industrial 
efforts for the benefit of foreigners. The export in- 
dustry being in full swing, when England goes to 
War, India's materials are suddenly thrown on her 
hands, and as she has neither plant, nor knowledge 
how to use it, they rot on the ground and their 
producers starve. India would train her own 
sons to utilise her vast stores of raw material, for 

X ' 

her own profit, and would only send abroad her 
surplusage. 

4. British rule has neglected irrigation only lately 
taken up because of the awful famines, and even now 
starved for want of funds and while recklessly cutting 
forests down has, also until lately, neglected replanting. 
Huge tracts of land, especially in the north-west, have 
consequently become deserts, which were formerly rich 



Iviii HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

And fertile. India would place irrigation and forestry 
among the first duties of Government. 

5. British rule has neglected sanitation, while the 
tendency to centralise in towns and neglect villages has 
necessitated changes from the old methods. Alarmed 
by the plague a disease of dirt, which decimated 
Europe dirty and vanished before Europe semi-clean 
ifc took some hasty and injudicious methods, which 
alienated Indian sympathy, and is now more busy 
with injecting serums into Indian bodies, thus really 
perpetuating disease, than with sanitation. The 
trouble is increased by the arrogant contempt for 
indigenous systems, and the 'ousting of them by 
O-overnment, while it is impossible to replace them 
adequately everywhere with the costly modern 
appliances. India would insist on sanitation as among 
the first "duties of Government, would encourage all 
that is good in the old systems, and utilise what is good 
in western methods. 

C. British rule is extremely costly; it employs 
"Europeans in the highest posts at the highest 
salai % ies, and introduces them everywhere as " experts " 
experts ignorant of the conditions in which 
they are working; it keeps special preserves 
"wholly for Europeans; others into which Indians 
may enter at the heavy cost of going to Eng- 
land to obtain "English degrees "; it pensions its 
servants, so that the English ones live on Indian money 
when they retire to England, making a huge annual 
drain; it encourages exploitation of the country by 
ESnglish companies and English capital, making another 



HISTORICAL INTEODUCTIQN 

drain j it makes India pay for an Indian army, main* 
tained to keep India in subjection; it makes India pay 
for a costly English establishment, the central auto* 
cracy, irresponsible to Parliament. India would do 
away with all this; would open everything to Indians 
as indeed the Proclamation of 1858 promised and 
require no foreign degrees as credentials ; would abo- 
lish the India Office j would acknowledge, outside 
India, the authority only the Crown and the Imperial 
Parliament, in which she enjoyed adequate representa- 
tion. She would haA^e her own Army and Navy, for 
protection &nd Imperial needs, not to hold her people 
down. 

7. British rule has substituted coercion for improve- 
ments in Government, like any other autocracy. 
India would sweep all this coercive legislation away ; 
she would nor be afraid of her people possessing arms j 
she would not be afraid of the criticism of free speech 
and a free Press ; she would reform abuses instead 
of strangling the expression of the discontent which 
abuses produce ; she would emulate British rule 
in Britain, not British rule in India. 

In a- phrase: 

India is enthralled, and she is determined to be free. 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 



CHAPTER I 

IN late December in 1884, seventeen men met in Madras, 
in the house of that stalwart advocate of religion and 
reform, Dewan Bahadur Raghunath Rao. Nearly all 
of them had been delegates to the just-onded Annual 
Convention of the Theosophical Society at Adyar, and 
the others had been there as friends and sympathisers. 
But surely this uew pride in India's mighty faiths 
throbbing in thtfir hearty this dawning hope of India's 
greatness in. the future to correspond with the great- 
news of her pest, this feeling that the discrowned liast 
19 not- always to remain a thrall to the younger 
western Nations, and that Asia, once the cradle of 
mighty Empires, shall again stretch out hr hands 
to grasp the aceptre and the imperial ball- these 
dreams sent out the dreamers to take counsel together, 
and they resolved, greatly daring, to form themselves 
into a group of provisional Committees, men from 
different towns to win others, each in his place, and to 
meet later for further consultation. Let us place on re- 
cord their names, for they were the seed of a mighty 
tree. Norendranath Ben of Calcutta, that sturdiest of 



2 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FBEEDOM 

fighters, was one of the little group, and he gave 
their names later in his paper, The Indian Mirror ; lie 
remarks that " the delegates who attended the Con- 
vention ^were most of them men who, socially and 
intellectually, are the leaders of the Society in which 
they move in different parts of the country ". They 
were : 

Madras : The Hon. Mr. S. Subramania Iyer 
(subsequently Judge of the High Court, Act- 
ing Chief Justice, K.G.I.B., and LL.D.), and 
Messrs. P. Rangiah Naidu and P. Anaada 
Charlu. 

Calcutta: Messrs, Norendranath Sen, Sureri- 
dranath Bannerji (the " uncrowned King of 
Bengal," the great orator, and National leader), 
and M. Ghosh. 

Bvmbay : The Hon. Messrs. V. N. Mandlik and 

K. i\ Telang (later, Judge of the High Court) 

and Mr. Dadabhai Naorji (the GLO.M. of 

India). 

Poona : Messrs. C. Vijiaranga Mudaliar, and 

Pandurang Gopal. 
Benares : Sardar Dyal Singh. 
Allahabad : Mr. Harishohandra. 
JV. W. P. : Mr. Kashi Prasad and Pandit 

LaMiminarayan . 

Bengal : Mr. Charuchandra Mitter. 
Oudh : Mr. Shri Earn. 

Seventeen good men and true, who out of their 
love and their hope conceived the idea of a political 
National Movement for the saving of the Motherland, 



THE FIRST CONGRESS 8 

There seems to be no record of the work done in 
their own towns and provinces on their return home, 
but the Proceedings of the first Indian National Con- 
gress tells us that " in March, 18H5, it was decided 
to hold a meeting of Representatives from all parts 
of India at tho then coming Christmas. Poona was 
considered the most central and therefore suitable 
place." From this onwards we have the official 
Reports to guide our steps. 

From this mooting the following circular was issued, 
profoundly interesting now, in 1915, aw .showing the 
minds of the Fathers of tho Congress m these days 
of origin, in 1885, just, thirty years ago. It shows 
the Hvbb ideas of those who were to be the leaders of 
the Indian Nation m her struggles to regain her lost 
liberty, and to become a Self-governing Nation, free 
amid the Free Communities which form the mighty 
Empire, " on which the Hun never sets ". 

Here is tho circular . 

A Conference of the J ml ism National Union will be 
held at Poona from the 25th to the 31st December 1885. 

The Conference will bo composed of Delegates- 
leading politicians well acquainted with the English 
language frrmi aH parts of tho Bengal, Bombay and 
Madras Presidencies. 

The direct objects of tho Conference will be : (1) to 
enable all the most earnest labourers in the cause of 
national progress io become personally known to each 
other ; (2) to discuss and decide upon the political 
operations to be undertaken during the ensuing year. 

^ Indirectly this Conference will form the germ of a 
Native Parliament and, if properly conducted, will 



4 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FKEEDOM 

constitute in a few years an unanswerable reply to Ihe 
assertion that India is still wholly unfit for any form of 
representative institutions. The first Conference will 
decide whether the next shall be again held at Poona, or 
whether, following the precedent of the British Association, 
the Conferences shall be held year by year at different 
important centres. 

This year the Conference being in Poona, Mr. 
Chiplonkar" and others of the Sarvajanik Sabha, lmv 
consented to form a Reception Committee in whose hands 
will rest the whole of the local arrangements. The 
Peshwah's Garden near the Parbati Hill will be utilised 
both as a place of meeting (it contains a fine Hail, like the 
garden, the property of the Sabha) and as a residence for 
the delegates, each of whom will be there provided with 
suitable quarters. Much importance is attached to this, 
since, when all thus reside together for a week, far greater 
opportunities for friendly intercourse will be afforded than 
if the delegates were (as at the time of the late Bombay 
demonstrations) scattered about in dozens of private 
lodging houses all over the town. 

Delegates are expected to find their own way to and 
from Poona but from the time they reach the Poona 
Railway Station until they leave it again, everything 
that they can need, carriage, accommodation, food, etc., 
will be provided for them gratuitously. 

The cost thus involved will be defrayed from the 
Reception Fund, which the Poona Association most 
liberally offers to provide in the first instance but to 
which all delegates, whose means warrant tf eir incnmng 
this further expense, will be at liberty to contribute PT y 
sum they please. Any unutilised balance of cttich dona- 
tions will be carried forward as a nucleus for ntrxfc youf's , 
Reception Fund. 

It is believed that exclusive of our Poona friends, 
the Bombay Presidency, including Sindh and the Berars, 
will furnish about 20 delegates, Madras and Lower Bengal 
each about the same number, and the N. W. Provinces, 
Oudh, and the, Panjab together about half this number. 



THUS FIBST OONGBESS 5 

Very modest were they, and very accurate withal in 
Iheir estimate of seventy delegates, for seventy-two 
tctually recorded tljeir names as Representatives, 
vhile another thirty attended as friend being, as 
jtovernment servants, precluded from acting as [Re- 
presentatives in a political gathering. The flrst meet- 
ing did not, however, take place at Poona, for, only a 
few days before Christmas, -some sporadic cases of cholera 
occurred, possibly presaging an outltiroak, and it was 
thought wiser to move the Conference, now called the 
Congress, to Bombay. The Managers of the Q-okulclas 
Tejpal ^San)skrit College and Boarding House placed 
the whola of their fine buildings at the disposal of the 
Congress, and -ill was ready by the morning of the 27th 
Herein her lor the reception of the Representatives of 
the Indium Nation. As we glance over the lists of 
{.hose who were present, how many we see who became 
tumour in the annals of India's struggle for Freedom. 
Among tliude who could not act as Representatives 
Cor the reasoh given above we note the Reformer, 
Dewau B*hadur R. Raghunath Rao, Deputy Collector 
of Madras, the Hon. Mr. Mahadev G. Ratiade, then 
member o the Legislative Council and Small Cause 
Court Judge of Poona, later to be a Judge of the 
High Couvfr of Bombay, and leader honoured and 
trusted ; XaTt Baijnath of Agra was there, to be known 
as scholar and writer later on; and Professors 
K. Sundararainan and R. G. Bhandarkar. Among the 
Representatives may be noted editors of well-known 
Indian papers, of The Dnym Prakash, Th>& Quarterly 
Journal of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, The Maratha, 



6 HOW irrou WBOUQHT FOR IKEJSDOM 

The Kesati, WIG NahaUbhakar, The Indian Mirror, 
The Nassin, The Hindusthcmi, Tlic Tribune*, The Indian 
Union, The Indian Spectator, Tfie ludu Prakaah, The 
Hindu, The Crescent. How many namaH shine out, 
familiar and honoured : Mr. A. 0. Hume is thorn from 
Simla; W.C. Bannerji and Norendranath Sen from Cal- 
cutta ; W. S. Aptft and G-. Gr. Agarkar from Pooim ; 
Gangaprasad Varma from Lucknow; DadabhaiNaoroji, 
K. T. Telang, Pherozewhah M. Mehta then, as now, 
leader of the Bombay Corporation D. R. Wat'ha, 
B. M. Mfelabarl, N. G. Ohandavarkar from Bom ha v , 
P. Bangiah Naidu, President of the Mahajana SiiUui, 
S. Subramania Tjer, P. Ananda CLtiriu, G. Subr.unanu' 
Aiyar, M. Viraraghnvachoriar from Madray; P. KVsa\a 
Pillai from Auaiitapur. These were amonjL: the 
earliest who wrought for India's Freedom, and 1 1 1*^1* 
yet on earth arc working for hor still. 

At 12 noon, on Dctsonbar 28th, !8Se5, ID tH.- Hall 
of the Gokuldas Tejpal Htimsk/it Collogr, !iw- Fust 
National Congress met, The firsi vuic* a heard were 
those of Mr* A. 0. Hume, uho Hon. Mr. &'S'ubru- 
mania Iyer and the Hon. Mi. %. T ^\ 'IVlo'ii^', who 
proposed, seconded and support* (i i.h>- r ' cfcin'i -5* the 
first President, Mr, W. C. Bannoiji. 1 poi^mii :ind 
historic moment was that 'hi which >'ue fast of e 
long line of men thus honoured by the IV 
took his seat, to preside over hor fu'-t 
Assembly. 

After alluding to the repreptfntut'ivtt and weighty 
character' of the Congress, he laid down under roar 
heads the objects of the Congress : 



THE FIRST CONGRESS 7 

(a) The promotion of personal intimacy and friend- 
ship amongst all the more earnest workers in our country's 
cause in the various parts of the Empire. 

(6) The eradication by direct friendly personal 
intercourse of all possible race, creed, or provincial 
prejudices amongst all lovers of our country, and the 
fuller development and consolidation of those sentiments 
of national unity that had their origin in their to-loved 
Lord E/ipon's ever memorable reign. 

(c) The authoritative record, after this has been 
carefully elicited by the fullest discussion, of the matured 
opinions of the educated classes in India on some of the 
more important and pressing of the social questions of 
the day. 



The determination of the lines upon and methods 
by which during the next twelve months it is desirable for 
native politicians to labour in the public interests. 

Of these the first three have been well worked out, 
but the fourth has been less regarded, and needs 
urging to-day. Such guidance is supremely neces- 
sary, and t/he Nation has the right to demand it from 
its best men. In all organised movements some 
direction from the centre is necessary. The Congress 
has admirably focussed educated opinion, passing 
valuable judgments on events arxl polio)-, and 
demanding necessary reforms from Government, 
but it has not adequately outlined the work to be 
done during each coming year ; hence political 
work has lacked point and vigour ; it is impossible to 
agitate for all the matters touched on by resolutions, 
and hence political work in the whole country has been 
spasmodic and sporadic, and therefore largely in- 
effective; there is no concerted work. Yet what 



8 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT K>R PKBEDOM 

India can do in the way of agitation when she has an 
objective is clearly shown by the agitation on South 
African grievances. 

The nine resolutions of the first National Congress 
mark the beginning of the formulation of India's 
demands. 

The first asked for a Royal Commission to enquire 
into the working of Indian administration. 

The second for the abolition of the India Council. 

The third dealt with the defects of the Legislative 
Councils in which then all the members were nomin- 
ated, and asked for the admission of elected members, 
for the right of interpellation, for the submission 
of budgets to the Councils, for the creation of 
Councils in the N. W . P. and Oudh, and in the 
Panjab, and for a Standing Committee in the House of 
Commons to consider formal protests from majorities 
in the Councils. 

The fourth prayed for simultaneous examinations! 
for the I. C. S. and the raising of the age of 
candidates. 

The fifth, and sixth dealt with military expenditure. 

The seventh protested against the annexation of 
Upper Burma and the proposed incorporation of it 
with India. 

The eighth ordered the sending of the resolutions 
to Political Associations, and they were discussed and 
passed all over the country by political bodies and 
public meetings, an admirable plan which has fallen 
into desuetude ; they were carried with much enthu- 
siasm, and here and there amended on minor points, 



THE FIRST CONGRESS 



9 



while Bapatla objected fco the abolition of the India 
Council, which it regarded as a check on the Secre- 
tary of State, and wanted its power over him made 
effective. 

The final resolution fixed the next Congress at 
Calcutta, on December 28th, 1886. 

Of these resolutions, the first has been partially 
granted by the Decentralisation and Public Services 
Commissions ; the second is still being demanded ; 
much of the third was given in the Minto-Morley 
reforms ; the prayer of the fourth is still ungranted as 
regards simultaneous examinations, but the age of 

candidates has been raised: the fifth, sixth and 

\ ' 

seventh had no effect. The eighth and ninth were, 
of course, carried out. 

Mr. ft. Subramania Iyer of Madras, the Editor of 
The Hindu and one of the boldest and farthest-sighted 
of the Madras leaders, moved the first resolution in 
an admirable speech, much of which is valid for 
to-day. It ran : "That this Congress earnestly approves 
of the promised Committee to enquire into the working 
of the Indian administration." He pointed oat that 
in the days of the East India Company, the renewal 
of its Charter at twenty years' intervals brought about 
a most valuable enquiry into the condition of the 
country, but that since the Crown had taken it over 
in 1858, these had ceased, and the distressing de- 
terioration of the condition of the people was going 
on unnoticed. Parliament took control in theory, but 
abandoned it in fact except where English party- 
interests were concerned and the India Council took 



10 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

up the place of the defunct Company, but ruled with- 
out enquiry ; he appealed to " the justice and fairness 
of the. English people," and asked for an enquiry into 
facts. Mr. Pherozseshah Mehta seconded, and re- 
marked that there must not be an enquiry by 
" Anglo-Indians, sitting in judgment on themselves ". 
Mr. Norendranath Sen supported, pointing out that 
the enquiry would be a sort of stock-taking as to the 
results, after twenty-seven years, of direct Govern- 
ment by the Crown. A lively debate ensued, an 
amendment being proposed, and the resolution 
was finally carried in the amended form. (The 
resolutions are printed at the end of the Chapter.) 

The second resolution was moved on December 
29th by Mr. Chiplonkar, and asked for the abolition 
of India's Old Man of the Sea, the India Council. 
He pointed out that India was not governed by the 
Crown, but by retired Anglo-Indian officials, looked 
on doubtfully by Lord Beaconsfield in 1858. (Thoso 
who care to read the debate over the Government of 
India Bill will find what now sound astonishingly 
democratic statements, and regrets that the Re- 
bellion barely ended made proper representation of 
India impossible just then.) 

Mr. Ananda Charln was very caustic in seconding 
the resolution, and commented on the oddity of the 
" oligarchy of fossilised Indian administrators/' 
who were "superannuated for service in India," 
being competent to deal with increased complexity 
of problems in England, where the improved climate 
could only diminish the rate of decline. The abolition 



THE FIRST CONGRESS 11 

of the Council was a primary condition of all 
other reforms. Mr. Pherozeshah Mehta also thought 
that effete Anglo-Indians, who would be partial to 
their brethren in India, were a very unsatisfactory 
appellate tribunal. 

The resolution was carried unanimously and has 
been carried at intervals ever since, but in vain. 

The third resolution was moved in a very full and 
careful speech by the Hon. Mr. K. T. Telang, who 
usefully indicated possible electorates for members 
of the Legislative Councils, and the Hon. Mr. 
S. SnbtftiTiamu Iyer seconded, both by personal 
experience ** members knowing liow " little influence 
they pofisexsfd in the Council'- either for good or for 
evil". They could not be "of any great use to the 
country ". Mr Dadablun Naoroji cogently said that 
they had learnt from "the English people how 
necessary representation is for good Government*'; 
without it "what good is it to India to be under tho 
British sway ? It will be simply another Asiatic 
despotism. . . . We are only British drudges or slaves." 
There was a long debate, and the resolution wan 
carried unanimously on tho following day. It wa.s 
partly granted in the JMmlo-Morley reforms 24 years 
latrr. 

The fourth resolution was moved by Mr. Dadabliai 
Naoroji, and the. discussion was remarkable for the 
speech of Mr. P. S, White, who wished to stop the 
importation, of boys from England at great expense, 
and to abolish the Civil Service, utilising, both from 
England and India, men of experience and reputation. 



12 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM. 

The resolution was carried, and the age limit has 
been raised, but the main prayer is not yet granted. 
It is pathetic to read the reiterated confidence of 
the speakers " in the justice pf the English people/' 
and to see that that confidence is still unjustified. 

Mr. P. Rangiah Naidu, in the next resolution, after 
pointing out that military expenditure had increased 
from 11,463,000 m 1857 to SI 6,975,750 in 1884, 
pleaded with the Government to * change their pres- 
ent policy of suspicion and distvust for a generous 
and confiding one," to improve the " Ni&t've Army," 
to accept the offers of the people fa enrolls \ r olun- 
teers; then no more European soldieis won Id fie need- 
ed. Mr. D. E. Wacha, in seconding, inaue the first of 
many great Congress speeches, an able and exhaustive 
review of the military position, cruelly unfair to 
India and placing on her most unjust burdens. The 
resolution was carried, as was the next, urging that 
if military expenditure was not diminished, it bhould 
be met by re-irnpositicn of the import duties, the 
abolition of which had robbed poverty-stricken India 
to enrich wealthy Lancashire. The debate showed 
the thorough knowledge and rare ability of the men 
taking part in it, and we hear also their repudiation 
of opinions now long familiar through thirty years 
of repetition, that- educated Indians were disloyal, and 
that English education had* awakened dangerous 
aspirations. 

The resolution on Burma, and the remaining two 
were quickly passed, and the first National Congress 
dissolved, leaving a happy and inspiring memory of 




THE PIBST CONGRESS 18 

fine work done, and unity demonstrated. India had 
found her Voice. India was realising herself as a 
Nation. Strange and menacing was the portent in the 
eyes of some. Splendid and full of hope in the eyes 
of others. The rosy fingers of the Dawn-Maidens 
had touched the Indian skies. When would her Sun 
of Fieedom rise to irradiate the Motherland ? 

RESOLUTIONS 

1. That, this Congress earnestly recomm< nds that the promised 
enquiry inio the working of Incliitn Administration, here and in 
England, should bo entrusted to a Koyal Commission, the people of 
India being adequately represented thereon, and evidence taken 
both in India and b* f^glnnd. 

'2. That thte Congraft considers the abolition of the Council of 
the Seci-etary Of State jror India, as at present constituted, the 
necessary proTiroinA* 1 ) f<> all other reforms. 

-U. That this Congress considers the reform and expansion of the 
Supremo and existing Local Legislative (Councils by the admission 
of a considerable proportion of elected im-mbers (and the creation 
of similai Councils for the N.W Provinces and Oudh, and also for 
Panjab) essential , and holds that all Budgets should be referred to 
these Councils for consideration, their members being moreover 
empowered to interpellate the .Executive in regard to all branches 
of the administration } and that a Standing Committee of the House 
of Commons should be constituted to receive and consider any formal 
protests that may be recorded by majorities of such Councils against 
the exorcise by the Executive of tho power, which would be vested 
in it, of overruling the decision of such maiorities. 

4. That in the opinion of this Congress the competitive examin- 
ations now held in England, for first appointments in various civil 
departments of the public service, should, henceforth, in accordance 
with the views of the India Office Committee of J860, be held 
simultaneously one in England and one in India, both being as far 
as practicable identical m their nature, and those who compete iii 
both countries being finally classified in one list according to merit, 
and that the successful candidates in India should bo sent to England 
for farther study, and subjected thero to such further examinations as 
May seem needful. Further, that all other first appointments (exclud- 
ing peoaships, and the like) should be filled by competitive examina- 
tion! held in India, under conditions calculated to secure .such 



; 14 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

! intellectual, moral, and physical qualifications as may be decided by 

Government to be necessary. Lastly, that the maximum age of 

1 candidates for entrance into the Covenanted Civil Service bo 

raised to not less than 23 years. 

6. That in the opinion of this Congress the proposed increase 
in the military expenditure of the empire is unnecessary, and 
regard being had to the revenues of the empire and the existing 
circumstances of the country, excessive. 

6. That in the opinion of this Congress, if the increased 

' demands for military expenditure are not to be, an they ought to bo, 

met by retrenchment, they ought to be met, firstly, by the re- 

imposition of tho Customs duties , and, secondly by the extension 

, of the licence-tax to those classes of the community, official and 

! non-official, at present exempted from it, care being taken that in 

the case of all classes a sufficiently high taxable minimum be 

! maintained. And further, that this Congress is of opinion that 

i ! Great Britain should extend an imperial guarantee to the Indian 

i' >j debt. 

r i 

7 That this Congress deprecates the annexation of Upper- 
j Burma and considers that if the Government unfortunately decide 

j on annexation, tho entire country of Burma should bo scpuiated 

{ j, 1 from the Indian ViceroyaJty and constituted a Crown, Colony, UH 

' ', distinct in all matters fiom tho Government of UIIH country as IB 

]! Ceylon. 

j, ,, 8. That the resolutions passed by this CongrosH bo eommum- 

I | cated to the Political' Associations in each province, und that thoHo 
,, Associations be requested with the help of similar bodies und <hi>i 

i '[ agencies within thoir respective provinces to adopt uch UICUSUIOH 

] ,| as they may consider calculated to advance the HoUlonumt of the 

II Jj various questions dealt with in these resolutions. 

r ,j ( 9 That the Indian National Congress re-asHtnnhlo next jeur in 

'J! Calcutta, and sit on Tuesday, the 2tffch of December, 18K, and tho 

I | next succeeding days. 



CHAPTER II 

THE different character of the second Congress as 
compared with the first has rightly been emphasised 
in the official record. As it points out, the first- 
Congress was composed of Volunteers, the second 
of Delegates, and in those two words lies the essen- 
tial difference, and they mark the immense progress 
in the country which lay between the two. The 
Congress had captured the heart as well as the 
brain of India. Tt is interesting to turn over the 
pages containing extracts from papers published in 
all parts of India, and to glance at the reports of 
the meetings held for the election of delegates ; m 
these early days any association of any kind, or any 
public meeting, might elect ; there was no organisa- 
tion to speak of , only Jin effort to find out that, 
which the Nation wished. In this way 500 delegates 
were elected, of whom 434 actually registered their 
names and credentials as present, and it is though!, 
that 4 or 5 left without doing so. Various circulars 
wore issued suggesting subjects for discussion and 
outlining proposals, so that delegates might not come 
unprepared a plan that, unfortunately, fell into 
desuetude. The representation of the Provinces is 
noteworthy, as showing the amount of interest taken 



**> HOW INDIA WROUGHT J?OR FREEDOM 

each. The N. W. P. and Oudh head the list out- 
de Bengal with 74 delegates, marking the enlight- 
enment of the great Province which contains 
Lucknow, Cawnpur, Agra, Allahabad, Benares, 
Bareilly, Meerut, active centres of thought ; Bombay 
and Madras each sent 47. Panjab only 17 ; Central 
Provinces and Assam 8 each, Bengal naturally sent 
a yery large number, 230, but she had 70 millions of 
people, while the next, the N. W. P. and Oudh, had 
only 44. Reckoned by percentages Bengal had 8*0 
per million, and Bombay 2'7. 

The delegates began to stream into Calcutta on the 
25th, and the first meeting of the Congress was held 
on December 28th, in the Town Hall, packed to its 
limit of holding ; the famous scholar, Dr. Rajendra- 
lala Mittra, welcomed the delegates and the visitors ; 
he demanded with no uncertain voice that repre- 
sentatives of the people should be elected to the 
Legislative Councils : 

Wo live, not tinder a National Government, but 
under a foreign bureaucracy ; our foreign rulers are 
foreigners by birth, religion, language, habits,- by every- 
thing tfoat divides humanity into different sections. They 
cannot poftsibly dive into our heaocls, they cannot 
ascertain our wants, our feelings, our aspirations. They 
may try their ^best, and I have no reason to doubt that 
many of our Governors have tried hard to ascertain our 
feelings and our wants ; but owing to their peculiar 
position, they have failed to ascertain them. 

Then came a striking episode. A very old man, 
a great landed proprietor, " blind and trembling 
with age," Jaikishan Maker ji, proposed the Hon. Mr. 
Dadabhai Naoroji as President. In a few words he 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 17 

explained their wish for such improvements in 
administration as should keep pace with tha spread 
of education and enlightenment, saying that it was 
no wonder that their object had drawn distinguished 
men " from all parts of the country, when you find 
a blind old man like myself of 79 years of age, 
bending under the infirmities of age, taking a part 
in the deliberations ". Most surely these three men 
above to say nothing of the support of the venerable 
Debendranath Tagore disproved the slander that 
the Congress was the work of turbulent youths and 
disappointed place-hunters. 

Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, in some preliminary obser- 
vations drew attention to the refusal of ihe Govern- 
ment to grant the prayer of the hrst Congress for a 
Royal Commission of enquiry, but noted that they 
had agreed to giving a Council to the N. W. P. 
He laid stress on the bitter poverty of India, and 
urged that it was " the right as well as the duty of 
this Congress to set forth its convictions, both as to 
this widespread destitution and the primary steps, 
needed for its alleviation ". The first meeting was 
closed by Babu Jaikishan, who said that the India of 
1886 was very different from that of 1835, yet a Free 
Press had then been granted to India by Sir Charles 
Metcalfe : " Standing as I do, one of the few re- 
maining links between the Old India of the past and 
the New India of to-day, I can scarcely hope to see 
or enjoy the fruit of those labours on which this 
Congress and the Nation it represents are entering ; 
but I am glad to have lived to see this new departure, 



18 HOW IBDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

and if an old man's sympathy and good wishes can 
aid or encourage you in the noble work you are 
undertaking, I can say from the "bottom of my heart 
that that sympathy and those good wishes are already 
yours." Thus blessed by the aged, the Congress 
took up its work. 

The President, in his opening address, made one 
often-disputed point admirably clear, and denned the 
scope of the Congress. He pointed out that the 
Congress was a purely political body, and while he 
was himself profoundly alive to the necessity of social 
reforms, he held that the Congress should deal only 
with political matters, on which Indians were united, 
and not with other questions on which they were 
necessarily divided, and on which no common action 
was therefore possible. Each community had its own 
social needs, and those of one were not those of 
another. But they had common political needs, and 
could unite on a common political platform. " A 
National Congress must confine itself to questions 
in which the entire Nation haw a direct participation, 
'ind it must leave the adjustment of social reforms 
and other class questions h> class Congresses," The 
National Movement, the National Party, as a whole, 
lias its aspects, religious, educational, social, political, 
and the Congress is the organ of that Movement, 
that National Party, for political action, and for 
ditical action only. The Congress has steadily 
continued on the lin* thus early laid down. 

As it was impossible to carry on business in the 
huge Town Hall, the Congress met on the second day 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 19 

fa the rooms of the British Indian Association. 3?he 
first "Resolution on the Queen-Empress' Jubilee was 
carried with enthusiasm, and then Mr. D. E. Wacha 
moved the second, drawing attention to the "in* 
creasing poverty of vast numbers of the population 
of India ". He pointed out that the condition of the 
ryots had steadily deteriorated since 1848, and that 40 
millions of people had only one meal a day and not 
always that. He pointed to the main cause " in the 
tribute to Great Britain, exported to fructify there, 
and swell still further the unparalleled wealth of 
those distant isles, never in any shape to return here 
fco bless the country from whose soil it was wrung, 
or the people, the sweat of whose brows it repre- 
sents ". The foreign agency must be minimised, 
otherwise poverty could not be relieved. They must 
have representative institutions to ensure the reforms 
-essential to National prosperity. The Hon. Mr. 
S. Subramania Iyer added his testimony from Madras, 
saying it was impossible to control " the extortions 
of the revenue authorities ". Several amendments 
were proposed permanent settlement, wider employ- 
ment of Indians, encouragement of indigenous trade, 
as palliatives but all were rejected tind the original 
resolution carried. 

The most remarkable speech on the third resolu- 
tion was that of Malik Bhagavan Das, from Dehisa 
Ismail Khan, who, speaking in Urdu, said he came 
"from a land where men handle the sword more 
readily than the pen"; some said that the only 
people who wanted changes were Bengali Babus; 



20 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

"Do I look like a Bengali Babu? M he asked, 
drawing up his 1 great frame in his frontier dress. All 
the more intelligent persons wanted them, he said. 
After recounting some special cases of able men in 
his own district, he concluded : 

There is not a district, not a town, that does not 
contain many such or better men ; and do you suppose 
that any of them are greatly pleased with a form of 
administration which denies, to ninety-nine out of every 
hundred of them, any career ? or that any of them fail to 
see that representative institutions, and a, much larger 
employment of Indians in the higher offices of State, 
would be important steps towards the opening they wa/nt ? 
I will not detain you longer. I will only repeat that this 
Congress and the objects it aims at have the sympathy 
of every thinking man in India, be he educated or un- 
educated ; and though the newspapers may misunderstand 
the subject, I think the Government knows better, and 
as, despite mistakes that it makes, the Government is a 
generous Government, I hope, and think too] that, coming 
to realise how universal is the feeling, it will yield to our 
desire, and concede, if not at once, yet piece by piece, all 
we ask for. If I speak plainly it is not that I am opposed 
to British rule -far from it; that rule has no more 
earnest supporter than myself. But good as it is, there 
are many things yet that should be improved, and 
amongst them the matters dealt with by this Congress. 
And while I say : May God prosper British rule in India 
for ever, I also say : May He give our rulers wisdom to 
understand the reasonableness of our demands for reform, 
and the magnanimity to concede what we ask for. 

The resolution was unanimously carried. The rest 
of the time was spent in discussing the draft of the 
fourth resolution, making many amendments, and 
finally, by Resolution VI, appointing a Committee to 
consider and report on the Public Service question. 
(All the Resolutions will be found on page 29, et seq.j 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 21 

On the third day, December 29th, the Congress- 
meeting again in the Town Hall Resolution VIII, 
asking for the extension of the jury system was, 
after some discussion, carried unanimously ; in the 
course of it, one delegate, Lala Murlidhar, from 
the Panjab, said that he came to the Congress 
from gaol, released on bail, convicted without 
evidence " because I am considered a political agitator, 
because I have my own opinions and speak what I 
think without; fear," and the protection of the jury 
was necessary against such abuses. 

Government is always angry, as we know, when 
defects in the " administration of justice " are pointed 
out ; but far more harm is done to it by the loud and 
prolonged cheers with which this eminently respect- 
able assemblage of 1886 greeted this "convicted" 
prisoner out on bail, than by the criticisms which 
should lead the Government to amend the matters 
complained of. 

This Resolution was completed by No. IX, carried a 
little later, urging that the "innovation made in 
1872," which deprived the verdicts of juries of 
finality, and " for the first time " gave power to set 
aside verdicts of acquittal, " should be at once with- 
drawn ". Some opposed it, on the ground that Bnglish- 
*men were sometimes wrongfully acquitted by juries 
of their countrymen, but a large majority, despite 
this temporary inconvenience, carried the right 
principle. The abuse, however, still continues. and 
has been terribly used, as in the hands of Sir John 
Hewett, 



22 HOW INBU WKOUGHT KR FREEDOM 

Resolution X, carried while the preceding one was 
being drafted, sought to give accused persons the 
right of demanding a committal to Sessions instead of 
being tried by Magistrates. It was pointed out that 
first-class Magistrates, " often quite young and inex- 
perienced " could give a sentence of two years* 
imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 1,000, and that 
if the G-overnment desired " to maintain the character 
of their Courts for justice," they must give the 
option of a trial at Sessions. Complaint was made 
that some of the Magistrates were " devoid of that 
conscientiousness that in former days was the charac- 
teristic of British officers ". The truth is that the 
Courts do justice in ordinary cases as between Indian 
and Indian, but, since political agitation has arisen, 
British officials, like those of every autocracy have a 
bias against every one who advocates political changes, 
and such men as in the case of Lala Murlidhar are 
discriminated againsfc, consciously or unconsciously ; 
hence, as Mr. T. Chidambara Hao pointed out, and 
as all of us know, our liberties remain at the mercy of 
magistrates " often far from competent, from a legal 
point of view, to exercise such great powers ". The 
next Resolution, still legal, demanded the separation 
of judicial dnd executive functions. 

Then came a Resolution (XII) of vital importance, 
where Indian foresight far outstripped British a 
Resolution appealing to Government to sanction 
volunteering, so that Indians might be able to support 
them in any crisis. It was moved by Raja Rampal 
Singh in a most remarkable speech, a speech which 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 23 

showed that in him, at least, the old martial spirit was 
not dead. He began by saying that the loyal and 
conciliatory spirit of the Congress should protect them 
from blame when they spoke on a matter on which 
they were " distinctly at variance with Government ". 
The whole country had petitioned Government on the 
matter and had been refused, " not over-graciously "; 
none the less must they press it, as "the highest 
interests of Great Britain as well as India " were 
concerned : 

We are deeply grateful to Government for all the 
good that- it has done us, but we cannot be grateful 
to it when it is, no matter with what best of intentions* 

doing us a terrible and irreparable injury "We 

cannot be grateful to it for degrading our natures, for 
systematically crushing out of us all martial spirit, for 
converting a race of soldiers and heroes into a timid flock 
of quill-driving sheep. Thank God, things have not yet 
gone quite so far as this. There are some of us yet, 
everywhere, who would be willing to draw sword, and if 
needful lay down our lives, for hearth and homes, aye and 
for the support and maintenance of that Government to 
which we owe so much. But this is what we are coming 
to .... and when we once come to that, then I think that, 
despite the glories of the Pax Britannica, despite the 
noble intentions of Great Britain, despite all the good she 
may have done or tried to do us, the balance will be 
against her, and India will have to regret rathe* than 
rejoice that she has ever had anything to do with 
England. 

This may be strong language, but it is the truth ; 
nothing can ever make amends to a Nation for the destruc- 
tion of its National spirit, and of the capacity to defend 
itself and the soil from which it springs. 

Nor is it only we who shall have to regret and suffer J 
for the mistaken policy that our Government is unhappily 



24 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR I'HEKDOM 

pursuing in this matter. Look where you will around you 
in the world, and you will see gigantic urnuVH and 
armaments. There is trouble in storo for the whiil** 
civilised world, and sooner or later a trcTiiciulouH military 
struggle will commence, in which, assuredly, lnfore it 
terminates, Great Britain will be involved. Great Britain 
with all her wealth cannot put one hundred men ititu tlw 
field for every thousand that several Continental Power** 
can. England herself is isolated, and by Iwr insular 
position to a certain extent protected, Imt no friendly sen 
rolls between Europe and Asia, the landward path in 
India is known and open; India IK not isolated, and it 
will be India, on whose possession half Ureat Britain** 
wealth and status depends, that willbe th< weene of any 
serious attack by any Continental Powers on (ireut 
Britain. 

Then will England regret that, instead of ha\in# 
millions of brave Indians trained to arms to flinjn Iwi-k 
invaders, she has only her scanty legions to oppose to 
them, and from her timid subjects can only look at must 
for good wishes good wishes, truly good things in their 
way, but poor bulwarks against Burdan rifles and steel 
ordnance. 

But on our own account we deprecate the existing 
policy. High and low we are losing all knowledge of (in* 
use of arms, and with this that spirit of Kelf-reliawe 
which enables a man to dare, which maken men brave, 
which makes them worthy of the name of men. When J 
was only five years of age my grandfather mad mo l*gin 
to learn all physical exercises in vogue amongst UH, and I 
was trained to the use of all arms and in all martial 
exercises. But what man now sends his son for such 
training? What young man nowadays knows anything 
of these things ? Fifty years ago, without desiring war- 
tare, every young man's heart glowed within him at the 
thought of some day showing his prowess in a fair field. 
Now most young men would, I fear, contemplate any such 
possible contingency with very, let me say, mixed feelings. 
If men are to be fit for soldiers, fit to fight to any purpose 
when the time of trial comes, and come it must lor every 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 25 

country, then they must be trained in the use of arms, 
they must from their childhood see their parents, their 
elders, using arms and participating in those martial 
exercises which only 35 years ago, in Oucih at least, were 
part of every gentleman's occupation. 

And there is another very important point India is 
practically being impoverished, to a great extent, 
by the enormous expense of her standing army. 
Sooner or later the crushing weight of this (for 
her resources) enormous expenditure will break down 
either the country or the Government. Now by a judi- 
cious encouragement of Indian Volunteers, it would be 
possible fy> reduce very greatly this military expenditure, 
and yet leave the country far stronger for defensive 
purposes than it now is 

But I might go on for hours. I might dwell on the 
fact that in the way the Arms Act is now worked in many 
localities, the people, their herds, their crops, are wholly 
at the mercy of wild beasts. I might dwell on the insult, 
the injustice, the violation of the most sacred and solemn 
pledges by Kngland to India, that are involved in the 
rules that permit Indian Christians, but do not permit 
Indian Hindus or Muhammadans, to volunteer. But I 
have said enough, and indeed being, as we are, all of one 
mind, too much already I foar on this subject, in which I 
am deeply interested. I -will only now add that we do not 
ask Government to put arms blindly into all men's hands, 
but only to permit under such rules and restrictions as it 
sees fit, the better and more educated classes of its loyal 
Indian subjects to qualify themselves to defend, when 
occasion may require, their homes, their country and their 
Government. 

Needless to say that the resolution was carried, and 
yet, 29 years later, the Arms Act is still on the Statute 
Book, ad only Indian Christians are permitted to 
volunteer. None the less, the feelings expressed so 
passionately by Raja Eampal Singh throb as passion- 
ately in the hearts of all Indian gentleman to-day. 



26 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOB EREEDOM 

The fourth and last day of the Congress dealt with 
the all-important subject of representative institu- 
tions. Mr. Surendranath Banner ji brought up the 
Report of the Committee appointed to consider the 
Public Service Question, and it was unanimously 
approved by Resolution VII. He then moved Re- 
solution IV, and the tentative suggestions embodied 
in it, urging : 

Self -Government is the ordering of nature, the will 
of Divine Providence. "Every Nation must be the arbiter 
of its own destinies such is the omnipotent tint inscribed 
by Nature with her own hands and in hor own utornal 
book. But do we govern ourselves ? The answer is no. 
Are we then living in an unnatural state ? Yew, in the 
same state in which the patient lives under the ministra- 
tions of the physician. We are pusfmig through a period 
of probation and a period of trial undor the aufipiccH of 
one of the most freedom-loving Nations in the world. And 
we claim that the period of probation may now fairly 
terminate, that the leading-strings may be taken oft', and 
the child, having emerged into the dawn of mature man- 
hood, may at any rate be partially entrusted with the 
management of his own affairs. If it were otherwino, th 
circumstance would imply the gravest Blur upon the 
character of British rule in India ; for it would mean that 
after more than a century of British rule and of English 
education, we are still unfit to appreciate tho principles 
and to practise the art of Self -Government. But I have 
no fears on this score. In our own Province, local self- 
government has been remarkably successful. We have it 
on the highest authority ; for no less a personage than 
His Honour the Lieutenant- Governor has declared that in 
Bengal local self-government has on the whole been a 
success ; and I am quite sure similar testimony would be 
forthcoming in reference to the other Provinces of India, 
It would indeed be a marvel if it were otherwise, Our 
Panchayat system is as old as the hills and is graven on 



THH SECOND CONGRESS 27 

the hearts and the instincts of the people. Self "Govern- 
ment is therefore nothing new to the habits or the ways 
of thought of the people of India. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. N. G. Chandavar- 
kar in a powerful speech, in which he showed, by 
quotations, that the great Englishmen who had 
ruled in India had contemplated Self-Government. 
Other speeches followed they all deserve reading, 
so good were they and then came Pandit Madan 
Mohan Malaviya, making his maiden speech in the 
Congress, and fairly carrying his audience away with 
the eloquence which has ever since been at India's 
service. One quotation we must have : 

It is not to the great British Government that we 
need demonstrate the utility, the expediency, the neces- 
sity of this great reform. It might have been necessary 
to support our petition for this boon with such a demon- 
stration, wero we governed by some despotic monarch) 
jealous of the duties, but ignorant and careless of the 
rights of subjects ; but it is surely unnecessary to say one 
word in support 01 such a cause to the British Govern- 
ment or the British Nation to the descendants of those 
brave and great men who fought and died to obtain for 
themselves and preserve intact for their children those 
very institutions which, taught by their example, we now 
crave, who spent their whole lives and shed their hearts' 
blood so freely in maintaining and developing this 
cherished principle. 

What is an Englishman without representative 
institutions ? Why, not an Englishman at all, a mere 
sham, a base imitation, and I often wonder as I look 
round at our nominally English magnates, how they have 
the face to call themselves Englishmen and yet deny us 
representative institutions, and struggle to maintain 
despotic ones. Representative institutions are as much a 
part of the true Briton as his language and his literature. 



28 HOW INDIA W140UGHT FDR FREEDOM 

Will any one tell mo that Great Britain will, in cold 
blood, deny us, her frw-born subjects, the first of these, 
when, by the gift of the latter, she has qualiiied us to 
appreciate and incited us to desire it P 

No taxation without representation. Tha is tho first 
commandment in the Englishman's Political Bible ; how 
can he palter with his oonscionco and tax us hero, his 
free and educated fellow-subjects, as if we were dumb 
sheep or cattle ? But we are not dumb any longer. 
India has found a voiro at last in this great Congress, 
and in it, and through it, we call on England to lu true 
to her traditions, her instincts, and herself, and grant us 
our rights as free-born British citizens. 

The resolution was, of course, carried unanimously. 

Resolution V was next brought on, an helping to 
give effect to the all-important Resolution IV, and 
was quickly carriod. 

Resolutions XV, XI 11, XIV were then passed in the 
order given, to send the resolutions to the Viceroy, to 
be forwarded by him to the Queon-Ernprews and th* 
Secretary of State j to establish Standing CongrH.s~ 
Committees; and to hold the next Congress in 
Madras, This memorable sitting then closed with a 
vote of thanks to the President. 

Tfw Statesman (Calcutta) had a remarkable article 
on the Congress, .saying that the Congress waH 
composed of '* man to whom we can point with pride, 
as the outcome of a century of our rule ". The 
London Timw, on the other hand, burst into violent 
invective, declaring that tho Congress our readers 
can judge of the truth of the statement was 
" merely an affair of discontented plase-seekers-HDien 
of straw, with little or no stake in the country, , . . 



1IOO 

954,035 N15 



32853 
THE SECOND CONGHMBSB 20 

persons of considerable imitative powers . , . of 
total ignorance of the real problem of Government 
, . . delegates from all these talking clubs . . , 
might become a serious danger to public tranquillity **. 
Virulent rubbish, which did its mischievous work in 
Great Britain. 

The Viceroy, Lord Diifforin, received some of the 
members, not us delegates but as "distinguished 
visitors to the capital " ! Ho also invited them to a 
garden party, carefully explaining that he did not ask 
them as representatives. Unconsciously humorous 
was His Excellency. Rut he doubtless meant well. In 
any case, the representative character of the Congress 
was recognised by India, if not by this amiable 
gentleman. 

RESOLUTIONS 

T. That this Congress of Delegates from all parts of India do 
humbly offer its dutiful and loyal congratulations to Hor Most 
Gracious Majesty, the Queen Empress, on the approaching 
completion of the first half century of her memorable, beneficent 
and glorious reign, and heartily wish her many, many moie, and 
happy, years of rule over the great British Empire. 

Representation 

II. That this Congress regards with the deepest sympathy, and 
views w.ith grave apprehtmnion, tho incx easing poverty of vast 
numbers of the population of India., and (although aware that the 
Qovernment in not overlooking this matter and is contemplating 
certain pulliativoH) dosirea to record its fixed conviction that tho 
introduction of Representative Institutions will prove one of the 
most important practical stops towards the amelioration of the 
condition of the people. 

lit. That this sfiongress do, emphatically, reaffirm the 3rd 
Resolution of the Congress of 1886, and distinctly declare its belief 
that the reform and expansion of the Council of the Governor- 
General for making Laws and of the Provincial Legislative Councils 



92853 



30 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

therein suggested, have now become essential alike in the interest, 
of India and England. 

' IV. That this Congress is of opinion that in giving practical 
effect to this essential reform, regard should be had (subject to such 
modifications as, on a more detailed examination of the question, 
may commend themselves to* the Government) to the principles 
embodied in the following tentative suggestions : 

(1) The number of persons composing the Legislative 
Councils, both Provincial and of the Governor- General, to bo 
materially increased. Not less than one-half Uio Mom born of such 
enlarged Councils to be elected Not more than one-fourth to be 
officials having seats ex-officto in snch Councils, and not uioro than 
one-fourth to be Members, official or non-official, nominated by 
Government. 

(2) The right to elect members to the Provincial Councils 
to be conferred only on those classes and members of tin* 
community, jpnrna facie, capable of exorcising it wisely and 
independently. In Bengal and Bombay fcho Councillors may bo 
elected by the members of Municipalities, District Boards, ChatuborH 
of Commerce and the Universities, or an oleotoruto may bo con- 
stituted of all persons possessing such qualifications, educational 
and pecuniary, as may be deemed necessary In Madras, the. 
Councillors may be elected either by District Boards, Municipalities 
Chambers of Commerce and the Universit}', or by Klectoral colleges 
composed of members partly elected by those bodies and partly 
nominated by Government. In the North- Wost Provinces and 
Oudh and in the Panjab, Councillors may be clocked by an Electoral 
College composed of members elected by Municipal ami District 
Boards and nominated, to an extent not exceeding one-Hixth of fch 
total number, by Government, it being understood that tho sanw 
elective system now in force where Municipal Boards are concerned 
will be applied to District Boards, and tho right of ducting members 
to these latter extended to the cultivating class. But whatever 
system bo adopted (and the details must be worked out ueparatftV? 
for each province) care must bo taken that all neotionH of the 
community, and all great interests, are adequately represented. 

(3) The elected Members of tho Council of f&o Governor- 
General for making Laws, to be elected by tho elected Montbnm of 
the several Provincial Councils. 

(4) No elected or nominated Member of any Council, to 
receive any salary or remuneration in virtue of mich membership 
but any such Member, already in receipt of any Government salary 
or allowance, to continue to draw the same unchanged during 
membership, and all Members to be entitled to bo reimbursed 
tny expenses incurred in travelling in connection with their 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 31 

(5) All persons, resident in India, to be eligible for seats 
in Council, whether as electees or nominees, without distinction of 
race, creed, caste or colour. 

(6) All legislative measures and all financial questions, 
including all budgets, whether these involve new or enhanced 
taxation or not, to bo necessarily submitted to and dealt with by 
thene Councils. In the case of all other branches of the administra- 
tion, any Member to be at liberty, after due notice, to put any 
question ho sees lit to the ejf-nfficw Members (or such one of 
these as may be specially charged with the supervision of the 
particular bianch concerned) and to bo entitled (except as 
hereinafter provided) to receive a reply to Ins question, together 
with copies of any papers requisite for the thorough comprehension 
of the subject, and on tins reply the Council to be at liberty to 
coiiHider and discuss the question and record thereon such resolution 
as may appear iitting to the majority. Provided that, if the sub- 
ject in regard to which the enquiry is made involves matters of 
Foreign policy, Military diHpomtions or stiatogv, or IH otherwise of 
such a natuic Unit, in the opinion of the Executive, the public 
interests would be mateiiully imperilled by the communication of 
the information asked for, it shall be competent for thorn to instruct 
the <> i .offii n> Members, 01 one of them, to re pi} accordingly, nnd 
decline to fuinish the information asked for 

(7) The Executive Government Khali possess the power of 
overruling the decision arrived at by the majority of the Council, 
in every case in which, in ito opinion, the public interests would 
suffer by the m ceptance of such decision , but whenever this power 
is evurcised, a full exposition of the grounds on which this has been 
considered necessary, shall be published within one month, and in 
the case of local Governments they shall report the circumstances 
and explain their action to the Government of India, and in the 
case of this latter, it shall report and explain to the Secretary of 
State ; and in an} such case on a representation made through the 
Government, of India and the Secretary of State by the overruled 
majority, it shall be competent to the Standing Committee of the 
House of Commons (recommended in the 3rd Resolution of last 
year's Congress which this present Congress has affirmed) to con- 
sider the matter, and call for any and all papers or information, and 
hear any person H on behalf of such majority or otherwise, and 
thereafter, if needful, report thereon to the full House. 

Y. That this Congress do invite all Public Bodies and -all 
Associations throughout the Country, humbly and earnestly, to 
entreat His Excellency the Viceroy to obtain the sanction of Her 
Majesty's Secretary of State for India to the appointment of a 
Commission, to enquire exhaustively into the best method of intro- 
ducing such a tentative form of Representative Institutions into 
India* as has been indicated in Resolutions III of the past, and IV 
of the present year's Congress. 



\ 



32 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Public Service 

YI. That a Committee composed of the gentlemen named in 
the margin be appointed to consider the Public Service Question 
and report thereon to this Congress. 

Hon. Dadabhai Naoroji (Bombay). 

S. Subramnnia Iyer (Madras). 

Penry Mohan Mukerji (Calcutta) 
Mr. O. Subramama lyor (Madras). 
Babu Motilul Ghose (Calcutta). 

Surendra Nath Bannerji (Calcutta). 

Gangaprasad Varma (Lucknow). 

Ramkah Chaurthuri (Benares). 

Guru Prasad Sen (Patna). 
Pandit Pranuath (Lucknow). 
Munslu Kushiprasad (Allahabad). 
Nawab Reza Ah Khan (Lucknow). 
Mr. Haitud AH (Lucknow). 
Lala Kanyalal (Amritsar). 

Rao Sahab Qangadhar Rao Madhaw Chitnavis (Nagpur). 
Mr. Rahitntulla M. Sayani (Bombay). 

VII That this Congress approves and adopts the report sub- 
mitted by the Committee appointed by Resolution VI. 

REPORT 

We, the Members of the Committee appointed by the Con- 
grass to submit a statement in connection with the Public Service 
question, have the honour to report that the following resolutions 
were unanimously adopted by us at a meeting held yesterday 

1. That the open Competitive Examination bo held simul- 
taneously both in India and in England. 

2. That the simultaneous examinations thus held bo equally 
open to all classes of Her Majesty's subjects. 

3. That the classified list be prepared according to merit. 

4. That the Congress express the hope that the Civil Service 
Commissioners will give fair consideration to S mskrit and Arabic 
among the subjects of examination. 

5. That the age of candidates eligible for admission to the 
open Competitive Examination be not loss than 19, or, as recom- 
mended by Sir C. Aitchison, more than 23 years. 

6. That simultaneous examinations being granted, the 
Statutory Civil Service be closed for first appointments. 



THE SECOND CONGRESS 83 

7. That the appointments in the Statutory Civil Service, 
Hinder the existing rulefl, be still left open to the- Members of the 
Unoovenanted Service and to professional men of proved merit and 
ability. 

8. That all appointments requiring educational qualifications, 
other than covenanted first appointments, be filled by Competitive 
Examinations held in the different Provinces, and open in each 
Province to such natural-born subjects of H.M. only as are residents 
thereof. 

These Resolutions it is hoped, cover the main principles which 
underlie the questions set by the Public Service Commission. For 
a more detailed consideration there was no time. 

(Sd). DADABHAI NAOROJI, 
December, 1886 President of the Committee 



Legal 



VIII. That, in the opinion of this Congress, the time has now 
arrived when the system of trial by jury may be safely extended 
into many parts of the Country where it is not at present in force. 

IX. That, in the opinion of this Congress, the innovation made 
in 1872 in the system of trial by jury, depriving the verdicts t>f 
juries of all finality, has proved injurious to the Country, and that 
the powers then, for the first time, vested in Sessions Judges and 
High Courts, of setting aside verdicts of acquittal, should be at once 
withdrawn. 

X. That, in the opinion of this Congress, a provision, similar to 
that contained in the Summary Jurisdiction Act of England (under 
which accused persons in serious cases have the option of demand- 
ing a committal to the Sessions Court), should be introduced into 
the Indian Code of Criminal Procedure, enabling accused persons, 
in warrant oases, to demand that, instead of being tried by the 
Magistrate, they be committed to the Court of Sessions. 

XI. That this Congress do place on record an expression of the 
universal conviction, that a complete separation of executive and 
judicial functions (such* that in no case the two functions shall be 
combined in the same officer) has become an urgent necessity , and 
that, in itt opinion, it behoves the Government to effect Mug separa- 
tion without fuythe* dejag^, eveu though thfo shoajfl,, in ie-m 
Provinces, involve some extra expenditure. 



3* HOW INDIA WBOIWHT flOfi FBEEDOM 

Volunteering 

XII. That in view of the unsettled state of public affairs in 
Europe, and the immense assistance that the people of this country, 
if ftuly prepared therefor, is capable of rendering to Great Britain 
in the event at any serious complications arising, this Congress do 
earnestly appeal to the Government to authorise (under such rules 
and restrictions as may to it seem fitting) a system of Volunteering 
fur the Indian inhabitants of the country, such as may qualify them 
to suDDort the Government, effectively, in any crisis. 

Organisation 

XIII. That Standing Congress-Committees be constituted at 
all important centres. 

XIV. That the Third Indian National Congress assemble at 
Madras on the 27th of December 188*7. 

XV. That copies of these Resolutions be forwarded to His 
Excellency the Viceroy in Council, with the humble requests, that 
he will cause the 1st Resolution to be submitted in duo course to 
Her Majesty the Queen Empress, that he will cause all the RoBolu- 
tions to be laid before Her Majesty's Secretary of State for India, 
and that he himself will be graciously pleased, in consultation with 
Jus colleagues, to accord them his best consideration. 

(Sd.) DADABHAI NAOROJI, 
Pi evident of the Second Indian National Congrew 



CHAPTER III 

THE spirifc of the third National Congress is shown 
by the heading of the official Report, fcalron froni 
the speech of Raja Sir T. Madhava Rao, K. C. S. I., 
the Chairman of the Reception Committee, who, 
speaking of the Congress, declared that it was 
"the soundest triumph of British Administration, 
and a Crown of Glory to the British Nation ". The 
words recall those of Macaulay, when he said that 
the noblest monument of British Rule in India would 
be the establishment of Britain's free institutions in 
the land. 

The third Congress met at Madras in December, 
1887. As early as May 1st, 1887, a strong Recep- 
tion Committee of some 120 members was formed, 
with Raja Sir T. Madhava Rao as Chairman, and 
embracing Hindus of all castes, Muhammadajns, 
Indian Christians and Eurasians, a thoroughly re- 
presentative body. Every town of over 10,000 in- 
habitants was asked to form a sub-committee, and 
a vigorous political propaganda was carried on, 
30,000 copies of a Tamil Congress Catechism, bj Mr, 
Viraraghavachariar, being distributed. A striking 
proof of the result of this was the fact that* Rs, 5,500 
were contributed by 8,000 subscriptions varying from 



36 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB PB8IX>J* 

anna one to Rs. 1-8, and another Rs. 8,000 varying 
from Rs. 1-8 to Rs. 30. Poor people even sent 
collections from Mandalay, Rangoon, Singapore and 
the eastern islands. It is pleasant to see the name* 
of the Ruling Princes of Mysore, Travancort^ and 
Cochin, and Their Highnesses the Maharaja of Vizia- 
nagaram and the Raja of Venkatagiri at one end of the 
subscribers, with one-anna coolie** at the othera 
truly National work. The Standing CongrHSH Com- 
mittees were asked to send up subjects for diaeuwwm, 
and the energetic Committee, greatly daring, nit up 
a huge Pandal, capable of holding 3,000 person*. 

760 delegates had been elected, and 607 wtr 
actually present. The table was as follows : 

Madras . . 

Bombay and Sindh 



Bengal, Orissa and Assam 
N. W. P. and Oudh ... 
Central Provinces 
Panjab 



79 
45 



9 



607 



The Panjab had elected 42 delegates, though only 
9 appeared. From the Panjab to Madras is a far 
cry. A good feature was the presence of 45 ryots and 
19 artisans. A noteworthy delegate was Mr, John 
Adam, "the Principal of the great Pachaiyappa'w 
Collegiate establishment ". The Report also notes 
the friendliness of The Madras Matt, The Bombay 
Gazette, the Calcutta Daily News and 8tatMman* 
Among the manv who sent letters of sympathy ware 
tne Shri Mahant of Tirupati, and the Maharaja of 



THE THIRD CONGRESS 37 

Darbhanga, and of course the Hon. Mr. K. T. Telang, 
while the Hon. Mr. G. M. Ranade was present in 
person, though, as before, unable to serve as a 
delegate. 

The Congress met on December 27th, in the Pandal, 
erected in Mackay's G-ardens, some 3,000 spectators 
assembling in and around the great tent. Sir T. 
Madhava Rao in a few words welcomed the delegates, 
and, being in very weak health, gave his brief speech 
to Mr. C. V. Sundaram Shastn to read ; he justified 
the Congress, expressed his belief that the Govera- 
ment was willing to help India to advance, and urged 
caution on " all parties concerned ". Mr. VV. 0. Bannerji 
proposed and the Hon. Mr. S. Subramania Aiyar 
seconded, the election as President of Mf. Budrudin 
Tyabji, who took the chair amid great applause ; it is 
interesting to note that the first Congress was 
presided over by a Hindu, the second by a Parsi, 
the third by a Musalman. 

Mr. Tyabji laid stress on the representative char- 
acter of the Congress, asserted its loyalty, and 
finally advised that a Committee the names of which 
he read out should be appointed to consider the 
many suggestions sent in for discussion and to draw 
up a programme for the work of the Congress. 
The proposal was warmly approved and the following 
Committee was accepted : 

Bengal, Assam and Orissa. Mr. W. C. Bannerji, DP. 
Trailokyanath Mitra, Messrs. Surendranath Bannerji and 
Nbrendranath Sen. Behar. Messrs. Saligrain Singh, and 
Guru Prasad Sen. Bombay and Sindh. Messrs* Cnanda- 
varkar, Khare, Dhruva, Nam Joshi, and Gobind Bukah. 



38 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE 3PBBEDOM 

N&rth-West Provinces and Oudh, Mr. Mcmlvi Hamid AH, 
Raja Rampal Singh, Mr. Bam Kali Chaudhuri and 
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Punjab. Pandit Satya- 
nand Agnihotri and Lala Murlidhar. Madras, Messrs. 
Hume, Sa'bapathy Mudaliar, Sankara Nair and W. S. 
Gantz. 

The appointment of this Committee is interesting, 
as it was really the first " Subjects Committee," the 
body to which all real debate has gradually been 
transferred. It is a question whether the plan ia a 
good one, since the Committee sits in private, and 
hence both the members and the public lose the 
healthy influence of open debate, which add- 
ed so much to the vitality and interest of the 
Congress; the public sittings become a mere for* 
mal passing of resolutions debated in Committee. 
Besides, the younger delegates lose the training in 
debate which they enjoyed m earlier days, and be- 
come the more critical when they have no fair oppor- 
tunity of expressing dissent and moving amendments, 
In the days we are now studying, amendments were 
frequently brought forward arid thoroughly debated. 

On the second day, December 28th, the first Reso- 
I mon appointed a Committee to consider what, if any, 
i xfces should be framed for the constitution and work- 
ing of the Congress, to report on the 30th (the list of 
names will be found in the Resolution, two names, 
that of the mover and of Mr. R. P. Karandikar, being 
added to the original list). The Resolution was 
moved by Dr. Trailokyanath Mitra, who remarked that 
some opponents said that the delegates represented 
no -one but themselves; while they must not check 



THE THIRD CONGRESS 39 

the growth and development of the Congress by hard 
and fast rules, too early imposed the world should 
know who elected the Congress, and that the Congress 
was really representative. Mr. Hamid Ali Khafl 
seconded, and Mr. W. S. Grantz supported, pointing 
out that little work was done between Congresses, 
whereas work should continue throughout the 
year. At this point Dr. Trailokyanath Mitra's name 
was added. Mr. R. P. Karandikar moved an amend- 
ment, narrowing the scope of the Committee to 
framing rules, and proposing to defer the question of 
a Constitution till the Congress had gained more ex- 
perience and had visited other Provinces. Others 
supported the amendment, regarding the proposal to 
frame a Constitution as premature, but on the appeal 
of the President the amendment was withdrawn, as 
the whole matter could be considered on the report of 
the Committee ; this was done, Mr. Karandikar's name 
was added to the Committee, and the Resolution was 
carried unanimously. 

The second Resolution re-affirmed the neeesSitv oi 
the admission of representatives to the Legislative 
Councils, and Mr, Surendranath Bannerji said fn 
proposing it " We unfurl the banner of the Con- 
gress, and upon it are written, in characters of glitter- 
ing gold, which none may efface, the great words 
of this Resolution : ' Representative Institutions 
for India.' " He declined to enter into details, 
affirming only the principle, pointing out that they 
were not legislators, and saying : " The Government 
has highly paid officials, drawing thpoBffi&I'Vfriqpees a 




40 HOW INDIA WBOTOHT FOB JTBBEDOM 

.month, and it is for them to elaborate the Bill and 
settle the details, upon principles which may find 
acceptance with the Government/' It is significant 
that Raja Sir T. Madhava Kao seconded the proposal, 
remarking that, prudent and conservative as he was, 
he regarded as necessary for India representative 
institutions , he said the principle was " one which 
the British Government, I am sure, will not, and 
cannot, refuse to recognise ". He was optimistic 
enough to believe, this cautious old statesman, that 
in " a year or two " they would " receive a satisfactory 
response to our very reasonable recommendations " ! 
Only 28 years have passed since then. 

A long discussion followed, in which Mr. Eardley 
Kortor made a remarkable speech, in which he urged 
resolution, courage and endurance, until the right 
demanded, was obtained. " I was told yesterday by 
one, for whose character and educated qualities I 
cherisn ar great esteem, that in joining myself with 
the labourers in this Congress, I have earned for 
myself the new title of ' a veiled seditioniat '. If it 
be sedition, gentlemen, to rebel against all wrong ; if 
it be sedition to insist that the people should have a 
lair share in the administration of their own. country 
and affairs ; if it be sedition to resist tyranny, to raise 
my voice against oppression, to mutiny against 
injustice, to insist upon a hearing before sentence, to 
uphold the liberties of the individual, to vindicate 
our common right to gradual but ever advancing 
reform if this be sedition I am right glad to be 
called a ' seditionist, 7 and doubly, aye, trebly glad, 



THB THIRD CONCHRESS- 4rl 

when I look around me to-day, to know and feel I am 
ranked as one among such a magnificent array of 
' seditionista V He spoke in 1887. These things, 
and indeed much less important things, are still 
"sedition "in 1915. 

Pandit Bishen Narayan Dhar was another fine 
speaker, and he pointed out the value of free institu- 
tions as " the best practical school for mental and 
moral discipline J> . " To be called on from time to 
time to take part in the affairs of your country, to 
discuss, with the sense of responsibility that power 
gives, public questions ; to have to employ your liigh- 
"est faculties in the management ot affairs that have a 
direct bearing on your country's glory, and on the 
happiness of her people, tlit^e things, I say, are all 
steps in the education neressary for th unfolding of 
all the speculative and practical faculties of a Nation." 
Without this, " it will laok that instinctive sense of 
liberty, that robustness of character which are essen- 
tial to all healthy and, theref ore, progressive, National 
life ". He appealed to the views taken by eminent 
Englishmen on this matter, giving the following strik- 
ing opinions. Sir Richard Temple, who was hardly 
regarded as a friend of India, said : 

For all that it must be remembered that the elective 
principle is essential to that political training which 
every stable government (like that of the British in India) 
must desire to see possessed by its subjects .... Public 
spirit cannot be created without entrusting the people 
with a part of their own public business, a part limited 
at first, but increasing as' their fitness shall grow. Even 
if political risks should accrue, they must be borne in 



42 HOW INDIA WiaOTKJHtf FOB JPBKKDOM 



performing the duty which the British Government owes 
to the people of India. In that country, a trustful 
policy will he found a wise one, and that which is sound 
morally will prove to be the safest politically. 

Sir John Lawrence, as long ago as 1864, said : 

The people of India are quite capahle of administering 
their own affairs, and the municipal feeling is deejplv 
rooted in them. The village communities, each of which 
is a little republic, are the motit abiding of Indian 
institutions. Holding the position we do in India, every 
view of duty and policy should induce us to leave as much 
as possible of the business of the country to be done by the 
people. 

And Mr. Gladstone, who loved Liberty in his old 
age even more fully than he loved her in his youth, 
declared : 

I hold that the capital agent in determining finally 
the question whether our power in India is or is not to 
continue, will be the will of the two hundred and forty 
millions of people who inhabit India. The question who 
shall have Supreme Rule in India is, by the laws of ri^ht, 
an Indian question ; and those laws of right are from day 
to day growing into laws of fact. Our title to be there 
depends on a first condition, that our being there is 
profitable to the Indian nations ; and on a second 
condition, that we can make them see and understand it 
to be profitable. 

It was England, said the eloquent Pandit, who. had 
created the desire which the Congress was voicing : 

England has moved us from our ancient anchorage. 
She has cast u& adrift, against our will, upon the wide 
waters of a seething proletariat ; and we turn back to 
England, ^ and *ak her to grant us that compass of re- 
presentative institutions by which, amid a thousand storm*, 
she Jhas steered ner prosperous course to the safe havftn of 
regulated political freedom. 



THE THIRD COHGRESS 48 

It was a noble appeal ; but*, like many others, it 
fell upon deaf ears. England sowed the seed of 
Freedom, but when its fair harvest showed itself in 
the Congress, she feared the result of her work, she 
hesitated, and finally sent Lord Curzon to destroy 
her own success j then there came, as there ever 
come, from dammed-up aspirations > unrest and 
trouble, and then coercion and half-hearted reforms, 
and growing trouble, until the War broke out and 
saved the Empire, and gives now the possibility of a 
blessed change, which shall bind together the hearts 
of India and Great Britain if Britain will be as 
wise as Russia. 

Another Pandit, Madan Mohan Malaviya, came 
next, and spoke with the passionate earnestness 
natural to him ; we give a long extract to show how 
reasonable was the plea. It is as alid now as 
then,, for though the Minto-Morley reforms of 1910 
gave some representation, the details were so juggled 
with as to leave the representatives in a hopeless 
minority, and to give them absolutely no control 
over the Budget. 

Allow me to say this much, that, placed as we are in 
bhis country under a foreign Government, however 
benevolent and generous its motives the motive's of 
those who take part in the administration we stand in 
the greatest need of our own representatives in the 
Legislative Councils. Gentlemen, the whole of Europe, 
with the exception of Russia, has declared that the most 
efficient and test form of Government for any country, 
which has made any advance in civilisation, is Govern- 
ment, conducted not solely by tfa pm f o* fche many, but 
to a greater or less extent by thfi many for themselves 



44 HOW JffiJIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 



a Government, in fact, in which the representatives of 
the people have some potential share and if this te 
expedient for European countries, where the rulers anil 
the ruled are of the same Nationality, and where they are 
of the same religion^ I think it must be conceded that it 
is even more essential for India, which is inhabited by 
people whose habits, manners, customs, language, rare 
a.nd creed differ from those of their rulers, If we 
demand for India that there should be representatives 
of her people in the State Councils, we only nk for 
what, not simply Europe, but America, Australia, and 
almost the whole civilised world have declared with on 
unanimous voice to bo essential for any Government that 
is to be suitable to any country, as it is only where the 
representatives of the people are allowed to take part in 
that administration, that the wants and wishes, the aspira- 
tions and grievances of the people can In* adequately set 
forth, properly understood, or duly provided for. *rimt 
being so, gentlemen, I think there cannot possibly Iw t\u> 
opinions on the point, that the reform which we crtno 
for from Government is one so essential for tho well- 
being of this country, that it should b conceded to tin 
without the least avoidable delay. This is now tho third 
time that we have thus been meeting at yearly intervals, 
we have come from every district, from tho most distant 
portions of this Empire, and in many cases, at the cost 
of great personal sacrifice. Wo have nothing personally 
to gain, no selfish aim to serve. We come together, 
chosen by our fellow-countrymen, primarily to pmw 
upon Government tho fact that the country stands badly 
in need of this reform, and that the entire Nation 
prays for it. But, unhappily, Government lm not m 
yet listened to our people a prayer ! 

What is it that we see year after year P People 
assembling from all parts of India from the Panjab, 
Sindh, Assam, Madras, Bengal, Bombay, the K W, 
Provinces, Oudh, the Central Provmc.es, from every 
Province., from every town coming together to implore 
Government humbly to pant this reform, which is, afte* 
all, their birthright as free-born British subjects. It in 



THE THIRD CONGRESS 45 

no desire or motive of self-ambition that brings these 
people together at such heavy cost, and at such great 
personal inconvenience. There is no taint of self-interest 
in the matter. No. Their sole idea is that India, their 
country, of all things stands badly in need of this 
fundamental reform and they hope, and God grant that 
they may not hope in vain, thut their unselfish persistence 
in asking may secure for their native land this groat 
boon! I cannot possibly believe thut there m 
one single educated Indian, who aftor studying this ques- 
tion can rest happy in his mind, without trying III'H very 
best to secure this reform. J cannot possibly belie\e that 
any good man who once really understands what thin re- 
form truly means for his country and his countrymen, for 
his kinsmen, his children and himself, can remain in- 
different to it. And, gentlemen, neither we nor any other 
intelligent Indians are indifferent to it and though thus 
far succe'ss lias not crowned our oiTorls, we must onh go 
up to Government again anda.sk tlnir earliest considera- 
tion of our demands, or of our prayers (call them which 
you will), and entreat thorn, again and again, to concede 
to us this reform Gentlemen, it is nothing \er\ ^reat \\ti 
are asking them to do. The Hritish (Jo\ eminent has al- 
ready made this concession to NO man} count new So 
many Colonies, so many British Colonies cnjoj it. Caiuwla, 
the Cape, the Australian Colonies, innumerable smaller 
places, even the so-called Crown (Colonies, except per- 
haps the Fiji Islands and Home purely military, 
posts, all enjoy some measure, and mowt of them 
the fullest measure, of Representative <o\ eminent. 
Britain has granted or conceded this rnzictuumm to all 
these places. Why should she withhold it from the 
people of IndjaP Does she think that we are 18 loyal 
than her subjects in other lands P Australia would breJc 
with her to-morrow if she ventured to prevent Antrttlia, 
from taxing British goods, while we, in all ood temper, 
accept an odious income-tax, vilely administered, and 
imposed not to meet the expenses of our own Govern ratnt, 
but to provide funds to enable Great Britain to annex 
Burma or menace Russia. Does she think we are not 
prepared for t ; ks privilege P I thiafc this Ty Oongrew i* 



4t& HOW INDIA ^SOUGHT FOB fBBBBOM 

proof positive of our ripeness for the task, and of the in- 
telligence and knowledge which would be brought to bear 
upon the affairs of the nation if only the Government 
were kind enough to accede to our wishes. 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya laid great stress 
on the neglect of Indian affairs in Parliament, as a 
cogent reason why India herself should be allowed to 
look after them. He quoted Mr. Bradlaugh, M.P., 
who spoke strongly in the House on this neglect : 

Last year the Budget was considered on June iJlst 
and the year before on August 6th. It was not right to 
leave to the last moment of the Session the only oppor- 
tunity that was afforded to Parliament of considering the 
wishes and the grievances of the 200,000,000 of people 
whom we rule. That any Parliamentary control should 
be exercised over the affairs of India was impossible, when 
the Indian Budget figured upon paper a the 8th order 
upon one of the last days of au expiring Session. 

Was it any wonder that India felt indignant P At 
this very Budget debate, said the Pandit, 29 members 
had been present in the House of Commons out of 676 : 
" How would they like their own affairs to be treated 
in that way ? Would they, I repeat, stand it, for one 
week ? " " They will not do their duty by the country 
themselves, and they will not allow us to do it," 

Many other members spoke, and one of them, 
Mr. A. Kumar Dutt, who brought" a petition, from 
over 45,000 persons asking for reform, told of the 
interest of the people of his Province in the question, 
and how a Ohandala (the lowest cla.flfl of outoaste) 
had come forward after his lecture, forgetting all 
his surrounding and saying : " We are going to 
have our own men to be our Legislators , that is 



THE THIRD CONGRESS 47 

very good, that is very good." At another, a vary 
poor Musalman came forward with a four-anna bit 
" to help on your cause ". Another Mttsalman ex- 
plained to an enquirer : " Look here, as we elect our 
arbitrators and as we hold ourselves bound by the 
decisions of such people, so let us elect our own men 
to be our Legislators, and they will pass laws by 
which we will gladly be bound." As the speaker 
said, the common people have common sense. The 
Resolution was put and carried unanimously. 

On the third day, December 29th, the third resolu- 
tion, demanding the separation of executive and 
judicial functions was put and earned unanimously, 
but the feeling in favour of it was so .strong that two 
hours were occupied nrfcpoeches in support of it. It 
is interesting to note that it was moved by Mr. N. 
Subramaniam, an Indian Christian Barrister, and 
seconded and supported by men of the most diverse 
opinions on non-political questions. 

Resolution IV wan moved by Mr. Norendranath 
Sen, who pithily remarked that India needed to be 
" equally qualified for Self-Government in times of 
peace, and Self-Defence in times of war ". Mr. 
Saligram Singh seconded. As the original form only 
asked admission for the "sons of noblemen and 
gentlemen of all classes resident in India/* amend- 
ments were proposed, widening its scope, and it was 
finally passed in the all-embracing form found m the 
list of Resolutions. 

Resolution V was the same as Resolution XII of 
the Congress of 1886, but is jJotewQ*% for the 



48 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POR FREEDOM 

speech of Mr, (now Sir) Sankaran Nair, who pointing 
to the troubled state of affairs, and the likelihood of 
England being involved in war, asked if Indian 
civilisation was " to be broken into and destroyed by 
Northern invaders." He went on : 

Of course, we have this much freedom, that we have 
full liberty to offer our prayers for the success of the 
British Government. But prayers, 1 fear, are not likely 
to be of much use to us or to them. IB the peace and 
tranquillity, I say, which w.e now enjoy, to be ravished from 
us, without our voices being hoard, our urmu being 
raised in the settlement of the dispute IP It appears to 
me absurd to entertain such an idea. It appears to me 
intolerable, the more especially aw even the English 
themselves cannot assert what the* ruHult of the 
struggle here is likely to be, if India continues 
debarred from helping herself and them. It is impossible 
to foresee what will happen, if this policy of (Jovern- 
ment, of refusing our co-operation, IH persisted in. It 
appears to be absolutely suicidal and wo only hope, 
equally for our own and their nakoN, that the Kngiish may 
not some day regret that sho has refused, while there 
was yet time, and we could have IKUUI trained into 
serviceable allies, those prayers which wo ha\e so 
repeatedly put up in regard to this matter. The Russians 
have armed their foes of yesterday to light on thir own 
behalf to-day, and the result shows that they have been 
justified in their action. Have we been less loyal to the 
British than the Turkomans to the Kussians, whom they 
fought with only yesterday P They lie who Hay that our 
loyalty cannot be depended upon in the hour of danger. 

Some very earnest and warm speeches were deli- 
vered, the feeling as to the Busman menace being 
very strong. The Resolution was carried unani- 
mously, and the Congress then turned to the lees 
exciting question of the income-tax, which was 
discussed in a very business-like way, and the 



THB THIRD CONGEEflS 49 

Resolution thereon was carried unanimously; 
therewith the business of the day ended. 

On the following day, Resolution YII was very 
earnestly and competently discussed ; a working 
carpenter sent with two other artisans from Tanjore 
made a very sensible speech, saying, among other 
things : 

These factories and workshops, gentlemen, wHen they 
spring up, will be a source of gaining an honest liveli- 
hood to thousands of our countrymen who now, destitute 
of any means, are driven to despair how to keep body 
and soul together. And, gentlemen, how welcome will 
be the day for India, when, by the immense and growing 
development of- her arts and industries, she will be able 
to find at least a wholesome morsel of food for her 45 
millions of completely destitute children, who are now, 
by official admission, goin^ without even one single full 
meal a day. 

How the^e words recall Shelley's apostrophe to 
Liberty : 

To the labourer thou art bread, 
And a comely table spread. . . 
No, in countries that are free 
Such starvation cannot be 
As in England now we see. 

Change " England " into India. 
The official Report of the Congress remarks on 
this: 

Referring to Mr. Mookkanasari's concluding words, it 
may not be amiss to explain that it is due to no want of 
sympathy -for the miserable half -starving millions of their 
fellow-countrymen that so little has been said during 1 
this, last Congress of that cruel poverty which is 
year fcj year decimating the lowest classes and 



50 HQW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

as many, perhaps a majority, believe is surely, if 
slowly, creeping higher up the social scale. The 
fact simply 'is that since the resumption of 
the aggressive annexive policy and the enormous 
increases " of taxation, that have, thus far, been the chief 
features of Lord DufHerin's administration, the Indian 
community despair of obtaining any material alleviation 
of the misery they see around them, until they can secure 
a potential voice in the administration, and it is this 
conviction, more than, anything else, that is giving such 
an intense earnestness to their efforts in the direction of 
representation. 

After this a Resolution to repeal the Arms Act 
came up, and gave rise to what the official record 
calls " an animated, almost fiery, discussioi* which 
lasted some Lours ". It was a question then, as 
now, which cuts Indians to the quick j as the record 
says : " No native of India may possess or carry arms 
without special licence, whereas Europeans, Eurasians, 
Negroes., Hottentots or Fiji Islanders, any scum of 
the earth, even, that the ocean casts on India's shores, 
may wear arms unquestioned." That is the sting ; 
any foreigner may bear arms; the native of the country 
may not. And it is very curious that Indians carried 
arms after the Sepoy Rebellion, and were not forbidden 
them until 1878. The mover of the Resolution, Rao 
Bahadur Sabapati Mudaliar spoke of the degradation 
and the slur imposed by the Act, and the practical 
hardship to the farmers and ryots, unable to protect 
themselves from wild beasts and robbers. It was 
seconded by Mr. Bepin Chandra Pal who though 
wanting no weapon himself but his steel pen and his 
sharp tongue demanded the repeal of the Act to save 
thousands of men and women from being killed ty 



THE THIRD CONGRESS 51 

tigers and leopards,, and also because the Act " is 
wrong in principle, injurious in its effect, and is simply 
suicidal to the Government ". An amendment in 
favour of modification instead of repeal was proposed, 
and after much discussion, Resolution VIII was car- 
ried as printed below, the first of many appeals, as 
righteous as they were, and are, useless. 

Mr. A. 0. Hume then brought up the report of the 
Committee appointed by Resolution I, giving a long 
series of tentative rules, and proposed that they 
should be circulated to all Standing Committees, and 
reported with suggestions next year. The Resolution 
No. IX was seconded by Dr. Trailokyanath Mitra 
and agreed to. Allahabad was chosen for the next 
Congress, and the formal last Resolution passed. The 
Congress then closed with the usual vote of thanks. 

Lord Connemara, the Governor of Madras, Sir 
Savalai Ramasami Mudaliar, C. I. E., the Sheriff, 
and Mr. Eardley Norton, an English barrister, practis- 
ing in Madras, gave entertainments to welcome the 
members, and the whole atmosphere of Madras seems 
to have been friendly. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Constitution 

T. That a Committee is appointed, consisting of the gentlemen 
(marginally enumerated*) to consider what rules, if any, may now 
be usefully framed in regard to the constitution and working of the 
Congress, with instructions to report thereon to the Congress, on the 
30th instant. 

* Messrs. Nam Joshi, Ohandavarkar, Mir Qtcmaynn Jah 
Bahadur, Hajee Mahomed Abdul Shakoor Badshaw Sahib, S. Subra- 
mania Iyer, W. S. Gantz, Bangiah Naidu, Surendranath Bannerji, 



52 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Trailokyanath Mitra, Kali Charan Bannerji, Guru Prasad Sen, 
Saligram Singh, Ramkali Ghaudhuri, Hafiz Abdul Bahim, Bampal 
Singh, Pandit Madan Mohun, Ganga Prasad Yarma, Bishen Narayen 
Bar, Hamid All, Murlidhar, Satyanand Agnihotri, H. H. Dhruva, 
W, C. Bannerji, Norendranath Sen, Bardley Norton, Joy Govind 
Shome, Iswari Lai Sircar, G. Subramania Iyer, D. A. Khare, 
8. A. Saminada Iyer, Sahapathy Mudaliar, A 0. Hume, 0. Vijiya 
Baghava Charlar, Govind Bnksh, Karandikar. 

IX. That the rules drafted by the Committee appointed under 
Resolution I, stand over for consideration till next Congress, but 
that r in. the meantime, copies be circulated to all Standing Congress 
Committees, with the request that they will, during the coming year, 
act in accordance with these rules, so far as this may seem to them 
possible and desirable, and report thereon to the next Congress, 
with such farther suggestions as to them may seem meet. 

Representative 

II. That this Congress re-affirms the necessity for the 
expansion and reform of the Council of the Governor-General for 
making Laws, and the Provincial Legislative Councils, already set 
forth in Resolutions III of the Congresses of 1885 and 1886, and 
expresses the earnest hope that the Government will no longer delay 
action in the direction of this essential reform. 

Iiegal 

IIL That this Congress once again places on record an ex- 
pression of the universal conviction that a complete separation of 
the Executive and Judicial functions (such that in no case the -two 
functions shall be combined in the same officer) has become an 
urgent necessity, and declares that, in its opinion, it behoves the 
Government to effect this separation, without further delay, 
even though this should, in some provinces, involve some extra 
expenditure. 

Military 

IV. That in view of the loyalty of Her Majesty's Indian 
subjects, this Congress considers it desirable that the Queen's 
Proclamation should be given effect to ; that the Military Service in 
its higher grades should be practically opened to the natives of this 
CQuntry, and that the Government of India should establish Military 
Colleges in this country, whereat the natives of India, as defined by 
Statute, maybe educated and trained for a military career as officers 
of the Indian Army. 

71 -That in view of the unsettled state of public affairs, in 
itavope, and the* immense assistance that the people of this country, 
if dnly prepared therefor^are^ capable of rendering to Great Brita% 



THE THIRD CONGRHSS 58 

in the event of any serious complications arising, this Congress one* 
again earnestly appeals to the Government to authorise (under such 
rules and restrictions, as may to it seem fitting,) a system of volun- 
teering for the Indian inhabitants of the country, such as may 
qualify them to support the Government, effectively, in any crisis. 

VIII. That in view of the loyalty of the people, the hardshipc 
which the present Arms' Act (XI of 1878) causes, and the unmerited 
slur which it casts upon the people of this country, the Government 
be moved so to modify the provisions of Chapter IV and, if necessary, 
other portions of the said Act, as shall enable all persons to possess 
and wear arms, unless debarred therefrom, either as individuals or 
members of particular communities or classes, by the orders of the 
Government of India (or any local authority empowered by the 
Government of India on that behalf) for reasons to be recorded in 
writing and duly published. 

Taxation 

VI That as the administration of the Income-Tax, especially, 
as regards incomes below Us. 1,000, has proved extremely unsatis- 
factory, it is essential, in the opinion of the Congress, that the tax- 
able minimum be raised to Bs. 1,000, the loss of revenue thus in- 
volved, being made good, and further financial difficulties, if any, 
met, by reductions in the existing public expenditure, or, should 
this prove impossible, by the re-imposition of an import duty on the 
finer classes of cotton goods. 

Educational 

VII. That having regard to the poverty of the people, it is 
desirable that the Government be moved to elaborate a system of 
Technical Education, suitable to the condition of the country, to 
encourage indigenous manufactures by a more strict observance of 
the orders, already existing, in regard to utilising such manufac- 
tures for State purposes, and to employ more extensively, than at 
present, the skill and talents of the people of the country. 

Formal Business 

_ X. That the Fourth Indian National Congress assemble at 
Allahabad, on the 26th December, 1888. 

XI. That copies of these [Resolutions be forwarded to His 
Excellency the Vicerov-m-Council with the humble request, that he 
will cause all the Resolutions to be laid before Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State for India, and that he himself will be graciously 
pleased, in consultation with his colleagues, to accord them his 
best consideration. 



CHAPTER IV 

" THE Fourth. Indian National Congress was heralded 
by a tumultuous outbreak of opposition." Thus re- 
marks the official Record, on beginning its summary 
of the Fourth Congress, that of 1 888. It met in 
Allahabad, and Sir Auckland Colvin signalised him- 
seJf by his opposition, while Lord Dufferin, the 
Viceroy, had the bad taste to attack it and brand it as 
seditious in a banquet given him on his leaving office. 
The most outrageous efforts were made to prevent 
ite being held in Allahabad. The Chairman of the 
Reception Committee recounted, in his speech of 
welcome, the obstacles which the Committee had had 
to surmount, for all the re-aetionary and tyrannical 
elements in India had risen against the Congress, terri 
fied at ite growing strength. They were first informed 
that they could use the Khusro Bagh, but the per 
mission was, a little later, withdrawn. Then, in 
April, they were given permission to rent a large 
piece of waste land near the fort /faw months later the 
rent was returned, with the information that it was 
retused on .sanitary grounds. Thirdly, they secured a 
qpoup of houses belonging to friends, but these were 
Bear The Pioneer office- and as this was intolerable to 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 55 

ike stately journal, and some of the houses were with- 
in Cantonment limits, the military authorities refused 
to allow these to be used, and so all were rendered 
impossible. Finally, just seven weeks before the 
meeting while the authorities were chuckling over 
their success a representative of the Reception 
Committee slipped quietly over to Lucknow, with a 
carefully drawn lease and the rent in his pocket, went 
to a, Nawab whose splendid house in Allahabad, 
standing in large grounds, happened to be vacant, and 
persuaded him to accept the rent and sign the lease. 
On the very next day, the Reception Committee walked 
in and took 'possession, and Lowther Castle, in the 
very middle of the civilian quarter, nodded to its next- 
door neighbour, Government House, where Sir Auck- 
land Colvin fumed in helpless wrath. It was outside 
the Cantonments, so the military authorities could not 
again interfere, and the lease foiled the civilians. So 
there the Congress met, and a huge pandal 
was raised, seating 5,000 persons, while a splendid 
shamiana (tent) lent by the Maharaja of Darbhanga, 
served as a general reception room, and another 
was lent by a Muharnmadan nobleman to serve as a 
reading-room, almost every paper in India except 
the Anglo-Indian being sent gratuitously ; round 
these arose blocks of tents, divided by wide roads, 
each block having its own dining and meeting halls, the 
whole forming a finely decorative city, while Lowther 
Castle itself was used for the President, Secretaries 
and leading delegates, with all the business oHices. 
A quarter was set aside for shops, where salesmefc 



56 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FftEBDOM 

tiered the beautiful Indian manufactures of fheU. P., 
butj the Eeport says, spirituous liquors and intoxi- 
cants of all kinds were rigidly excluded. 

An attempt at counter-opposition to the Congress 
movement was made, and some Anti-Congress Associ- 
ations were formed, attended by the officials, adding 
much warmth and enthusiasm to the Congress ; and 
many secret gifts reached it at Lowther Castle, the 
Nicodemuses coming by night and the anxiety that 
the names of the givers should not be known being 
pathetic. Nor was it unreasonable, for one means of 
oppression often resorted to then, as now, was 
demanding heavy security for good behaviour, with- 
out any charge being made. A gentleman who had 
attended the Madras Congress, "in defiance of his 
district officer, a most rabid anti-Congressman," was 
called on to give security of B-s. 20,000 to keep the 
peace. He gave it and went away, feeling that if he 
appealed and won his case, there would be some 
serious charge made up against him by the police. 
" In one district of the Panjab, in one year, security 
for good behaviour, etc., was demanded from between 
5,000 and 6,000 people. Free English people should 
realise something of all this, before they condemn our 
poor people too strongly for not having the courage 
of their convictions." This was written in 1889, long 
"before there was any " unrest ". 
The Report says : 

Whether there is any wisdom in a system of persecu- 
tion, that, while it stimulates -to greater activity m secret, 
keeps nearly three-fourths of a movement like the 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 57 

Congress out of sight, we must leave it to others to decide. 
But this much is certain : The Congress idea has now 
obtained such a hold upon the mind of the country that no 
earthly power can extinguish it. If ten thousand of the 
most prominent Congressmen were deported to-morrow, 
the idea would still creep on, spreading from mind to 
mind, till it had seized every man, woman and child 
amongst the Indian population, ever growing stronger and 
stronger in every mind which had received the seed. It 
is essentially beneficent in its character and, in its open 
growth, instinct with peace and goodwill to men. Official 
opposition and persecution will not only add to its growth, 
but will operate to convert an open, above-board, 
constitutional movement, into a secret, underground, and, 
therefore, unconstitutional one. There was towards the 
close of Lord Lytton's administration a great deal of secret 
organisation for unavowe'd, and, probably, even to its 
originators scarcely understood, purposes: though none 
who have studied history can doubt in what this would 
have eventuated. It has been the chief glory of the 
Congress movement that, aided by the enthusiasm elicited 
t>y good Lord Ripon's sympathetic rule, it has swept away 
all this fungoid undergrowth, and sweetened all political 
agitation by working it out into the wholesome light of 
the open day. It will be the fault of the Bureaucracy 
and the Bureaucracy alone if, by the uncpnstitutional 
abuse of their authority and powers, they drive a portion 
of the national energy back into the old, disused and 
illegitimate channels. 

Alike for England and India, whose fortunes are 
now inextricably interwoven, no more gravely significant 
question exists at the present day for consideration. If 
England only invites and welcomes the confidence of 
India, and receives, with kindly consideration, the loyal 
suggestions (not necessarily adopting all, but treating 
them with the respect to which they are entitled) of the 
Congress witfcl,-year by year, more and more thoroughly 
represent the ,views of the whole thinking portion of the 
nation, all wiH be well for both countries, As a great 
Indian Prince recently said, after hearing the resolutions 



58 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FKEEDQM 

passed at the several Congresses : " If only these things 
be conceded, the rule of the British in India will last for 
ever." But if Viceroys and other high functionaries are 
to be permitted to sneer'at and misrepresent the aspira 
tions of a great nation, if subordinate officials are to be 
allowed unconstitutionally to oppose loyal political 
movements and persecute honest and earnest men for 
temperately and candidly setting forth what they hold to 
be their grievances and the best methods of redressing 
these if England fancies, in a word, that she *can. 
maintain by fear a rule that only love can immortalise, 
then serious troubles only too probably await both 
countries. 

The development of the Congress movement during 
1888 was very great ; hundreds of thousands of 
pamphlets and leaflets were distributed, hundreds' 
of men travelled and gave lectures, and, as a result, 
three millions of men " took a direct part in the 
elections for the delegates ". In Calcutta the women 
of some of the highest Hindu families discussed the 
" Kangress," and in Allahabad some even quarrelled 
with old friends because they were " anti " some 
even did puja (offered worship) for it. The result of 
all this was that the number of delegates attending 
doubled that of Madras in 1887 ; 1,500 were elected 
and 1,248 attended. They were thus made up 

Madras 95 

Bombay and Sindh ... ., ... ... 163 

Paniab 80 

1ST. "W. P. &0udh 583 

0. P. & Berar 73 

Bengal, Behar, Orissa & Assam ... ... 254 

248 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 50 

Moulvi Muhammad Hidayut Rasul explained the 
large band of delegates from Oudh as " due to the 
kindness of our brethren in the Aligarh camp the 
opponents of the Congress" This doubling of 
delegates was the more remarkable, as each delegate 
was, for the first time, required to pay a fixed fee 
before taking his seat. 

The Congress opened on December 26th, 1888, 
at 2 p.m,, the Hon. Pandit Ayudhianath, the Chairman 
of the Reception Committee, in the chair. He gave 
the details above mentioned as to their tribulations 
in house-hunting, and protested warmly against the 
unwarrantable accusations made by Sir Auckland 
Colvin and Lord Dufferin, resenting especially the 
letter of the former to " our most esteemed but much 
abused friend, Mr. Hume" 

The Hon. Mr. Pherozeshah Mehta proposed and 
Sardar Dayal Singh seconded the election of Mr. 
Yule as President. Sheikh Raza Hassein Khan, in 
supporting the election, produced a Fatwa, support 
ing the Congress, from the Shamsululma, the leader of 
the Suuni community of Lucknow, and declared that 
" it is not the Muhammadans, but their official 
masters, who are opposed to the Congress " 

Mr. Yule, in his presidential speech, argued for the 
right of representation, pointing out that in 1858, the 
objection raised to the Bill for the Government of 
India brought in by Lord Palmerston was that it 
gave no representation. 'Mr. Disraeli, succeeding 
almost immediately, brought in another Bill, in which 
he regretted that the unsettled state of the country 



60 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FBEEDOH 

made representation impossible at that time, and sug 
gested a queer hybrid scheme which was withdrawn, 
and a third scheme was brought in, a provisional one, to 
continue while education spread so as to enable the poli- 
tical powers of Indians to be enlarged. The House of 
Commons, meanwhile, was to regard India as "a 
great and solemn trust committed to it by an all-wise 
and inscrutable Providence ". " The 650 odd mem- 
bers," said Mr. Yule caustically, had thrown the trust 
" back upon the hands of Providence, to be looked 
after as Providence itself thinks best ". The Congress 
was only asking for that which, thirty years before, 
the Government declared to be desirable. India had 
an immense trade, but no member of the mercantile 
class had power to influence the laws controlling it. 
India paid 77,000,000 in taxes, and not a man of the 
country had a voice in its disposal. It had 3,300,000 
students, a number only lately reached in England, and 
they should supply material for some representatives. 
" In England, we should be trusted citizens. In India, 
well, the charitably minded among our opponents say 
that we are incipient traitors." 

A Subjects' Committee was then elected, the 
country being divided into Circles, and a number of 
members being appointed to each, 106 in all, each 
circle electing its own members. 

The first thing next day was the presentation of 
a silver casket containing rupees to the President, 
the rupees for Congress expenses, the casket for 
himself. Resolution I up to the words " Resolution IV 
of the Congress of 1886," was then proposed 



THE rOTJBTH CONGRESS 61 

by the Hon. Mr. K. T, Telang, who, in moving 
it, effectively answered Sir Auckland Colvin's and 
Lord Bufferings attacks. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji 
seconded, remarking that he was thankful for 
the opposition to the Congress. " Causes the 
noblest, the most beneficent, the most far reaching 
in their consequences for good, have never pros- 
pered or triumphed except under the stress of 
adverse criticism." Moreover Lord Dufferin's attack 
had reached the English Nation, and Mr. Gladstone, 
who three months before had not known the pro- 
gramme of the Congress, had said, speaking at a 
great meeting : _" It will not do for us to treat with 
contempt, or even with indifference, the rising 
aspirations of this great people." Mr. Bannerji 
remarked on the extreme moderation of their pro- 
posals and in truth they were absurdly moderate. 
They asked to substitute for the one-third non-official 
members who were nominated, one half non-official 
members, who should be elected ; they asked that the 
Budgets for which they supplied the money should be 
submitted to them, and that they should have the 
right of interpellation and calling for papers. 27 
years have passed, and these demands are but very 
partially granted. Pandit Bishan Narayan Dhar 
assured his hearers that " if you go on making your 
appeal with fairness, courage and moderation to the 
great English Nation, they will assuredly respond to 
your prayers, for as the harp responds to the harper's 
touch, so does the great deep heart of England 
respond to every reasonable prayer for justice and 
C 



62 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR JFREEDOM 

freedom ". A very beautiful simile, and it is true, 
except in the case of India, where the harp has been 
touched for thirty years, and has not yet moved that 
heart to respond. 

Lala Lajpat Rai whose name, so loved and 
honoured now, appears for the first time among the 
Congress speakers very usefully quoted the 
opinions of Sir Syed Ahmed, who was a strong 
opponent of the Congress, but who, in his book, 
Ccvuses of the Indian Revolt , written in 1858, had 
stated "that the people should have a voice in 
its Councils " was necessary to the stability of the 
Government, so as to " warn us of dangers before they 
burst upon and destroy us ". " The evils which came 
to India/' wrote Sir Syed, " from the non -admission 
of natives into the Legislative Councils of India were 
various/' At the time Sir Syed wrote, even 
nominees of Government to the Council were not 
allowed. 

Mr. S. Eamaswami Mudaliar placed a simple fact 
before the Congress, showing that the Resolution did 
not advocate a leap in the dark : 

Gentlemen, while we are humbly praying our Govern- 
ment to grant us some small representative element in the 
Government, we have actually got full-blown represen- 
tative institutions flourishing in this country under our 
very noses. I do not know whether you are aware how 
they are flourishing in Pondicherry and other places 
whicL are subject to the French Government. England 
will not as yet allow us the smallest modicum of repre- 
sentative institutions, but in Pondicherry every man has 
a right to elect his representative. He enjoys manhood 
suffrage ! Not only that, but the people of Pondicherry 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 63 

have got a member of their own in the Chamber of 
Deputies and another in the Senate. Then in Pondi- 
cherry itself they have got a Council which is called the 
Council- General, and which meets every year, and this is 
an elective body elected by the whole people. Before 
this Council is placed the Annual Budget, and the Bud- 
get is fully discussed by the members. The 'Budget is 
there threshed out by that body, and it is not until, after 
this discussion, it has been approved that it comes into 
operation. Gentlemen, it is said that we are not fit for 
representative institutions, but it is our fellow country- 
men, our relatives in many cases, no better educated than, 
and in no wise different from ourselves, whom the French 
Government has found to be fitted, not only for the small 
instalment of representative institutions that we ask for, 
but for fully-developed representative institutions, inclu- 
ding manhood suffrage, which none of us ever even dream 
of demanding. I commend this fact to the careful con- 
sideration of our opponents, who deny our fitness for even 
those small reforms we crave. 

It would hardly be possible to imagine ah argu- 
ment more cogent, a contrast more poignant. 

A most extraordinary incident then occurred. Raja 
Shiva Prasad, who had become notorious as a leader 
of the anti-Congress movement, had by some curious 
accident obtained election at a public meeting at 
Benares, and claimed his seat as a delegate. He 
rose to move an amendment, and used his time in 
attacking the Congress and presented as an amend- 
ment a draft of a petition to the Lieut.-Governor, 
quoting without references supposed statements made 
in unnamed pamphlets and articles, till the President 
stopped him, as the petition was in no sense an 
amendment ; whereupon the egregious Raja sat down, 
the Congress became serious again. A proposal 



64 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB PKEEDOM 



made, seconded and accepted, to add to the Be- 
solution the concluding words as printed, and it was 
then carried unanimously. 

Mr. Eardley Norton made a vigorous speech in 
moving Resolution II; he quoted the views of Sir 
Robert Peel and Mr. Charles Grant. Sir Robert Peel 
had declared that the duty of England was "to 
endeavour while we still keep them under British 
rule, to atone to them for the sufferings they endured, 
and the wrongs to which they were exposed in being 
reduced to that rule, and to afford them such 
advantages and confer on them such benefits as 
may in some degree console them for the loss 
of their independence. These, Sir, are considera- 
tions which, whatever may be the anxiety to extend 
British conquest, and to maintain the rights of 
British subjects, must indisputably be entertained 
in a British Parliament." The fact is that during 
the rule of the East India Company, Parliament 
interfered at 20 years' intervals to check the oppres- 
sion of the Indian people. After 1858, Parliament 
grew indifferent, and a Bureaucracy developed, Mr. 
Norton said that, as an Englishman, he was ashamed 
of England's broken promises to India. He quoted 
the Duke of Argyll, who said that they had not ful- 
filled " the promises and engagements which we have 
made," and Lord Lytton who said that "the Indians 
had been " cheated " of their hopes. The Hon. Mr. 
Pherozeshah Mehta briefly seconded, but the Resolu- 
tion was not in the form finally passed, but approved 
and recited the report bj the Congress of 1886, 



Qttfi IWRTH COKGKE8S 65 

Mr, John Adam moved and Mr. Sankara Menon 
seconded an amendment, acknowledging that the 
proposals of the Public Services Commission were an 
improvement, and reaffirming Resolution IV of the 
Congress of 1885. On this the Congress adjourned 

The third day began by sending a telegram ot 
thanks and good wishes to Mr. John Bright, then 
lying ill, and after this Mr. Ramaswami Mudaliar 
moved another amendment, suggesting that the 
consideration of the questions dealt with by the Public 
Service Commission be postponed to the next Con- 
gress, and the Hon. Mr. K. T. Telang seconded. Then 
Mr. Monomohan Ghose proposed Resolution II as it 
stands below, and Mr. N. D. Chandavarkar seconded. 
The original resolution and the various amendments 
were withdrawn, and the Resolution unanimously 
carried. 

Resolution III, re-affirming Resolution XI of the Con- 
gress of 1886 was carried unanimously, and then Re- 
solution IV, embodying three former ones, was carried, 
the only noticeable point being the first appearance of 
Mr. N. Subba Rao as a speaker. I like to note the 
coming on to the stage of one after another of our 
present workers. 

Perhaps one of the most sarcastic and effective 
speeches ever delivered on the Police introduc- 
ed Resolution V on Police Administration; the 
mover was Munshi Sajjad Husain, the editor 
of the Lucknow Pvmch. He spoke in Urdu, but 
even the translation is delightful. The British 
Government had bestowed on them many blessings, 



06 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

and had also given them the Police. No Lieut.- 
Governor, no Viceroy, had such power over his com- 
fort as a simple chowkidar or his honour the constable. 

The humblest labourer in the village, the most 
exalted- noble in the city, are equally under the control 
of tnese distinguished officials. There is no place, no 
spot, wh'&re Their Highnesses the Police, like the Angel 
o$ Death, are not present. Let a man displease them in 
the slightest, and see the beneficence of our kind Police. 
He may know nothing about it, but there will be a 
criminal case filed against him, and arrangements made 
for requiring him to give security for good behaviour, 
before he can reach his home. 

On the whole, the editor of Punch thought that 
the Police were more troublesome to the honest 
people than to the thieves and badrnashew, and the 
investigation into a theft was more annoying than 
the robbery. So let other people advocate reforms 
of Legislative Councils and other such questions. 
He wanted the reform of the Police. 

Mr. R. N. Mudholkar seconded the Resolution in 
an admirable speech, pointing out that the policeman, 
who ought to be loved, was detested, because, being 
shamefully underpaid and quite illiterate, he was 
invested with enormous powers, so that he could 
annoy and insult all around him with impunity. Mr. 
Pringle noted the importance of the Resolution, be- 
cause the police, like the poor, were always with us, 
and he gave instances of their ill behaviour, declaring 
"hat " to the character and conduct of the police in 
my own part of the country I can speak with confi- 
dence, and can boldly assert that it leaves almost 
everything to be desired ". One after another rose, 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 67 

all speaking in the same strain, and the Resolution, 
asking for a Commission of Enquiry, was carried 
unanimously. 

Then came the reaffirmation .of three military re- 
solutions passed at previous Congresses, and much 
stress was laid on the enormous cost of English sol- 
diers, and the remark of Lord Kandolph Churchill 
was quoted that the new taxation, which was wholly 
" a consequence of the foreign rule imposed on the 
country " was " a serious political danger .... of the 
most serious order ". Mr. Ali Muhammad Bhimji 
remarked that he might have a West Indian .servant 
who might carry arms, while his Indian master 
might not.- Amendments were proposed, modifying 
or omitting one part of the Resolution or another ; 
especially as regarded the Arms Act, but the Hon. 
Mr. P. M. Mehta urged that " you cannot and ought 
not to emasculate a whole nation. . . . Remember, 
that when once the Indian people become emas- 
culated, it will be a very long time indeed before yon 
can get them to recover their manliness and their 
vigour," and the Resolution was finally carried by a 
large majority. 

Mr. D. E. Wacha moved a less vigorous form of 
Resolution VII, asking that the Government would 
look into the question of Abkari and Excise, and 
rejoiced that the Congress had taken up the question. 
But an amendment was agreed to, which was shorter 
and more pointed, and was carried unanimously. 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malavij r a proposed Resolu- 
tion VIII, and at the close of his speech warmly 



68 BOW IttlttA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

protested against the assertion by a -high official that 
the promises in the Queen's Proclamation of 1858 
" were made more as a matter of policy than in honest 
good faith," and read an extract from a letter from 
the Queen, showing Her Majesty's wish that the 
Indians should be " placed on an equality with the 
subjects of the British Crown," and saying that she 
was " giving them pledges which her future reign is 
to Tedeem ". The learned Pandit remarked that " we 
hope and trust they will be soon redeemed ". He is 
still hoping and trusting. 

After other speeches, the Resolution was carried 
and the Congress adjourned. 

The fourth day of the Congress opened with the gift 
of a, hall for the Divisional Congress in the Southern 
Maratha country by Mr. Ramachandra Bahdeva 
Apte, and the mention of innumerable letters and 
telegrams of congratulation. Mr, Adam, the Principal 
of Pachaiyappa's College, then moved Resolution IX 
on Education, saying that they desired " to extend 
primary education, to broaden secondary education, 
and to maintain at the highest now possible, and an 
ever rising level, higher education ", He complained 
that Government policy in education was retrograde, 
and that Schools and Colleges were being closed for 
want of support from the Imperial Government. The 
Hon. Mr. K. T. Telang seconded, complaining that while 
Government had always money for its very varied 
activities, it gave only 1 per cent of its revenues to 
education. Mr, G. Subramania Iyer supported, urging 
that only by the spread of education could the country 




THE FOURTH CONGBB8S 69 

adapt itself to the abandonment of old ways and the 
acceptance of new, brought about by the English 
connexion, and that there was a growing idea, which 
he himself did not share, that the check to higher 
education was an answer to the Congress demands for 
political power. Other speakers followed a nd the 
Resolution was unanimously passed. 

As it was Mr. Gladstone's birthday a telegram 
of good wishes was then sent amid loud applause. 

Rai Tej Narayan Singh Bahadur next moved Reso- 
lution X, asking for a Commission to enquire into the 
industrial condition of the country, and it was second- 
ed by Mr. Ananda Charlu. Some of the delegates 
wished to add riders on emigration and on technical 
schools, but the Resolution as it stood was eventually 
carried. Then Mr. W. C. Bannerji after a pro- 
posal on Land Settlement had been made and with- 
drawn moved Resolution XI, submitting the Reso- 
lutions to the Viceroy and Her Majesty's Government, 
and asking lor a Parliamentary Coimnttee to >ook 
into the grievances complained of. In 1885 the Con- 
gress had asked for a Royal Commission, but they asked 
now only fora Parliamentary Committee as swifter in 
its action, and appealed to Mr. Bradlaugh, M. P., to 
support their prayer. He again declared that the 
British public, " a trufch-loving and a justice-loving 
public/' would give them what they wanted. Pandit 
Bishambhar Nath, in seconding, remarked that if Sir 
Auckland Colvin had been in that assembly, he would 
have seen that " the creation of a healthy 'tone of 
independence in India," which he declared was 



70 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

impossible, was developing hand-in-hand with en- 
thusiastic loyalty to Her Majesty's Throne. After 
four other speakers had supported it, the Resolution 
was carried unanimously. 

Resolution XII was moved by Captain Banon in a 
strong speech, and seconded by Captain Hearsay, who 
pointed out that over 2,000 Indian women were procured 
by Government " for the hideous purpose alluded to," 
that the provision encouraged the boy-soldiers to loose 
living, and that it would be better to encourage the 
soldiers to marry. The resolution was supported by 
Mr. Howard and Moulvi Mu hammed Hafiz, and car- 
ried unanimously. Resolution XIII was then warmly 
supported and passed, so as to avoid the acceptance 
of any resolution dealing with a purely Hindu or 
Muhammadan question 'against the will of those who 
would be affected by it a resolution bearing witness 
to the sagacity and impartiality of the Congress. 

The question of Permanent Settlement, which had 
been withdrawn, was again brought up by a show of 
hands in favour of it, and a resolution on it was pro- 
posed, seconded and supported. The question was 
felt to be of such magnitude, that an amendment, Reso- 
lution XIV, proposed by the Hon. Mr. K. T. Telang, 
was unanimously passed, the original resolution being 
withdrawn. Resolution XV had been rejected by the 
Standing Committee as useless, but was insisted on 
by the Congress and unanimously carried. Bombay 
or Poona was then chosen for the next Congress, and 
Mr. A. 0. Hume was, amid great applause, " re- 
elected " G-eneral Secretary. It is curious that this 



THE FOURTH CONGRESS 71 

is the first resolution on the record with regard to a 
General Secretary, an office filled practically by 
Mr, Hume from the first Congress. His courage, 
the attacks made on him, and his devotion, marked 
him out for the post. 

A vote of thanks to the President followed, and the 
Fourth Congress was dissolved. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Representation 

I Resolved That this Congress affirms the necessity for the 
expansion and reform of the Council of the Governor-General for 
making laws and regulations, and of the existing Provincial 
Legislative Councils, already sot forth in Resolutions III of the 
Congress of 1885 and 1886, and Resolution II of the Congress of 
1887 (a tentative scheme for which expansion and reform was 
Suggested in Resolution IV of the Congress of 1886) , and further 
urges that a Legislative Council (of the same character as those 
which have been suggested for Provinces where Legislative Councils 
already exist) be established for the Pan jab. 

Public Service 

II. Resolved That this Congress, while appreciating the 
concessions proposed in the Report of the Public Service 
Commisbion, yet feels it necessary to put distinctly on record its 
opinion that full justice will never be done to the people of this 
country until the open competitive examination for the Civil 
Service of India is held simultaneously in England and in India. 

Legal 

III. Resolved That this Congress, having read and considered 
Resolution XI of the Congress of 1886, to wit 

(See Resolution XI, 1886) 

and Resolution III of the Congress of 1887, to the same effect, does 
now, hereby, affirm the same respectively. 

IV. Resolved That this Congress, having read and considered 
Resolution VIII of the Congress of 1886, to wit 

(See Resolution VIII, 1886) 
Resolution IX of the Congress of 1886, to wit 

(See Resolution IX, 1886) 
and Resolution X of the Congress of 1886, to wit 

(See Resolution X, 1886) 
does now, hereby, affirm the same respectively. 



72 HOW INDIA WROUGHT TOE FREEDOM 

Police 

Y. Resolved That, as it is the general belief of the people of 
this country that the existing system- of police administration in 
India is highly unsatisfactory in itself and oppressive to them, the 
Government be respectfully urged to appoint a Commission, con- 
sisting of official and non-official members, to investigate the entire 
question as speedily as possible. 

Military 

VI. Resolved That this Congress having read and considered 
Resolution IY of the Congress of 1887, to wit 

(See Resolution IY, 188?) 

Resolution XII of the Congress of 1886, and Resolution Y of the 
Congress of 1887, to wit 

(See Resolution XII, 1886, and Resolution Y, 1887) 
and Resolution VIII of the Congress of 1887, to wit 

(See Resolution VIII, 1887) 
does now, "hereby, affirm the same respectively. 

Temperance 

VII. Resolved That, having regard to the fact that a serious 
increase in the consumption of intoxicants has taken place under 
the systems of Abkari and Excise now prevailing in India, the 
Government be respectfully urged to adopt some such improved 
system as shall tend to discourage insobriety. 

Taxation 

VIII. Resolved That as the administration of the Income Tax, 
especially as regards incomes below Rs. 1,000, has proved extremely 
unsatisfactory, it is essential, in the opinion of the Congress, that 
the taxable minimum be raised to Rs. 1,000. 

Education 

IX. Resolved That this Congress being of opinion that it is 
the first duty of the. British Government in India to foster and 
encourage education, as well general as technical, in all its branches, 
and that the declaration made in the recent resolution of the Govern- 
ment of India on the subject of education is calculated to encourage 
the tendency to reduce imperial expenditure on education, and to 
withdraw from the control of it, -respectfully urges upon Govern- 
ment the extreme importance of increasing, or at any rate of not 
decreasing, the present expenditure on education, and of the 
Government continuing to control the Educational Institutions of 
all kinds now existing. 



1'HB FOURTH CONGRESS 78 

X. Resolved That having regard to the poverty of the people, 
the importance of encouraging indigenous manufactures, and the 
difficulty of practically introducing any general system of technical 
education, with the present imperfect information, Government be 
Amoved to delay no longer the appointment of a mixed Commission, 
'to enquire into the present industrial condition of the country. 

Request for a Parliamentary Committee 

XI. Resolved That the foregoing Resolutions* be submitted 
for the favourable consideration of His Excellency the Viceroy, 1 and 
for transmission by him to Her Majesty's Government, with the 
humble request of this Congress that the reforms suggested in the 
said Resolutions (based as most of these are on Her Gracious 
Majesty's Proclamation -of 1858, may now be effected , and that 
should it be deemed necessary first to institute any enquiry into any 
of the matters forming the subjects of these Resolutions, such enquiry 
may be made, as speedily as possible, by a Parliumontaiy 
Committee. 

Prostitution 

XII. Resolved That this Congress, having watched with 
interest and sympathy the exertions that are being made in England 
for the total abrogation of laws and rules relating to the regulation 
of prostitution by the State in India, places on record its apprecia- 
tion of the services thus rendered to this country, ami its desire to 
co-operate by all moans in its power in the attainment of this laud- 
able object. 

Congress Constitution 

XIII. Resolved That no subject shall be passed for discussion 
by the Subjects Committee, or allowed to be discussed at any Congress 
by the President thereof, to the introduction of which the Hindu or 
Muhammadan Delegates as a body object, unanimously or nax m ly 
unanimously ; and that if, after the discussion of any subject whit h 
has been admitted for discussion, it shall appear that all the Hindu 
or all the Muhammadan Delegates as a body are unanimously or 
nearly unanimously opposed to the Resolution which it is proposed 
to pass thereon, such Resolution shall be dropped , provided that 
this rule shall refer only to subjects in regard to which the Congress 
has not already definitely pronounced an opinion. 

Permanent Settlement 

XIV. Resolved That, the question of the introduction of a 
Permanent Settlement of the Land Revenue Demand into the 
Madras and Bombay Presidencies and other Provinces be referred 
to the several standing Congress Committees, with instructions to 
report upon the same, in so fai? as it affects their respective circles, 
to.the Congress of 1889. 

7 



74 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Salt Tax 

XV. Resolved That this Congress puts on record its dis- 
approval of the recent enhancement of the Salt Tax, as involving a 
perceptible increase to the burthens of the pooi-er classes, as also 
the partial absorption, in a time of peace and plenty, of the only 
Financial Reserve of the Empire 

Formal 

XVI. Resolved That the Fifth Indian National Congress do 
assemble in the Bombay Presidency (either at Bombay itself or at 
Poona, as may be settled hereafter) on the 26th of December, 
]889. 

XVII. Resolved That Mr. A. 0. Hume be re-appointed 
General Secretary for the ensuing year. 



CHAPTER V 

THE Congress of 1889 was signalised by the extra- 
ordinary welcome given by it, and by India, to 
Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M. P., that noble English 
Democrat, who might say with Thomas Paine : " The 
world is my country, and to do good my religion " ; 
for wherever there was a country striving to free 
itself from oppression, there his trumpet-voice rang 
out for Liberty, there he Rtood in the breach to 
defend and to strengthen. " Member for India/' 
he was rightly called, for he spoke for her m the 
Council Chamber of the Empire. 

The Fifth Congress met in Bombay on December 
26th, 1889, and foutfd there warm welcome, the 
clouds which lowered over Allahabad having wholly 
dissolved away. Sir Albert Sassoon lent the site 
for the great temporary Hall, into which 6,000 
people packed themselves, 1,913 of whom were dele- 
gates. 2,500 delegates had been elected, 1,889 register- 
ed their- names, and another 24 paid for their tickets, 
but unfortunately did not register. Glancing over 
the register, wa find people of all professions and 
trades from all parts of the country princes, land- 
lords, peasants, merchants,, conferactoTs, barristers, 



76 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FKEEDOM 

vakils, pleaders, solicitors, attorneys, principals, 
headmasters, professors, teachers, editors, money- 
lenders, bankers, brokers, manufacturers, traders, 
shopkeepers, artisans, doctors, sardars, printers, 
authors, reises, taluqdars, a judge, a mnusiff, nine 
clergymen and missionaries, and ten ladies, seven of 
whom were Indians. A striking fact is the large 
number of merchants and zemindars, and also of 
secretaries of public bodies, municipal commissioners 
and members of boards. The delegates divided by 
Provinces were : 

Madras .. ... .. ... 306 

Bombay and Siudh .. . 8*51 

Pan jab . . . . ... . .. H2 

N.W.P and Oudh 261 

C.P. and Berar 214 

Bengal, Behar, Orissa, Assam . 1(55 



1,889 

Bombay sent 38 delegates to fche Bombay Congress 
of 1885, and to this Bombay Congress in 1889 it sent 
821. There were 2 Muhammadans at the first 
Congress, 254 at the fifth. Comment is needless. 

Mr. Pherozeshah M. Mehta was the Chairman of 
the Reception Committee, and to him fell, therefore, 
the pleasant duty of welcoming the Congress, and 
of asking it to elect formally its President. He spoke 
of " the nationalising tendency which is now so power- 
fully leavening New India,", and after alluding to the 
way in which the Congress had surmounted all diffi- 
culties, he welcomed him " whom we have learned to 
hail as the Member for India in the British House of 



THE FIFTH COKGBBSa 77 

Commons," on whom had descended the mantle of 
John Bright and Professor Fawcett. 

Mr. W. 0. Bannerji then proposed, the Hon. 
Pandit Ayodhyanath seconded, and Raja T. Rama 
Rao supported, the election of Sir William Wedder- 
burn as President, and he took the Chair amid enthu- 
siastic cheers. 

Sir William Wedderburn laid stress on the destruc- 
tion of the safeguards which existed in the time of 
the East India Company in Parliamentary control and 
periodical enquiry by the Crown taking over the 
G-overnment of India in 1858, from which he dated 
India's principal misfortunes. He showed how the 
India Office had strangled the scheme for Agricultural 
Banks, sent up by Lord Ripon, saying that it was not 
" practicable ". " I wonder," said Sir William, 
" whether Sir J. Grorst is aware that in Germany alone 
there are 2,000 such Agricultural Banks m active 
working, and that throughout the Continent of Europe 
it is admitted that without such financial institutions 
the peasant proprietor is absolutely unable to. 
maintain himself without falling into the clutches of 
the village usurer." He praised the work of the 
Congress, and of the Congress Agency in England, 
with " its indefatigable Secretary Mr. William Digby," 
and rejoiced over the going to England of a depu- 
tation to appeal to the people of England " to perform 
their trust and duty towards the unrepresented 
millions of India : appeals to unselfishness, to justice 
and to humanity will ever find a sure response froni 
the great heart of the British people ". The response 



78 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

has not yet reached India ; it has a long way 
to come. 

Two presentations were made to the President, at 
the close of his address, towards the expenses of the 
Congress, with a book and a silver salver as me- 
mentoes for himself. The names of the delegates 
elected from each circle to the Subjects Committee 
among which we note that of Mr. B. G. Tilak were 
then read out, 107 in number, and ratified by Con- 
gress, the President and Secretary making 109, 
sitting on it c,v. vfficio, and the Congress adjourned 
to the following 1 day, leaving the Committee to its 
labours. 

The second day's sitting began with the presentation 
of the report from the Standing Committee of Madras, 
but none other was forthcoming, Mr. Pherozeshah M. 
Mehta then proposed Resolution I ; he said it was impos- 
sible to present all the addresses and telegrams which 
had come pouring in from all parts of the country, so it- 
was better to frame ^n address to Mr. Bradlaugh from 
the Congress and take the rest as read. The Hon. 
Pandit Ayodhyanath and Mr. John Adam seconded 
and supported, and the resolution was carried by 
acclamation. 

The President then opened the important business 
of the day, the reform of the Legislative Councils, 
saying that a draft Bill had been prepared by 
Mr. Bradlaugh and circulated, embodying the view of 
the Congress as so far expressed. Mr. Bradlaugh wish- 
ed to obtain the mature opinion of the Indian people on 
certain matters, so that they might be embodied in 



THE FIFTH CONGRESS 79 

the Bill. Certain proposals had therefore been draft- 
ed, and must be considered. 

Mr. Eardley Norton moved Resolution II with 
the Scheme, giving an outline of principles to be 
embodied in a Bill. The existing Councils were 
shams, and they demanded to be given half of 
each Council, "to do with as we choose". Given 
this principle of election "We shall have the right 
to control ourselves; we shall have the right, to 
a certain extent, to control our taxation ; we shall 
have the right to criticise the Budget , and last, but 
not least, we shall have the glorious privilege of 
interpellation, a right which, if properly applied, 
will inure to the enormous benefit, both of the rulers 
and of the ruled." The indirect method of election 
was proposed, because there was no chance of ob- 
taining direct, and because the various bodies al- 
ready existing, Municipalities, Boards, Universities, 
etc., would really give to Government the power of 
manipulating the electorates. The Hon. Pandit 
Ayodhyaiiath, in seconding, said that the existing 
Councils were a farce, and Pandit Bishen Narayan 
Dhar remarked that if the Government really wished 
to know the opinion of the people, the principle of 
election must be accepted : 

The chief plank of the Congress platform is the 
electwe principle, and we are not going to be satisfied 
with a thing that will be a snare, a mockerj^, and a de- 
lusion, leading men to believe that they have something 
which they do not really possess. What we want is not 
sham, but reality , not shadow, but substance ; not nomi- 
nation, which is another name for deception, but represen- 
tation, which is the essence of political reform. 



80 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FPKEDOM 

Among the speakers who supported the resolution 
were Mr. Gr. Subramania Iyer, Mr. Bepin Chandra 
Pal, Lala Lajpat Kai, Pandit Madari Mohan Malaviya 
who showed, by the increase of the Salt Tax 
and the compelling of the ryot to pay the Patwari 
Cess twice over, how much out of touch with the 
poor were the nominated members and Mr. Suren- 
dranath Banner ji, who once more expressed his 
certainty that there could " come but one response, 
which, I am confident, will be in accord with the great 
traditions of the English people, and will serve to 
consolidate the foundations of British rule in India, 
and to broad-base it upon the affections of a happy, 
prosperous and contented people ". Congress speakers 
show a remarkable readiness to prophesy, with an 
equally remarkable failure to prophesy correctly. 

The Scheme was put clause by clause, and 1 and 2 
passed unchallenged. On clause 3 it was moved, 
unsuccessfully, to strike out the word " male," so that 
qualified women might vote. 

On clause 5 an amendment was moved by Mr. Tilak 
and seconded by Mr. G-okhale, that the Imperial 
Council should be elected by the Provincial Councils, 
instead ofr by the Electoral College. The amendment 
is noteworthy as coming from tw*o strong men, 
speaking in the Congress for the first time, men who 
were to leave on Indian history an ineffaceable mark. 
The amendment wa*s lost, as was another leaving the 
representatives of minorities to be nominated by 
Government. A lively little incident then occurred, one 
of the Musalman delegates making a violent speech, 



THE FIFTH CONGRESS 81 

in which he claimed that his co-religionists should be 
elected in equal numbers with Hindus although the 
population was smaller ; the proposition was seconded, 
but was also opposed by Musalmans, who regarded it 
as unjust ; finally the original clause was carried by 
an overwhelming majority of both communities, and 
the Congress was adjourned. 

The thir4 day, December 28th, was overloaded with 
business, and the Congress, this year, met for three 
days only ; a meeting was fixed at 6 p. m. for the 
presentation of an address to Mr. Bradlaugh, so the 
sitting had to close at 5. The first business was the 
passing of Resolution III, an " Omnibus Resolution," 
in which were re-affirmed, in ten clauses, important 
decisions arrived at in previous Congresses. It was 
moved by Mr. Kahcharan Banner ji, seconded by Mr. 
N. (T. Chandavarkar, and supported by Mr. S. B. 
Senkaram, who stated that lie was a Brahmana and a 
Volunteer, having been admitted to the Vizagapatam 
Rifle Volunteer Corps. The Resolution was then 
carried. 

Resolution IV was proposed by the Rev. *G. M. 
Cobban, and seconded by Mr. D. E. Wacha, who 
pointed out that the House of Commons had directed 
the Government of India to modify their excise policy 
so as to meet the wishes of the people ; "after nine 
months, however, the Government had done nothing. 
The Rev. Messrs. R. A. Hume and Evans supported 
it, and the Resolution was carried uimnmiously. 

Mr. S. Ramaswami Mudaliar theu moved Resolu- 
tion V, and oritioiged very adversely iihe 4es,|9t^ oj 

* * 



82 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

the Secretary of State on the Report of the Public 
Service Commission, making the position of Indians, 
except as to age, worse than it was before the 
Commission, for the Indian officials were compelled 
either to remain in the positions they then held in 
the Statutory Service, or to enter the Provincial 
Service, the members of which were barred from all 
the higher executive offices. Indians, he said, only 
asked for '* a fair field and no favour " ; "we want 
the best men we can get, and if the Europeans can 
beat the Indians in a fail* competition, let them do 
so ". Mr. G-. K. Gokhale seconded the Resolution, 
and spoke plainly and sternly, with the ring of 
steady purpose for which he afterwards became 
famous : 

Fifty-six years have come and gone since the promise 
was first made that no distinction of race or creed or 
colour should be allowed to stand in the way of the- 
prospects of preferment of any native of India. That 
noble promise then made a promise worthy of the 
highest and most generous attitude of England towards 
any of the countries with which she has ever come into 
contact was reiterated in yet stronger terms in the 
proclamation of 1858. The terms of the enactment of 
1833 and of the proclamation of 1858 are so explicit that 
those who now try to withhold from us the privileges 
then assured to us must be prepared to face the painful 
dilemma of hypocrisy or treachery must be prepared to 
admit that England was insincere when she made those 
promises, or that she is prepared to break faith with us 
now. 

Gentlemen, you may -be aware that an English Judge 
famous (or infamous) in a way, did not scruple to accept 
this latter position, and propound the preposterous 
doctrine that the proclamation of 1858 was never meant 



THT5 FIFTH CONGRESS 83 

to be seriously taken. 1 hope however that there are 
not many Englishmen of that kind. With these noble 
promises of 1833 and 1858 before us, I ask yon, are we 
not entitled to say that the least we expect from our 
English rulers is that they should always show a steadily 
progressive tendency towards the fulfilment of these pro- 
mises r 

Mr. Gokhale urged that there were three points, 
betore the Commission sat, of importance to 
Indians: first, competitive examinations; secondly, 
in the Statutory Covenanted Service, one-sixth 
of the posts, by the enactment of 1861, were 
reserved for Indians ; thirdly, the Uncovenantecl 
Service was wholly Indian. The Commission refused 
simultaneous examinations, though " for posts in 
our own country, if we are not to be examined 
in our own country, I do not know what justice and 
equity are ". Secondly, only 108 posts, out of 941 re- 
served for fche Covenanted Service, instead of 158, the 
one-sixth belonging to Indians, might be reserved for 
Indians in the higher branch of the Uncovenanted 
Service, re-named the Provincial Service. The Com- 
missioners recommended that 108 ttlwidd be given ; 
The Secretary of State said may. " We may be given 
108 places, leaving it to the discretion of the Govern- 
ment, and we know what that means. For every one 
of these 108 places that we shall have, 'half a dozen 
will go to the European official class/' The status of** 
Indians was distinctly changed for the worse by the 
Commission, and this is one of the many cases 
in which the Crown which is not Crown but 
Bureaucratic Government nas proved worse tor 




84 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOK FREEDOM 

India than the old East India Company rule. The 
Resolution, supported by Mr. John Adam and 
Mr. All Muhammad Bhimji was unanimously passed. 

The official Report says tha,t a suspicion is " begin- 
ning to gain ground in India, that England's policy 
towards us is changing, and is no longer actuated by 
quite those same noble and lofty motives that, in 
bye-gone days, threw a halo round the British name". 
That suspicion has grown during the 26 years since 
those words were written. Mr. Ali Muhammad Bhimji 
pointed to the Commission of 1860, recommending 
simultaneous examinations ; Lord Stanley had said 
with regard to this, that 

he could not " refrain irom expressing his conviction 
that in refusing to carry on examinations in India as well 
as .in England,* 9, thing that was easily practicable, the 
Government were in fact negativing that which they had 
declared to b* one of the principal objects of their Bill, 
and confining the Civil Service as heretofore to 
Englishmen. The result was unjust and he believed it 
would be most pernicious." Then again Lord Stanley 
further said: "Let them suppose for instance, that instead 
of holding these examinations here in London, they were 
to be held in Calcutta ; \\ ell, how many Englishmen would 
go there, or how many would send their sons perhaps to 
spend two or three years in the rounfay, on the chance of 
obtaining an - appointment ? Nevertheless that was 
exactly the course proposed to be adopted towards the 
natives of India." These are the opinions that were 
expressed at the time, when the Commissioners came 
to the conclusion that simultaneous examinations should 
be held in India, and we are asking nothing more 
nor less than what they decided in 1860; and now 
29 years have gone by, and the prospects then held 
out to us by one of England's wisest statesmen and 
endorsed by a Parliamentary Commission, pro$pucts 



THE FIFTH CONGRESS 85 

based upon our Gracious Queen-Empress' solemn 
promises, have not yet been realised. I know that men 
have been found base enough men traitors alike to 
their Queen and country to assert that our beloved 
Empress' words were no promises, merely emotional 
utterances never intended to be acted upon. But how 
did an honest English statesman treat this dastardly 
stuff t 1 What did Lord Ripon sayP "The document 
(Her Majesty's Proclamation) is not a Treaty, it is not a 
diplomatic instrument ; it is a declaration of principles of 
Government, if it is obligatory at all, it is obligatory in 
respect to all to whom it is addressed The doctrine, 
therefore, to which Sir James Stephen has given the 
sanction of his authority, 1 feel bound to repudiate to the 
utmost of my power It seems to me to be inconsistent 
with the character of my Sovereign and with the honour 
of mv country, and if it \\eve once to be received and 
acted upon by the (lovernrnent of England, it would do 
more than anything else could possibly do to strike at 
the root of our power and to destroy our jnst influence." 

Sir James Fitzjames Stephen was the man of 
whom Mr (lokhale spoke as " an English Judge 
famous or infamous ". But after all, Sir James has 
proved right. 

Next came our old friend' the Arms Act in Resolu- 
tion VI, very carefully worded this year: proposed 
by Mr. John Adam, Seconded by Lala Harbbagavan 
Das, and supported by three othery, it waj? unani- 
mously carried. 

Resolution VII was moved by Mr. Baiknnthnath 
Sen in an able and thoughtful speech, showing the 
historical aspect of the question; lie pointed out 
that a famine in 1860 had led to a Commission, which 
reported in favour of the Permanent Settlement, and 
it was approved in a Despatch from the Secretary 



86 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

of State in 1862, There, however, it had remained. 
Mr. S. Subramania Iyer seconded, and said that, 
" in an inconsiderate moment," he had invested his 
savings in land fifteen years before ; he found that, 
practically, all improvements were taxed, so he told 
his agent not to spend a rupee in improving the land ; 
the revisions prevented improvements being made, 
and no recourse to the Courts against the secret 
orders of the Settlement Department could be 
made. Miuishi Sadar-ud-din Ahmed, supporting, gave 
an instance of a revision by Mr. Colvin later 
the Sir Auckland Colvin who so strongly objected 
to the Congress in which the Government Revenue 
assessment made by him on a village exceeded the 
total gross produce of the village. The poor 
Zemindar, finding Mr. Colvin obdurate to all pray- 
erSj presented a petition, saying that his aged father, 
before his death, had foretold the coming of a 
Settlement Officer " in whose time the people would 
be so miserable and poverty-stricken that in their 
homes would neither be heard the sound of the 
grinding-mill, nor the glimmer of the lamp be seen, 
and that when this came to pass the best thing that 
he could do would be to give up all his rights and 
interests in his village to the Government, and be- 
come a mendicant ". He therefore begged Mr. Colvin 
to put his own name in all the Revenue papers. 
Many others spoke from their own experience, anu 
complained of the ignorance of the Settlement Offi- 
cers. " No civil suit will lie- there is no remedy 
and no justice." One man said he was cruelly 



THE FIFTH CONGRESS 87 

over-assessed, and on asking the officer to visit his fields 
and hear him on the spot, he was told by the officer 
that he " had no time for that sort of thing. No, they 
have no time for anything but to extort money out of 
the poor." And so the sad story went on ; in the old 
times the land assessment covered everything, but 
now : 

" There is the same amount of water in the pot, but 
there are now six holes through which it runs out, when 
before there was but one." 

" We had our cattle in plenty, lots of grazing free, and 
salt to keep them healthy now the land is all taken up 
by the Forest Department and we have no grazing, and 
if the starving herds stray where there is food, they are 
run into the pound and we are fined " 

" We had plenty of wood for our houses, our ploughs, 
for every agricultural purpose ; now it is all under the 
lock and key of the Forest Department, and if we touch 
it without leave we are run in, and if we vv ant a stick 
we have a week's running about from one official to 
another before we get it, and we have to pay, pay, pay. 
We had arms, and \vo could shoot or destroy the wild 
beasts .that ravage our crops, but now we have an Arms 
Act that allows a basket full of arms to every negro rascal 
who lands on our shores, but takes good care that we poor 
cultivators, who need them to protect our subsistence from 
wild animals, are practically debarred from any." 

The peasants are still growing poorer and poorei 1 
under these conditions, while Laud Revenue rises. 
Will none have pity ? 

The Resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr. 1). B. Wacha moved Resolution VIII, which was 
seconded, and carried unanimously. Thanks to Mr. 
Bradlaugh, this Resolution was successful. 



88 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Resolution IX was eminently reasonable, and abso- 
lutely necessary to the good government of India, but 
the House of Commons has, since India was taken 
over by the Crown, lost all interest in Indian affairs. 
Mr. W. C. Bannerji proposed and Mr. Shnrf-ud-din 
seconded. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya spoke 
earnestly and effectively : 

In the year 1883, the House of Commons passed a 
resolution to the effect that in the opinion of that House 
it is necessary that early steps be taken to reduce the 
expenditure of India. Lord Kimberley, our then Secre- 
tary of State, in his despatch, dated the 8th of June 1883, 
urged the Government of India to take the subject of the 
reduction of expenditure into their earliest consideration. 
Lord Randolph Churchill, our next Secretary of State, 
later on, said that " the financial position of India was very 
grave indeed, and required the most careful consideration, 
and the. exercise of the most rigid economy was necessary 
in his opinion, in order to avoid bankruptcy ". But the 
withdrawal of Parliamentary control seems to have 
emboldened the present Under- Secretary to take up a 
very different attitude. When complaints were made on 
the occasion of the last debate on the Indian Budget 
in the House of Commons, of the ever-growing increase 
of expenditure in India, Sir John Gorst met them 
boldly by saying that "expenditure has increased, it 
ought to increase, and it ought not to be diminished ". 
And he tried to justify this view by asserting that 
the wealth and prosperity of the country was increas- 
ing. Now, gentlemen, no one would be more delighted 
than ourselves to know that the country was really 
growing in wealth and prosperity. But unhappily the 
stern reality of facts forbids us from consoling our- 
selves with such pleasing fancies. We look wistfully in 
all directions ; we go deep into the Muffasal, we see our 
brethren ra their homes and huts as they actually live ; 
and far from seeing any indications of that increasing 
prosperity which Sir J. Gorst said he discerned at that 



THE frtFTH CONaBJJfiS * o9 

distance, we find the people growing poorer and less and 
less able to maintain themselves, their wives and children, 
than they were before. And we therefore say, gentlemen, 
that the increase of expenditure is under existing circum- 
stances not only unjustifiable, but positively sinful. The 
increase of public expenditure would undoubtedly be 
welcome if it followed upon an increase of wealth 
and prosperity among the people. There has been a 
large increase of revenue in England during the past 
quarter of a century. But it has followed an enormous 
growth of wealth and commerce in England and no one 
complains much of it. But in India public expenditure 
gpes on increasing, while the condition of the people is 
deteriorating day by day. One simple but incontroverti- 
ble proof of this lies in the fact that almost all the recent 
additions to the revenue of the Government have been 
screwed out of the first necessities of the Indian people. 
To take only the most recent instances increased expendi- 
ture has been met by enhancing the duty on salt, a tiling 1 
necessary alike to man and cattle , by taxing tho poor 
man's oil, as petroleum has rightly been called; by imposing 
a double tax on the famishing ryots of the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh ; and by misappropriating the Famine 
Insurance Fund, a fund especially created and promised 
by three Viceroys to be religiously set apart for mooting 
difficulties in times of scarcity and famine 

The Resolution was carried unanimously 
The Resolution of thanks to Lord Reay, Governor 
of Bombay (X), was moved by Mr. J. U. Yajnik, ex- 
Sheriff of Bombay, and he bore witness to the fact 
that Lord Reay's nominations reflected the wish of 
Indians j- he had appointed Messrs. Ranade, Dadabliai 
Naoroji, Telaug, Dayaram Jethmal, Pheroxesliah 
Mehta, and others " never before had such wisdom 
and impartiality been shown ". It was supported by 
the Hon. Mr, C. Sankaran Nair, who wished other 
Provinces the good fortune enjoved by Bombay, 



90 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Mr. H. A. Wadia, who wished Lord Beay would return 
as Viceroy, and others, and carried with acclamation. 

Mr. Eardley Norton moved Resolution XI, because, 
owing to a mistake, the "Subjects Committee had died 
prematurely ; and Resolution XII re-elected Mr. A. 0. 
Hume as General Secretary. 

Eesolution XIII dealt with organisation, and the 
number of delegates at, future Congresses was limited 
to 1,000. In answer to an appeal for the Us. 45,000, 
over Bs. 9,000 was paid in cash, and Es. 56,226 pra- 
mised within half an hour The resolution was then 
passed, and Nos. XIV and XV the latter thanking 
Sir William Wedderburn for coming from England 
for the Congress were quickly carried. Then, the 
Fifth Congress, with a vote of thanks to the Ee- 
ception Committee, dissolved. 

RESOLUTIONS 

I Eesolved That an address be presented to Mr. i/ii&rles 
Bradlaugh, M.P , on behalf of this Congress here assembled, and 
that Messrs. Adam, Pherozeshah Mehta, and W". C. Bannerji are 
appointed a Committee to settle the wording of the said address. 

Representation 

II. .Resolved That the following skeleton scheme for the 
reform and reconstitution of the Council of the Governor-General 
for making Laws and Regulations* and the provincial Legislative. 
Councils, is adopted, and that tlie President of this Congress do 
submit the same to Charles Bradlaugh, Esq., M.F., with the 
respectful request of this Congress that he may be pleased to cause 
a Bill to be drafted on the lines indicated in this skeleton scheme 
and introduce the same in the British House of Commons : 

Scheme. 

(1) The Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils to 
consist respectively of Members not less than one naif of whom are 
to be elected, not more than one-fourth to sit ex-officio, and the rest 
to be nominated by Government. 



THE TIFTH CONGRESS 91 

(2) Revenue district* to constitute ordinarily territorial unite 
for electoral purposes. 

(3) All male British subjects above 21 years of age possessing 
certain qualifications and not subject to certain disqualifications 
(both of which will bo settled later) to be voters. 

(4) Voters in each district to elect representatives to one or 
more electoral bodies, tic-cording to local circumstances, at the rate 
of 12 per million of the total population of the district, such 
representatives to possess ceitain qualifications and not to be subject 
to certain disqualifications, both of which Mill be settled later. 

(5) All the representatives thus elected by all the districts 
included in the jurisdiction of each electoral body, to elect members 
to the Imperial Legislature at the rate of 1 per every five millions 
of the total population of the electoral jurisdiction, and to their own 
Piovmcial Legislature at the rate of 1 per million of the said totat 
population, in such wise that whenever the Parsis, Christians, 
MuhammadaiiB or Hindus are in a minority , the total number of 
Parsis, Christians, Muhammadans or Hindus, as the case may be, 
elected to the Provincial Legislature, shall not, so far as may be 
possible, bear a less proportion to the total number of members 
elected thereto, than the total number of Parsis, Christians, Hindus 
or Muhammadans, as the case may be, in such electoral jurisdiction, 
bears to its total population Members of both Legislatures to 
possess certain qualifications and not to be subject to certain 
disqualifications both of which will be settled later 

(0) All elections to be by ballot. 

XI. Kesolved -That the Subjects Committee be instructed to 
settle the questions (left open in the skeleton scheme for the 
reconstruction of the Councils, embodied in Resolution II), of the 
qualifications requisite for, and the disqualifications which 
should debar from, becoming 



(6 
(< 
(d 



a Voter ; 

a Representative ; 

a Member of a Provincial Legislative Council ; and 

a Member of tho Imperial Legislative Council ; and to 



submit their Report thereon to Charles Mradlangh, Esq., M.P., for 
the p'urposes of the Bill which he has been requested to have 
drawn. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

III. Resolved- That this present Congress does hereby ratify 
and confirm the resolutions passed by previous Congresses as to 

(a) the urgent necessity for the complete separation of exe- 
cutive and judicial functions, such that, in no case, shall the two 
functions be combined in the same officer 



92 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

(6) the expediency of extending into many parts of the 
country, where it is not at present in force, the system of trial 

by jury; 

(c) the necessity of withdrawing from the High Courts the. 
powers, first vested in them in 1 872, of sotting nsido verdicts of 
acquittal bv juries ; 

(d) the necessity of introducing into the Code of Criminal 
Procedure, a provision enabling accused persons, in warnmt casos, 
to demand that instead ot boing tried hy the Magistrate, tlie, ( i be 
committed to the Court of Sessions , 

(c) the highly unsatisfactory diameter of the existing fry stem 
of Police Administration in India, and the absolute necessity of a 

fundamental refoim therein , 

* (' 

(/) the expediency of both establishing Military Colleges 
in India, whereat the Natives of India, as defined by statute, may bo 
educated and trained for a military career as officers of tho Indian 
Army, and of authorising, undei such rules and restrictions as mav 
seem necessary, such a systum of \oluntcering for the Indian 
inhabitants of the country, as may qualify them to support tho 
Government in any crisis ; 

(0) the oxttemelv unsatisfactory eharaetei of the Income Tax 
Administration, cspe< mlly as regards incomes belou Rupees one- 
thousand, and the expediency of raising the taxable minimum to 
this amount , 

(h) the extreme importance of increasing, instead of diminish- 
ing, as the present trhdency appears to be, the public expenditure- on 
education in all its branches, and the necessity, in \ iew to the 
promotion of one of the most essential of these brandies, tho 
technical, of the appointment of a mixed Commission to enquire into 
the present industrial condition of the country , 

0) the impolicy and injustice involved m the Into uu rease of 
the Salt Tax in a time of profound peace, and the urgent necessity 
for an immediate reduction of this tax, and the rennposilion, to 
balance the deficit thus caused, of light at! vfiloictn import duties, 

(}) thenecessity for the reduction of, instead of the continual 
increase to, the militarv expenditure of the country 

Temperance 

IV. Resolved That this Congress hereby tenders its sincere 
thanks to Messrs. Caine and Smith, and the members who voted 
with them, in connection with the debate, on the Indian Kxciso 
Question in the House of Commons , and while fully appreciating 
what has been done by softie of the local Governments towards the 
improvement of their systems of Excise and Abkari, desires to 
express the earnest -hope that no farther time may be lost in giving 
full effect to the Resolution of the House of Commons. 



THE FIFTH CONGKESS 93 

Public Service 

V. Resolved That this Congress, while thanking Her Majes- 
ty's Government for raising the age for the Indian Civil Service 
Competitive Examination from 10 to 28, does hereby put on record 
an emphatic expression of the universal disappointment which has 
been created by the rest of that Government's orders in regard to 
the Public Service (Question (the net result of A\ Inch orders is to 
place the people of India in a worse position than they previously 
held), and reiterates the National conviction that no real justice 
will be done to India, in this matter, until the simultaneous holding 
in India and in England, of all Examinations for all Civil branches 
of the Public Service in India, at present held only in England, 
be conceded 

Military 

VI. Hesolvod That in view of the loyalty of the people, the 
hardships that the Arms Act, (XI of 1878), as at present adminis- 
tered, entails, and the unmerited slur which it casts upon them, 
the Government be moved so to modify the rules made under this 
Act that all restrictions as to the possession and bearing of arnib 
shall appjy equally to till persons residing in or visiting India , 
that licences to possess and bear anus shall be liberally and 
generally distributed wherever wild animals habitually destroy 
human life, cattle or crops, and that these and all licences issued 
under the rules shall be granted onco tor all, shall operate through- 
out the Provincial jurisdiction within which they are issued, be 
only revocable on proof of misuse, and shall not require yearly or 
half -yearly renewals. 

Permanent Settlement 

VH. Hesolved That the Government be urged to take the 
subject of a Permanent Settlement once more under consideration 
in view to practical action thereon, such that fixity and permanency 
may be given to Die Government Land Revenue demand without 
further delay, at yny rate in all fully populated and well cultivated 
tract* of country, 

Silver Duties 

VII I. Beaohed -That in viow of the fall that has already 
occurred in the price of silver and in the exchange value of the 
Indian Rupee, it is impolitic on the part of the British Government 
to maintain any hindrances whatever to the OOJT sumption of silver 
for manufacturing purposes ; and that this Congress strongly urges 
upon Her Majesty's Government that, not only as an act of justice 
to India (a matter which haw boon repeatedly brought to the notice 
of II or Mujwtfv'w Ministers) but nlwo as an act of expediency in 
tho iutorrv f Hor Majesty's BriUjjh as well as Indian subject*, 
Uio pkte dutiei Bhould be Immediately abolished, and hall-marking 
be made a voluntary institution. 



94 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Grievances before Supply 

IX .- Besohed That this Congress respectfully expresses the 
earnest hope that, in the interest of the people of India, the House 
of Commons will forthwith restore the right, formerly possessed by 
members of that Honourable House, of stating to Parliament any 
matter of grievance of the natives of India before Mr. Speaker 
leaves the Chair for the presentation in Committee of the Indian 
Budget statement, and earnestly trusts that the House of Commons 
will, in future, take into consideration the Annual Indian Budget 
statement at such a date as will ensure its full and adequate 
discussion, and further authorises the President, Sir William 
Wedderburn, Bart., to sign a Petition in the name and on behalf of 
this Congress for presentation to the House of Commons in accord- 
ance with the terms of this Resolution. 

Congress Constitution 

XIII. Kesolved 

() That, in view of the large number of delegates this joar 
assembled and the probability, arising from pant experience, of 
their number continuing to increase year by year, henceforth the 
number ot delegates to bo allowed from each Congress circle bo 
limited to five per million of the total population of tho circle : 
the Standing Committee ot each circle allotting- the number which 
their jurisdiction, as a whole, is entitled to olect, amongst their 
several electoral divisi UIH, as may si oin most expedient. 

(I) That from tins date of Mr. Hume's departure for Eng- 
land, the Hon. Pandit Ayodhyaiiath be appointed Joint General 
Secretary, and that Bs. 5,000 be assigned for the payment by him 
of such Assistant Secretaries as he may hud it necessary to employ 
clerical assistance, postage, telegraphs, and printing, and further 
that Mr. W. C. Bannerji be appointed Standing Counsel for 
Bengal, Mr. Pherozeshah Mehta, Standing Counsel for Bombay, 
and Mr. Aiianda Charlu, Standing Counsel for Madras, to the Joint 
General Secretary 

(c) That the tentative rules for the constitution and working 
of the Congress which were first considered at Madras, and in regurd 
to which various addenda have from time to time been circulated, 
be thoroughly considered during the coming year by the several 
Standing Congress Committees, and definitely dealt with by the 
Congress at its next session 

(d) That this Congress does hereby confirm tho appointment 
of Sir W Wedderburn, Bart., and Messrs. W. S. Came, M.P., W. S. 
Bright Maclaren, M P., J. E. Ellis, M.P , Dadnbhai Nnoroji and George 
Yule, us a Committee (with power to add to their innnbm') to guide 
and direct the operations and control the expenditure ot the National 



THE FIFTH COffGfRfcSS 95 

Congress Agency in England, and does further tender its sincere 
thanks to these gentlemen, and to Mr. W. Digby, C.I.E., the 
Secretary, for the service which they are rendering to India. 

(0) That this Congress does formally appoint Mr. George 
Ynle, Mr. A. 0. Hume, Mr. Adam, Mr. Bardloy Norton, Mr. J. E. 
Howard, Mr. Pherozeahah Mehta, Mr Surcnclrnnath Bannerji, 
Mr. Mano Mohan Ghose, Mr. Shurf-nd-din, Mr. N. Mudholkar, and 
Mr. W. C. Bannerji to represent its views in England, and press 
upon the consideration of the British Public the political reform 
which the Congress has advocated. 

(/) That a sum of Rs 45,000 bo raised for the expenses of 
the Congress Work in tin's country and in England during the 
ensuing year, and that the different Standing Committees do send 
their respective apportioned amounts to the General Secretary, the 
one half in three, and the balance in siv months. * 

Thanks of Congress 

X. Resolved That in'view to his approaching departure, this 
Congress puts on record an expression of the high sense entertained, 
not only in the Bombay Presidency but throughout India, of the 
ability, integrity and impartiality that have characterised Lord 
Beny's administration, n also of the giatitudc which the \\hole 
country feels to be hin Hue for the sympathy that ho has ever ex- 
tended to Indian aspirations and efforts. 

XV. Resolved That, the Fifth Indian National Congress 
hereby tenders its heart -felt thanks to its President, Sir William 
Weddorburn, ns well for his ready sacrifice of personal and political 
considerations involved by his journey from England to India, as 
for that courtesy, impartiality and never failing sympathy, which 
characteriHtiiN of his long and honourable, career as an official of 
this country, h-tve marked his control of the proceedings of this 
aspemhh, 

Formal 

XIV. KeHolved That the Sixth Indian National Congress 
do assemble nfc some City in Bengal, the exact place to be fixed 
hereafter, on the 26th of December, 1890. 

XII. Resolved That Mr. A. 0. Hume, C.B., bore-elected 
General Secretary of the National Indian Congress for the ensuing 
year. 



96 HOW INDIA WKOUGHT fOR FRMEIKW 

CHAELBS HRADLAUGH, M.l>. 

The presentation of the Congress add mm to Mr. 
Charles Bradlaugh, M^P., took plact on th ww# 
evening, December 28th, at 7 p.m. The tabto on 
the platform 18 feet by 4| feet wan piltd up from 
end to end with addressee in caketR of Indian work, 
rugs, mats, carvings, ent from every part of India, 
brought in many cases by poor men, who had c*oimi 
hundreds of miles to give them. Characteristically, 
he would not accept valuable gifts, mioh an splendid 
Kashmir shawl, Mr. Pherojseshah Mehta WHK vot**d 
to the chair, and made a brief speech, voicing lmlm*H 
love and gratitude for " the high and uuNeltlsh wuiwi. 
vours" of one who was a atranger to them, to 
promote India's w welfare, its proHperity and its best 
interests ". 

Sir William Wedderburn r<ad the ntldress of the* 
Congress : 

To Charles Brndlaugh, Ksq,, Mc*mkr for Nnrthnrnpton 
in the Parliament of Great Britain and In*]ftiicl. 

Sir, On behalf of the Fifth Indian National Cmigm*, 
assembled at Bombay, we beg to offer ytm our united and 
most heartfelt welcome, txnd through you we <ii8ire to 
convey our thanks to the elector* of Northampton who 
have permitted you to espoune the oauf of 



^ to us a stranger in person, not rtputt, Fw 
your (Jisjnterested advocacy of the claim (founded ou iht? 
unanswerable demands of human progrH and the Hoktinii 
promises of their Queen) preferred by miliioni -whoMi 
appeajs tor justice have evoked a widespread rwHptm0 
mnceyou aroused the people of Great Britain into a 
sympathetic recognition of India's needH will nahrine 



THE FIFTH COKGBBSS 97 

yoar name for all time in the proudest and most imperish- 
able of human homes, the hearts and traditions of a 
loving and a grateful race. - , 

Brilliant as was the tribute of national Aspect which 
your illness elicited from the fellow-countrymen -who for 
long years had been the daily spectators of your labours 
and your triumphs in England, you have won, Sir, in the 
mental distress and prayerful anxiety with which the 
population of India followed you in the tribulation of your 
sickness, a hpmage the more unique and tender that it is 
not matched in the recorded history of any living states- 
man. They have appreciated the unflinching courage 
with which, throughout your political career, you .have 
confronted error and have championed truth. You have 
enchained their admiration by your inalienable fidelity to 
the popular cause. 

Proud in your possession of such qualities, and 
thankful for your efforts in our cause, we trust that yon 
may be spared to complete the great work yon have 
begun, and to read the vindication of your generous 
interpretation of our political aspirations, as well in the 
ever closer union of India and of England, as in the 
quickened vigour and expanding energies of a country 
regenerated by the partial redemption of pledges too 
long permitted to remain unfulfilled. We have, etc. 

In reply, Mr. Bradlaugh said : 

Sir William, and Delegates of the Indian National 
Congress, I thank yon not so much for myself, for I have 
not yet deserved the tribute you pay me. I thank you 
for my Electors, without whom I should not have the 
right to do all the work I dp. And in their name, and 
because I believe that their example will be followed 
by other constituencies, I feel grateful to you,, and only 
do not translate my gratitude into words because no words 
can express what I feel. 

A few of the caskets only were taken u 
specimens of all, and a few of the articles of 




98 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

manufacture were presented, and a list of some of 
the places, sending addresses and gifts, was read. An 
hour was occupied in even this slight summarising, 
for, as the Report says, " there was scarcely a town 
of any size " from which an address had not been 
sent. Mr. Bradlaugh then rose and said ; 

Friends, fellow-subjects, and fellow-citizens ! I ad- 
dress you as friends, for the greeting you have given me 
entitles me to use the same language to you as I would 
use to those at home, and you have made me feel since I 
have been-in Bombay that the word " home " has a wider 
significance than I had given it. I have learned that if 
I have only a little home, I have a larger one in your 
sympathies and in your affections, and, as I trust to de- 
serve by future work, in your love. I address you as 
fellow-subjects ; we are here loyal to one rule with the 
best of loyalty. That is no real loyalty which is only 
blind submission. Real loyalty means that the governed 
help the governors by leaving little for the Government 
to do. Real loyalty means that the claim of right is 
made with the consciousness of duty ; and I feel proud to 
be a fellow-subject with you in the hope that the phrase 
fellow-citizens may grow into a reality even before my 
life-time ends. I pray your indulgence to-night, for 
it is the first speech I have made since I looked into the 
blackness of the grave, and I am not sure how far I can 
trust my tongue to interpret what I would wish to say 
Of one thing I am sure, you have overrated alike my work 
and my ability. (No, No.) I pray you, be as indulgent to 
me as you have been generous ; and if you disagree with 
what I say, let me say it in my own poor fashion, so that 
you may find at least my meaning clear to you. I am 
only here as a visitor by your courtesy, a member of a 
great '-assembly, the Mother of Parliaments in the world, 
of which I am one of the poorest members j and as to any 
force that I may have had in advocating the cause of 
those to whom I belong at home, let me say 1 was sorry 
to hear that I was thanked for my work in the popular 



THE WITH CONGBBSS 



cause. For whom should I work, if not for the people ? 
Born of the people, trusted by the people, I will die 
of the people. And I know no geographical -or race 
limitations. If the Nationality pardon the word~-to 
which I am proud to belong has raised its Empire, the 
rule carries with it the duty on the part of every citizen 
to recognise that which I recognise in you, a lawful con- 
stitutional association for the assertion of your just claims 
and for the advancement of your homes and interests. 

I will ask you not to expect too much. One 
man is only a water-drop in the ocean of human life : 
you are the breeze driving the water-drop on the ' 
western side of the seas and, by your encouragement, 
adding others to it, and giving it a force that shall wash 
it into the old rock of prejudice that hindered, you will 
make those on the other side hear, as I have heard, the 
clear English sounds, which show that you share our 
language, our traditions, and our hopes, and are willing 
to work with us and to make common cause with us. 

Not only do not expect too much, but do not expect 
all at once. Great as this assembly is in its suggestive- 
ness, by its delegates travelling hundreds and thousands 
of miles, you are yet only the water-drop of the two 
hundred and ten millions whom you number under our 
Empire, yours and mine not mine against yours, not 
English against Indian, but our common Empire for 
common purposes. Don't be disappointed if, of a just 
claim, only something is conceded. It is new, but shall 
be every day coming ; it is new, but you have those who 
stand m the House of Commons to plead for you ; not I 
alone, but members as devoted to you as I can possibly 
be ; and I hope soon to see added to their ranks, with the 
authority of his knowledge and of the position which his 

n siding here has given him Sir William Wedderburn. 
irould remind you, as an encouragement to you to be 
patient, that, in England great reforms have always been 
slowly won. Those who first enterprised them were 
called seditious, and sometimes sen^td cwpl'as criminals ; 
but the speech and thought lived$n> ^^iprisonjnent 
can crush a truth ; it may hinde/H^olf a, Jgqfp$n$, It taa| 



100 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

delay it for an hour, but ii> gets an electric elasticity 
inside the dungeon walls, and it grows, and moves the 
whole world when it conies out. Your presence here 
to-day confutes and answers in anticipation one sneer 
that I have heard spoken within the walls of Parliament. 
It is said : " There is no Indian Nation, there can be no 
Indian National Congress ; there is no Indian people, 
there are only two hundred millions of diverse races and 
diverse creeds." The lesson I read here is that this 
Congress movement is an educational movement, hammer- 
ing upon the anvil of millions of men's brains, until it 
welds into one common whole men whose desire for 
political and social reforms is greater than all distinctions 
of race and creed. 

It will be my duty, as it is my right, to present to 
Parliament directly I get back, on the very day of its 
opening, the claim you make to have the Bill considered. 
On the second day the Bill will be introduced. For so 
much I can answer ; but I can answer for nothing more. 
I think it is possible the Government may introduce 
some Bill themselves. If they do, it will take precedence 
of, but it will not avoid, the one you have charged me 
with ; because the Government Bill, in Committee, will 
come under the discussion of Parliament on every one 
of the propositions that you desire in the Bill you have 
charged me with. It is not easy work. There are 
differences ; and I have been glad to see that you can 
meet and discuss differences as you have done. Tou 
have shown that you can meet together and listen to one 
another, and that you are worthy of public trust, and 
the right of electing and being elected, to help to make 
the laws which you so discuss. 

Then you may take it that on your own Bill, or the 
Government Bill, this decision of the House of Commons 
will be taken. You can help that decision ; you have a 
constitutional right, not of coming into the" House and 
being heard yourselves, but of sending your petitions 
there from every division, from far off Sindh, from every 
part j and I would ask you, if you want to m*k* me 
really your mouthpiece in that House, send signatures 



THE FIFTH CONGRBSS 101 

to petitions which yon understand, by the thousand, by 
the hundred thousand, by the million, if you can, so that 
India's people may kneel and there is no shame in 
kneeling^ on the threshold where the Mother of Parlia- 
ments sits, and ask that she may do the same justice to 
those six, seven or eight thousand miles away that she 
has done to those who can assemble and make themselves 
heard with the living voice. 

We you will permit me to say " we " although I 
am only a guest are here engaged in no seditious move- 
ment. We are not even seeking (though if we did, there 
would be no great crime in the high endeavour) to 
transplant the democratic Institutions of England to this 
land. We are only seeking in the hill which is hard to 
climb, to carve steps in which the strongest may stand, 
and through cdming generations help the weaker brethren 
to higher posts. It is said that there are many who 
stand aloof from this movement. I, looking at you, 
wonder that in its infancy so many have joined in it. It 
is said that there are influential men of this party and 
of that who have not yet come. Oh ! but the sun's 
rays grow as the sun rises. You are the dawn ; I see the 
day j and I do not count the rays which are yet below the 
horizon, but I take account of the gilding of the clouds 
from the rays that I see. 

I feel that I should like to have the title that some 
have given me in sneer, and some in hearty meaning, of 
''Member for India". Dead men, whose measure I 
cannot hope to cope with, have partly held that title. 
But I should love to hold it, not simply by great efforts 
made on great occasions, but by simple doings whenever 
there is injustice to be touched. I know how little one 
can do, but littU though one man can do, I will tell you 
what he- can do. When, after rain and storm, the waters 
have gathered, one man may make a little boring through 
which the water begins to percolate that washes all 
away; and I will try to be that one man, leaving 
greater ones than I can ever be to swim on the tide when 
the water flows. 



102 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

1 am here, because I believe you loyal to the law which 
: , I am bound to support. I am here, because I believe you 

I , wish, as we in England have done, to win within the 

limits of the Constitution the most perfect equality and 
! right for all. I have no right to offer advice to you ; but 

if I had, and if I dared, I would say to you, men from 
lands almost as separate, although within your own con- 
tinent, as England is from you ; I would say to you, 
men with race traditions and caste views and religious 
differences ; that in a. great Empire like ours, all we have 
the right to is equality before the law for all, equality of 
opportunity for all, equality of expression for all, penalty 
on none, favoritism to none ; and I believe that in this 
great- Congress I see the germ of that which may be as 
fruitful as the most hopeful tree that grows under your 
sun. 

I I am glad to see that you have womeft amongst you, 

| glLd> although they are few; glad, for they are your 

mothers and teach your children ; glad, for in our land 

the wives may count through their husbands, and great 

j thoughts and great endeavours are not made less because 

| the man fcurns to the woman for counsel in his hour of 

need, ancf thus makes the woman stronger than the man. 

j I ftfar I have already spoken to you too long, if not 

| I- for you, at any rate, for myself. I beg you the most 

; i eloquent whom I have heard among you to put into 

j your own words and your own thoughts what you would 

have me say of hope for you ; and let that be said. One 
i J thing be sure of : I will only advocate the right. I must 

| j ; judge the right I advocate, and I may not always judge 

. !; i*. a s you do ; but as long as you let me speak for you, I 

; 1 will only speak that which seems to me to be right and 

j true. In this movement no force save the force of brain ; 

,: | - no secret union j all open, frank, before the Law. So far 

as one man may, and so far as one man's speech 
i can do, English liberty shall put itself on the side 

of yours. This is the first, and it may be the last, 
'; speech that I may ever make to you; but let me beg 

of you to think, and let me think, that you are 



THE FIFTH CONGRESS 108 

listening, and that, if I do rightly, yon wfll be 
generous with me in your judgment ; and that even if 
I do not always plead with the voice that you would 
speak with, you will believe that I have done my best, 
and that I meant my best to be greater happiness for 
India's people, greater peace for Britain's rule, greater 
comfort for the whole of Britain's subjects. 

The whole speech was punctuated with cheers 
which we have omitted; we have only inserted one 
cry, where it was needed to explain the words which 
followed. The speech was closed with tumultuous 
applause his first speech in India, and alas! his last 



CHAPTER VI 

THE Sixth Congress met at Calcutta in the Tivoli 
G-ardens, "in a big temporary Hall into which 8,000 
people managed to crowd themselves on December 
26th, 1890, and it sat for four days, the 26th, 27th, 
29th, and -30th December, the Congress Hall being 
lent on the 28th to the Social Conference. The list 
shows the names of 677 delegates made up as fol- 
lows : 

Bengal 377 

K. W. P. andOudh 148 

Panjah 18 

Bombay 47 

Berar, C. P., and Secunderabad 29 

Madras 58 

677 
Without Certificates 25 

702 



The limitation of the numbers of delegates, decided 
by the previous Oongress, had been carried out ; 
at 5 delegates per million of population, (see Re- 
solution Xni [] 1889). 995 delegates should have 
been elected ; a little over 1,000 were elected, as a 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS 105 

matter of fact, but only 702 attended, of whom 25 did 
not register with the required certificates, and so 
their names were omitted. But that the popular 
interest was undiminished was shown by the packing 
of the Hall, the largest that had yet been erected, 
7,000 visitors attending on the first day, and the 
number being never less than 4,000. The Report says 
that many of these came from other Provinces, and 
would have been counted as delegates but for the 
enforcement of the demand for certificates of elec- 
tion. The feeling of resentment against the wrongs 
under which India was suffering had increased con- 
siderably, and it is well to recognise the long growth 
of this feeling until it developed into the " unrest," 
which formed so prominent a feature of the first 
decade of the twentieth century, and finally gave 
birth to a party which sought, in despair, the break- 
ing of the English connexion. Only the concession 
of the reforms of 1910 revived the hopes of the 
Constitutionalists, and enabled them to remain firm 
in their declared creed of Self-Government within 
the Empire. In 1890, there was angry opposition 
in India to the trans-frontier policy then in favour, 
and especially to the cruel invasion of Afghanistan, 
which caused so much misery. The official report 
of the Congress of 1890 concluded with the following 
indictment : 

Although our present Viceroy seems not only desirous 
of seeing and judging for himself, but thoroughly imbued 
With the true spirit of Liberalism 5 although in every 
Province there remain still some faithful few, who 
deprecate and deplore all the evil that is on foot ; although 



106 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

throughout Great Britain signs appear that, here and 
there, her people are commencing to realise the grave 
responsibility in regard to India which has devolved upon 
them, the administration of India still remains, alas ! as a 
whole, *' linked with some virtues but a thousand crimes ". 
Millions of educated and patriotic men (than whom no 
more loyal or loving subjects are numbered in the vast 
Empire that owns the sway of our beloved Queen-Empress) 
are treated as political helots to gratify the class 
prejudices and amour propre and fill the pockets of a 
handful of bureaucrats, the average men amongst whom 
are, positively, less qualified for rule, in India, than a very 
considerable proportion of those whom England permits 
them to misgovern. 

India's people, free-born British subjects, are denied 
the smallest fraction of those fundamental political 
privileges which, as British citizens, are their inherent 
birthright. 

Ninety-five per cent of all the most important and 
responsible offices in the country are monopolised by 
Europeans, on .salaries fully double of those that would 
secure quite as, in many cases far more, competent IndiaiiK 
for the majority of these posts. 

One-fifth of the entire population tremble on the 
verge of starvation, to perish by millions whenever the 
smallest natural calamity of drought or flood increases by 
one iota the insecurity of their position, and the money 
wrung from our pauper population, by the cruel taxation 
of the first necessaries of life the money which is all our 
Government has had to show for the 20 odd millions who 
in recent years have succumbed to famine and its conse- 
quences is ruthlessly squandered in bloodshed, and in 
wicked, and idiotically mismanaged, aggressions on 
feebler neighbours, to gratify the ignoble cravings for 
personal distinctions and titles of individual members of 
a Simla cabal. 

Almost every indigenous art and industry has been 
crushed, and agriculture, the one art on whiclrnow depend 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS 107 

nearly 90 per cent of the population, is slowly deteriorat- 
ing under a grasping rack-renting system of temporary 
settlements and, with it, our crops and our cattle. 

The masses are being persistently demoralised; 
despite the distinct orders of the House of Commons, an 
iniquitous system of excise, calculated to stimulate 
drunkenness and all its attendant crimes and vices, is 
still retained, only slightly and superficially reformed in 
some Provinces, in all its original iniquity in others. 

Under a barbarous and obsolete system, miscalled 
Justice, Executive and Judicial, Fiscal and Police powers 
are so .combined in one functionary, that powers' professedly 
granted for one purpose are practically utilised in further- 
ance of others, for which no civilised Government in the 
world would, nowadays, dare to confer them. 

There is practically no justice in India for the poor 
against the rich, or the non-official against the official, and 
the police, who should be the protectors of the poor and 
the honest, are their terror and their worst oppressors. 

What wonder, if some of us, who come of sterner 
sires, at times, despairing of justice at the hands 
of man, cry out in bitterness of heart : " How long, 
Lord, how long F " But the patient East, sublime in 
its resignation and charity, lories only to forgive and to 
forget the past, and prays only for justice, however tardy, 
in the present ; and wrongs that long since would have 
roused Teutonic or Gallic nations to frenzy, tolerated in 
remembrance of the civic peace and order, education and 
other benefits, unquestionably conferred by England, 
awaken in the mind of India's people (far truer Christ- 
ians, though they know it not, than that proud Nation 
which permits all this evil, and is answerable for it, 
before God and man) only tlie mild reproaches embodied 
in the words with which we headed this article : 

Of course we have to subnrit'resignedly to this ruinous, this 
unprincipled trans-frontier policy of the Government until we 
succeed in awakening the conscience of our British fellow-subjects. 
We are British subjects, now, of our own free choice ; we have 
thrown in our lot "with England for better and' for worse, and it is 



108 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT FOE J-BBKDOM 

this which enhances England's sin in permitting the continuance of 
this hateful policy. Will our British brethren never awake ? 

Alas ! No mortal can reply their slumber has been 
long but they may yet awake. 

At 2 p.m. the Chair was taken by Mr. Mano Mohan 
Qhose, the Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
who, after defending the Congress from the various 
attacks made on it, and defining its position, called on 
Sir Romesh Chandra Mittra to propose the President, 
And he moved the election of Mr. Pherozeshah 
M. Mehta; it was seconded by Nawab Shamshoodowla, 
supported by Mr. Ananda Charln and Nawab G-hulam 
Rubbani, and carried by acclamation. 

Mr. Pherozeshah M. Mehta, taking the presidential 
chair and saying, truly, that it was the highest honour 
that India had to give, began by vindicating the right 
of the Parsi as a true son of India, after thirteen 
centuries of home in the Motherland. He welcomed 
Mr. Caine as one of the elected delegates and thanked 
him for his work, and then, atter warm words of 
gratitude to Mr. Bradlaugh for the untiring energy, 
the indefatigable care, the remarkable ability, with 
which he had worked for India in the House of 
Commons, he turned to the consideration of his Bill, 
and of its result, Lord Cross* India Councils 
Bill. In a few scathing words lie disposed of 
Lord Salisbury's absurd view that " Government by 
representation .... did not fit eastern traditions or 
eastern minds," and quoted Mr. Chisholm Anstey, 
" that the East is the parent of Municipalities, 
Local Self-Grovernment, in the widest acceptation of 
the term, is as old as the East itself/' Mr. Bradlaugh 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS 109 

had fought to substitute election for nomination in 
Lord Cross' Bill ; when that Bill was thrown out, he 
had introduced another, on similar lines, and this was 
to be laid before Congress, and should have its unani- 
mous support. He referred to the service rendered by 
the Congress Deputation to England, and concluded 
with a singularly fine and poignant appeal to Eng- 
land's love of liberty ; the Congress was, indeed, not 
the voice of the masses, but it was the duty of their 
educated compatriots to interpret their grievances and 
offer suggestions for their redress. 

History teaches us that such has been the law of 
widening progress in all ages and all countries, notably in 
England itself. That function and that duty, which thus 
devolve upon us, is best discharged, not in times of alarm 
and uneasiness, of anger and excitement, but when the 
heart is loyal and clear and reason unclouded. It is, I 
repeat, the glory of the Congress that the educated and en- 
lightened people of the country seek to repay the debt of 
gratitude which they owe for the priceless boon of edu- 
cation by pleading, and pleading- temperately, for timely 
and provident statesmanship. I have no fears but that 
English statesmanship will ultimately respond to the call. 
I have unbounded faith in the living and fertilising princi- 
ples of English culture and English education. 

True, the Anglo-Indian officials were against 
them. Bat they, after all, were Englishmen, and 
must at last feel that they must work with England's 
policy. A choice had been offered to England, a 
blessing and a curse. 

All the great forces of English life and society, 
moral, social, intellectual, political, are, if slowly, yet 
steadily and irresistibly, declaring themselves {or the 
choice which will make the connexion of England and 
India a blessing to themselves and to the whole world 
10 



110 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB PREEDOM 

for countless generations, ... I appeal to all true Eng- 
lishmen to candid friends as to generous foes not to 
let this prayer go in vain. 

The Subjects' Committee was then elected and 
ratified by the Congress, and the meeting adjourned. 

On the 27th December, Resolution I was pro- 
posed by Mr. Lai Mohan Ghose, who defended its 
moderation, and the proposal was seconded by 
Mr. Ananda Charlu. Mr. C. V. Nayadu supported, 
and told of his experiences in England, where, as a 
member of the "Paddington Parliament," he had 
carried the Bill. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 
quoted Mr. Gladstone to the effect that it often 
happens that a Nation was given the duty of working 
out some great principle ; to England was given the 
spreading of the principle of representation, and she 
had worked so successfully that " now the man would 
be deemed mad," said Mr. Gladstone, " who should 
denounce the system of popular representation " 
Yet in India such men were found, and to India the 
system was denied. 

Many others spoke in support. Pandit Bishan 
Narayan Dhar, speaking against separate electorates, 
asked the Government if they would follow the noble 
policy of Akbar, a policy of ignoring religious differ- 
ences, or were they going to lay stress on them, as 
did Sir John Strachey who said : " The truth plainly 
is that the existence side by side of these hostile 
creeds is one of the strong points in our political 
position in India." 

The Resolution was carried unanimously. 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS 111 

The " Omnibus Resolution " was proposed by 
Mr. Kali Charan Bannerji, who described himself as 
" an old driver of your omnibus " ; it was the same 
from (a) to (h) as that of the previous year, (t), on 
the Salt Tax, was transferred to a separate Resolution 
(V), and (j) took its place ; then (j) on simultaneous 
examinations, was put in from the end of Resolution 
V of 1889, and Resolution VI, on the Arms Act, was 
also transferred to the omnibus as (&). On the Army 
and the Arms Act the official Report remarks that 
" even the Russian Government with all its despotic 
traditions is not so exclusive " as the British, and 
that" " had this same idiotic policy [the Arms Act] 
been pursued for the 25 years prior to the Mutiny, 
1857 would have seen the end of British rule here. 
It was the people the armed people accustomed to 
handle weapons who rallied to the British Standards 
in those dark days of danger and distress, and saved 
the British Empire in the Bast." Munshi Sadar-ud-din 
Ahmed said : 

The Emperors of old had confidence in the bravery 
and faithfulness of the people, and never deprived them 
of arms, and derived considerable assistance from the 
people in return. The martial spirit of the people of the 
country raised the descendants of Taimur, Akbar in 
particular, to the highest pitch of supremacy and power. 
If the people of India with arms in their hands- and bullets 
in their pockets could remain subject to the Muhammadan's 
Empire and accepted its supremacy, does it stand to reason 
that they would rebel against so just and civilised a 
Government as that of the British people ? The peace 
and prosperity of a people are among the first requisites 
of sovereignty, and these cannot be secured unless the 
rulers and the ruled repose mutual confidence in each 



112 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

other. The confidence of the people is dependent on the 
non-interference of the sovereign with the privileges of the 
people and their right to do such lawful acts as they 
please. At any rate arras are the sole protectors of life 
and property ; and their deprivation causes disappoint- 
ment and dejection which knows no bounds. . . . 

No Emperor ever feared the sword of his subject, nor 
ever emasculated a brave nation by force. The natives of 
India belong to a race which opposed Alexander and 
turned him back beyond the Indus. They are descendants 
of those brave people who, in the battle of Telaveri, made 
Shahab-ud-din Ghori taste the efficacy of a sword, and 
made him retreat headlong with his army for upwards of 
forty miles. To convert such brave and faithful people 
into protectors of the Throne and guards of the State is to 
invigorate and strengthen the foundations of the Govern- 
ment. You must have read in history that when JSTadir 
Shah once summoned the Nawab of Furrukabad to Delhi 
for an interview, arid the N"awab replied that he could not 
come without his armour and weapons, Nadir said : " Go 
and tell him he may come with his artillery." What a 
revolution ! There was a time when the Emperors of old 
were not afraid of the arms of their enemies ; a time 
has now come when we, unfortunate though loyal and 
faithful, subjects are distrusted even by our own 
Government. 

Resolution III drew attention to the annual scandal 
of the discussion of Indian questions before empty 
benches in the House of Commons, and was moved 
by Mr. Caine, seconded by Mr. E. D. Mehta, 
supported by Mr. Yule and carried. Then Eesolution 
IV, another effort to reform the Excise Administra- 
tion, was ably proposed by Mr. D. E. Wacha, in an 
argumentative speech, and vehemently seconded by 
Lala Murlidhar, who said the East had ' given the 




THE SIXTH CONGRESS H8 

West mathematics, astronomy and other sciences, 
and the West had given the Bast in exchange' 
liquor. "Even our Muhammadan rulers hated and 
held the liquor traffic accursed. It has been left to 
our Christian rulers to love it, pet it, stimulate it, 
and make money by crores out of it." Needless .to 
say the Resolution was carried unanimously, and the 
Congress adjourned to Monday, December 29th. 

On the third day, Mr. Pr ingle Kennedy opened 
the proceedings by moving Eesolution V, for the 
reduction of the salt-tax ; in seconding the resolution, 
Mr. D. E. Wacha sharply criticised the wasteful 
military expenditure which depleted the resources of 
Government, and showed that the annual consump- 
tion of salt per head in India was about 10 lb. 
per annum, whereas the average for Europe was 
26 lb. varying from 80 lb. in England (includ- 
ing much salt used m manufacture), and 50 lb. 
in France to 14 lb. in Austria. Mr. G. K. 
Gokhale supported the resolution, saying that the 
enhancement of the tax by an executive order in 1888 
was unjust and impolitic, and the consequences had 
been disastrous Unjust, because in 1886 the Income 
Tax Act had been brought forward on the ground 
that the masses were paying more than their due 
share of taxation, and yet it was on them that a new 
burden was laid. It was impolitic, because the raising 
deprived the Government of any financial reserve. 
The consequence was thai the people had used in 8 
years 26 lakhs of mauuds less than they would have 
used at the previous price, atifl this was'taken from 



v , hM,. 1 ,> 



114 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

the very poorest, those who lived always oil the 
borderland of famine . 

When you call to mind the thin emaciated figures 
of these unhappy, miserable, brethren, who have JIN much 
right to the comforts of this, God's, eaith :IM you or I or 
any one else ; when you remember that the lives of 
these brethren are so uniformly dark and miserable, 
that they are hardly cheered by a single ray of hope, 
or relieved by a single day of rest ; when, fu -ther, you 
remember that a person does not generally trench upon 
his stock of necessaries before he has parted with wvorv 
luxury, every single comfort that he may allow himself : 
when you recall all these things, you will clearly under 
stand what grievous and terrible hardship and' suffering 
and privation this measure o* enhancement, Inch has 
curtailed the poor man's consumption of .--nil by thirty-six 
lakhs of maunda, has really eutanud. \V. .li-e appealing 
in the present instance to the Grovermneni. of India to 
reduce the duty on salt from two rupees eight annas to 
two- rupees per maund My friend Mr Wacha has 
shown that the state of the nuances permits of such re- 
duction. We are appealing to the sense of justice of the 
Government of India. We are appealing to their states- 
manship, to their righteousness, and I will even go further 
and say, to their mercy. The past is iu the past arid no 
one can recall it , but this much can surely be done fur- 
ther evil and misery from this source can be averted. 

An amendment was proposed, but only two hands, 
those of the proposer and seconder, were held up for 
it, and, after several other speeches, the Resolution 
was carried nem. con. 

The Permanent Settlement of Land came up again, 
moved by Mr. R. N. Mudholkar and seconded by Mr. 
R. Sabapati Pillai ; supported by many speakers, it 
was unanimpusly carried. 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS H5 

The day concluded by passing a Resolution of pro- 
best against an Order issued by the Bengal Govern- 
ment, forbidding tiny official to attend the Congress 
even as a spectator. Mr. Mano Mohan Ghose proposed 
and Mr. Yule seconded it, and the President put it, 
remarking .scornfully that the niatter was of very 
little importance to the Congress, but as, if the order 
was not issued by some subordinate official, it would 
involve grave discredit to the Government, they 
might give the Government the " opportunity of 
extricating themselves from the undignified and 
ludicnm.s position, if not worse, in which these pre- 
cious orders apparently place them ". Which was 
done, and the Congiess adjourned. (The Resolution 
effected its object, for the Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne, 
answered iliat the Government order, which had been 
misunderstood, had nothing to do with the Congress, 
that the Congress was a perfectly legitimate movement, 
and that while officials could not take active part in 
political movements, they should not impede them, 
nor put pressure on others either to help or hinder 
them.) 

On the re-assembly of the Congress for its fourth 
day's work, the Hon. Pandit Ayodhyanath m moving 
Resolution VIII, a vote of thanks to Mr. Charles 
Bradlaugh and others, referred to Mr. Gladstone's 
promise to support Mr. Bradlaugh's motion in the 
House of Commons, and to Lord Salisbury's rude 
reference to Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji as a " black 
man ". After many had spoken, the Resolution was 
unanimously carried. The ninth Resolution, ako of , 




116 HOW INDIA WROUGHT IOR FREEDOM 



was carried, and then it was resolved that 
the Congress should meet either in Madras or 
Nagpur. 

Mr, Norendranath Sen then proposed a Resolution 
which is not yet carried out, that if it were possible 
a meeting of the Congress should be held in London 
in 1892, so, as to bring the Indian question before 
the British Democracy as no small deputation could 
do. Mr. Saligram Singh, in seconding, thought 
that if suitable arrangements could be made for the 
voyage, no serious objection would be made by the 
orthodox, and Mr. Viraraghavachari said that as far 
as Madras was concerned, no orthodoxy would be 
allowed to stand in the way of their political advance- 
ment. A very long discussion arose, and even very 
orthodox delegates declared that they would go for 
the sake of the country, although it might give great 
pain to those they loved and revered. 

A Resolution on finance was then passed ; Mr. 
Hume was re-elected Secretary, and Pandit Ayodhya- 
nath, Joint General Secretary for the ensuing year ; 
and a deputation to England was appointed. One of 
the lady delegates, Mrs. Kadumbini Ganguli, was 
called on to move the vote of thanks to the Chairman, 
the first woman who spoke from the Congress plat- 
form, a symbol that India's freedom would uplift 
India's Womanhood. The President spoke a few 
words of thanks to the Reception Committee and 
others who had helped, wnd the Sixth Congress 
dissolved. 



THE SIXTH GUJNGRESS 117 

RESOLUTIONS 
Representation 

I. Resolved That this Congress, having considered the draft 
Bill recently introduced into Parliament by Mr. Charles' Bradlaugh, 
entitled " An Act to amend the Indian Councils Act of 1861," 
approves the same as calculated to secure a substantial instalment 
of that reform, in the Administration of India, for which it has been 
agitating, and humbly prays the Houses of Parliament of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to pass the same into law ; 
and further that its President, Mr. Pherozeshah Mehta, is hereby 
empowered to draw up and sign, on behalf of this assembly, a peti- 
tion to the House of Commons to the foregoing effect, and to transmit 
the same to Mr. Charles Bradlaugh for presentation, thereto, in due 
course. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

II. Resolved That this present Congress does hereby ratify 
and confirm the resolutions passed by previous Congresses as to 

(a) to (h) the same as in Resolution III of the Congress of 
1889. 

(t) was made Resolution V of 1890, and (j) of 1889 took its 
place. 

(j) is from Resolution V of 1889. 

(fc) was Resolution VI of 1889, very slightly modified in the 
preliminary words which run The expediency of so modifying 
the rules made under Act XI of 1 878 (the Arms Act) that all 
restrictions, etc. 

Grievances before Supply 

III. Resolved That this Congress respectfully expresses 
the earnest hope that in the interest x>f the people of India, the 
House of Commons will forthwith restore the right, foimerly possess- 
ed by members of that Honourable House, of stating to Parliament 
any matter of grievance of the natives of India before Mr. Speaker 
leaves the Chair for the presentation in Committee of the Indian 
Budget statement, and earnestly trusts that the House of Commons 
will, in future, take into consideration the Annual Indian Budget 
statement at such a date as will ensure its full and adequate discuss- 
ion, and further authorises its President to sign a Petition, in the 
name and on behalf of this Congress, for presentation to the House 
of Commons, in accordance with the terms of this Resolution. 



118 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Temperance 

IV. Resolved That, while recognising the action taken, in 
response to its previous prayers, in the matter of Excise Reform by 
H. M.'s Secretary of State for India and the Supreme Government 
here, and noting with pleasure the increase to the import duty on 
spirits, the taxation imposed on Indian-brewed malt liquors, the 
decision of the Bengal Government to abolish the ontstill system, and 
the closing of over 7,000 liquor shops by the MH draft Government in 
1889-90, this Congress regrets that it is still necessary to urge the 
Government of India to insist on all Provincial administrations 
carrying out in their integrity the policy in matters of Excise 
enunciated in paras 103, 104 and 105 of the Despatch published in 
Ihe Gaeette of India of March 1st, 1890, especially as to subsection 4 
of para 103, viz. 

"That efforts should be made to ascertain the existence of local 
public sentiment, and that a reasonable amount of deference should 
be paid to such opinion when ascertained " 

Salt Tax 



V. Eesolved That the condition of the Finances of India 
having materially improved, and those special circumstances on 
which the Government relied to justify the recent enhancement of 
the Salt Tax having practically ceaued to exist, this Congress 
considers it essential that the enhancement referred to should be 
remitted at an early date, and empowers its President to submit a 
special memorial on the subject in its name and on its behalf to 
H. E. the Viceroy in Council. 

Permanent Settlement 

VI. Resolved That having reference to the expectations 
created throughout the country by the Despatch of Her Majesty's 
Secretary of State in 1862, the principles of which were re-affirmed 
in a subsequent Despatch of 1865, promising the extension of a 
Permanent Settlement to all temporarily settled tracts in which 
certain conditions have long since been fulfilled, this Congress re- 
spectfully submits that the Government of India is now in honour 
bound to take up this question of Permanent Settlement, without 
further delay, in view to practical action thereon such that fixity and 
permanency may be given to the Government Land Revenue 
demand, as explicitly promised by Her Majesty's Secretary of State 
more than a quarter of a century ago. 

An Enquiry 

VII. Resolved That this Congress, having observed with sur- 
prise a notice, apparently official, in various Calcutta newspapers 
which runs as follows : 



THE SIXTH CONGTJESS 119 

THE CONGRESS 

Tho Bengal (Jovornnumt having learnt that tickets of admission 
to tlio visitors' enclosure in tho Gongross pavilion have been 
sent to various Government ofKeeis residing in Calcutta, has issued 
a circular to all Secretaries, and heads of departments subordinate 
to it, pointing i>ut that under tho aiders of the Government of 
India the presence of Government ofKcials, even as visitors at such 
meetings IM not advisable, and that their taking part in the pro- 
ceedings of any such meetings IH absolutely prolnbiled 

And having also considered a letter addressed by the Private 
Secretary of II 1. Honom the Licutcnant-Go\crnoi of Bengal to the 
Secretary of the Iteeeptioii Committee, of which Hie following is 
an exact copy 

BKLVEDERE, 
2tith Dcce inlet, 1890 

Dear Sir^ In letm-nnii" hcicuith the seven imds of admission 
to the MHitorV eiu IOHIIIC of the Congiess pjnihoa, which were 
kindlv sent b\ .you to inv address veHierd.i> afternoon, I am deviled 
to Hay thwt the Lieutenant -(!o\ei nor and the mernbeiH of his 
household could not possibly <n.ul themseUes ol these tickets, 
since the oideis of the (Jjo\einnient of India definiteh prohibit 
the presence ol (io\ eminent OHuials iit sui h inentinifs. 

^ ouis iaithfidly, 

P O'LION, 
I'll i ate Stt n'tui if 

J Ohosal, Km]., HoenMan, 

Congress Uticeptfon t'oinmitt(>e 

authorises nnd mstiui ts its VrcHident to drau the attention t>t 
His Evcellonoy the Vuero\ to the declaration embodied in these 
papers that Goveimnenl HcmuitH ate piohibited iioin attending any 
meotmgs of this Gonpfrosn even as spectators, nid to enipme, 
most respectfidly, whether His Honour tho Lif)utcnant-(jo i u>riior 
of Bengal has, or has not, correctly interpreted the oideis of the 
Government of India. 

Thanks of Congress 

V1H. Resolved That the best thanks of this Congress be 
tendered to Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M P., for the invaluable services 
rendered by him during tho past year, as also to Sir W Wedderburn, 
Mr. W. S. Caino, Mr. J. Bright Mnclaron, M.P , Mr. J Ellis, M P., 
Mr. George Yule, and Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji for the unselfish xeal 
and ability with which they have presided over tho British Agency 



120 HOW INDIA WEOUGHW J70B lEBBDOM 

of the Congress ; further that they pat on record an expression of 
their high appreciation of the manner in which Mr. Digby, 0. 1. E., 
Secretary of the 'Agency, and Messrs. Surendranath Bannerji, 
B. N. Mudholkar, W. JR. Bannerji, Eardley Norton, and A. 0. Hume, 
delegates to England, respectively, discharged the onerous duties 
imposed upon them, and of their gratitude to all those mem- 
bers of the British public who so kindly welcomed and so 
sympathetically gave audience, in over fifty public and a far larger 
number of private meetings, to one or more of these delegates. 

IX. Besolved That a vote of thanks be recorded to 
Kumar Debendra Mullick and Brothers, Proprietors of the 
Tivoli Gardens, Mr. N. G. Bose and Babu Bhupendranath Bose, 
Proprietors of Mohan Bagan Villa, and to the Hon. Sir Bomesh 
Chandra Mitra, Mr. T. N Palit, Babus Jnnaki Nath Boy, Gopi 
Mohan Boy, Harendra Nath Boy, Kissori Mohan Boy, Bamanath 
Ghose, and Jamadar Ghasiram, owners of houses kindly lent for the 
use of delegates. 

Congress Work 

XI. Besolved That provisional arrangements be made to 
hold a Congress, of not less than 100 delegates, in England, all things 
being convenient, in 1892, and that the several standing Congress 
Committees be directed to report, at the coming Congress, the 
names of the delegates that it is proposed to depute from their 
respective circles. 

XII. Besolved That of the Funds now in the Joint General 
Secretary's hands and about to be received, a further sum of 
twenty thousand rupees be added to the Permanent Fund and 
placed in fixed deposits, and that the rest of the funds accruing on 
account of this current year, 1890, be held by him available for the 
immediate purposes of the British Committee of the Indian Nation - 
al Congress, but to be replaced as the subscriptions for 1891 are 
received, and, ultimately, also added to the Permanent Fund. 

XIII. Besolved That a sum of Bs 40,000, exclusive of 
individual donations, is assigned for the expenses of the British 
Committee of the Congress and Bs. 6,000 for the General Secretary's 
Office and Establishment, and that the several circles and districts 
do contribute as arranged in Committee. 

XT. Besolved That this Congress does formally appoint 
Messrs. G. Yule, Pherozeshah Mehta, W. 0. Bannerji, J. Adam, 
Mano Mohan Ghose, A. 0. Hume, Kali Charan Bannerji, Dadabhai 
Naoroji, D. A. Khare, and such other gentlemen as may volunteer 
for the duty with the sanction and approval of the Standing Con- 
gress Committees of their respective circles, to represent its views 
in England, and press upon the consideratipn of the British Public 
the political reforms which the Congress ha!s advocated. 



THE SIXTH CONGRESS 121 

Formal 

X. Resolved That the Seventh Indian National Congress 
do assemble on the 26th December, 1891, at cither Madras or 
Nagpore, as may be hereafter settled, in consultation between the 
Madras, Central Pro\ hu-es and Berar Committees, and the Joint 
General Secretary. 

Xiy. Resolved That Mr. A, Hume and Pandit Ayodhya- 
uath are i*e-eleeted General and Joint-General Secretaries for the 
ensuing year. 



11 



CHAPTER VII 

NAGPUR had the honour of welcoming the Seventh 
National Congress on the 28th, 29th and 30th of 
December, 1891, and 812 delegates met in a very 
beautiful Pavilion, in the Lall Bagh. It held just 
4,000 chairs and was packed in every part. The 
delegates were distributed as follows 

Bengal. . .. .73 

N. W. P. and Oudh 50 

Panjab ... . . . . 5 

Bombay (135) and Sindh (2) 137 

Berar, C. P. and Seennderabad . . . , 480 
Madras... .. ... ... ... 61 



812 



At 2 p. m., the Chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee Chairman also, as it happened, of the Nagpur 
Municipality Mr. C. Narayanaswami Nayadu, wel- 
comed the delegates j he spoke warmly of India's 
" love of the British people to whose advent here 
India owes her rebirth," and he bore testimony to 
the cordial way in which the Chief Commissioner of 
the Central Provinces, Mr. A. P. Macdpnnell, had signi- 
fied that, so far as he was concerned, any official 
who wished to do so could attend the Congress. 



THE SEVENTH CONGRESS 123 

Pandit Ayodhyanath proposed and Mr. Phero- 
zeshah Melita seconded, the election of Eao Sahab 
P. Ananda Charlu as President, who, on taking the 
Chair, alluded to two others who had also been 
suggested as President, one of whom, Pandit 
Ayodhyanath, had preferred that the Presidency 
should go to Madras, and the other, Dewan Bahadur 
S. Subramania Iyer, had been raised to the Bench 
of the High Court, Madras, and was thus precluded 
from taking part in the Congress. His next 
reference was to the irreparable loss sustained by 
India in the death of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M.P., 
" an embodiment of universal benevolence "; what it 
meant tu India was shown by Lord Cross immediately 
dropping even his feeble, measure of reform, and the 
renewed indifference of the British Government, which 
had already lasted for nearly twenty years, until India 
was almost on the verge of revolt. The deaths of 
Sir T. Madhava Hao and Dr. Rajendralal Mitra were 
also mournfully recorded. The President, after 
alluding to the approaching departure of Mr. A. O. 
Hume, urged on the attention of the Congress the 
meeting in London, as proposed the previous year, 
and their duty to spread the knowledge of the work 
of the Congress among the masses. 

The Subjects Committee already elected by the 
delegates was then ratified by the Congress, and 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji brought up Resolution I, 
appointing a Committee to consider and report on a 
momentous question, whether the Annual Sessions 
of the Congress should be discontinued until after 



124 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT K>K lUUSBDOJU 

the proposed Session had been held in England. He 
spoke passionately in favour of maintaining the re- 
gular Sessions while also holding one in England, and 
tho resolution was seconded and carried. The 
Congress then adjourned. 

On meeting on December 29th, Mr. Gladstone's 
82nd birthday, the Congress gave three cheers for him 
before settling down to business. Then Mr. 
Surendranath Bannerji, who moved Resolution II, 
insisted on the value of the Congress in bringing 
about reforms, pointing to the demand of the Con- 
gress for Legislative Councils in the N, W. P. and 
the Panjab, and the establishment of the first, and to 
some other hoped for changes. He urged that India 
was not well governed, but " it is not tho rnen 
who are to blame ; it is the system ; it is the 
bureaucracy, the autocratic despotism, that has 
been established, that must be arraigned before 
the bar of public opinion in India and throughout 
the civilised world. ... It is a despotism, tempered 
by a free press and the right of public meeting." 
[Both of these have since been taken away.] 

What is the financial position of the Government 
of India r* It may bo briefly summed up. It is a position 
of ever recurring 1 deficits diversified by an ever- increasing 

debt England lias educated us, arid has awakened 

in our minds ambitions which she is bound to satisfy. . . 
The policy of the Government is not a policy of concili- 
ation, I am sorry to say. At times it is an irritating 
policy. Take the case of the volunteers. We are ex- 
cluded from enrolment as volunteers. Armenians, 
Negroes, West African Mulattoes, and nondescripts of 
humanity who infest the back slums of Calcutta these 
are all eligible as volunteers, these are our martial 



THE SEVENTH CONGRESS 125 

heroes, these are the defenders of our hearths and homes. 
These are invidious distinctions, and I am sure that they 
must disappear before the irresistible might of constitu- 
tional agitation. They are opposed to the spirit of British 
law ; they are opposed to the spirit of that law which is 
higher than till human laws, the law of nature, which is 
engraved on the hearts and consciences of the people of 
this country. 

All this is entirely true ; the words were spoken in 
1891 ; this is the year of grace 1915. 

The Kesolution was briefly seconded by the Rev. 
Mr, R. C. Bose and carried by acclamation. 

Mr. Pringle Kennedy then moved Resolution III, 
which with Resolutions IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, really, 
though they were separately moved and carried, con- 
stituted a sort of "omnibus Resolution ". Mr. Kennedy 
made a remarkably good speech, on " peace, economy, 
and reform," urging that instead of a "scientific 
frontier/' they should remember the words of Lord 
Derby in 1878, when an invasion of India was feared : 
" A full treasury, a prosperous and contented people 
these are the real defences of the country." He 
pleaded for the people in words as pitifully true in 
1915 as in 1891, saying tliat millions 

have not, from year's end to year's end, a sufficiency 
of food. From one day to another they do not know, 
what every one of us knows every day of his life, what it 
is to have their stomachs full. 

Mr. Mudholkar seconded, saying that there was 
"acute, widespread, growing poverty," and quoted 
Sir William Hunter, who said that fully 40 millions of 
people in India went through life with insufficient food, 
and Sir Charles Elliot, who declared : "I do not hesitate 



126 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

to say that half the agricultural population do not know 
from one year's end to another what it is to have a 
full meal." He gave the records of some famines 
in 12 years, 12 million people had died. The average 
income of the Indian was put down by Government at 
Rs. 27, while that of the Englishman was RH. 570. And 
this is an average ; some have enormous incomes ; 
to what then do the incomes of the peasants fall ? 

Lala Murlidhar, speaking in Urdu, made an im- 
passioned speech ; the hag- Poverty, he said, brought 
forth a brood, wretchedness, misery, degradation, 
famine, pestilence, crime ; all were to blame for this, 
people and Government : 

You, yon, it seems, are content to join with these 
accursed monsters in battening on the heart's blood of 
your brethren (me<? of No, A T o). I say Yes , look round : 
What are all those chandeliers and lamps, and 
European-marie chairs and tables, and smart clothes and 
hats, and English coats and bonnets and frocks, and 
silver-mounted canes, and all the luxurious fittings of 
your houses, but trophies of India's misery, mementoes of 
India's starvation ! Every rupee you have spent on 
Europe-made articles is a rupee of which you havo rob hod 
your poorer brethren, honest handicraftsmen, who can now 
no longer earn a living. Of course I know that it was 
pure philanthropy which flooded India with English-made 
goods, and surely, if slowly, killed out every indigenous 
industry pure philanthropy which, to facilitate this, 
repealed the import duties and flung away three crores a 
year of a revenue which the rich paid, arid to balance this 
wicked sacrifice raised the salt tax, which the poor pay ; 
which is now pressing factory regulations on us, to kill, if 
possible, the one tiny new industrial departure India 
could boast. Oh, yes, it is all philanthropy, but the 
result is that from this cause, amongst others, your 
brethren are starving. 



THE SEVENTH CONGRESS 127 

]Sfot .SO years ago wheat sold for li maunds and gram 
for 2 maunds for the rupee, for our grain was not exported 
to foreign lands. Now it i.s six times as dear, and six 
times as hard for the poor to till their bellies, because our 
philanthropists havo conjured up the phantasm of free 
trade to drain our granaries. Free trade, fair play 
between nations, how 1 hate the sham W hat fair play 
in trade can there he between impoverished India and the 
bloated capitalist l^ngl-ind tfj As well t.ilk of a fair fig-lit 
between in mfjuii smd M .iwmg mm j rabbit n,nd a boa- 
constnetor. NTo doubt it is all in accordance with high 
economic science, but, my 1'iiends, remember this this, 
t'w> -is slri'M 'MO- ymir brMtliriMi 

And OIK j^nod ( 1)\ t ( riiuent is .. 1. 1 a * nl Jit tho decay 
of all ?uiiv< industi'ie.s^ so HUMOUS tl-a 1 - \\e hhonid once 
more be in a position (.< suppiv ouist !\i .^ IIM! tllid viik 
IK-I-H lor our people, 1irttihc\ hf\e e i i.jhiislied, I beiie\e, 
liearU one do/en feciinieal school-., ihion<.'.'-t -{00 millions 
of people. 

UP complained bjltinly that Indi.ins' <}jij-ht nor- 
mami^e thep 1 own finai>''H, th<mh \kiMr trusted bis 
finance to Hindu i-inn^lors, who nl \\ays bad huge 
surpluspH and money to spare. 

Mr. D. I'J. Wacha look up the growing mihtaiy 
expenditure, itnd showed that ilm pca^untry wero 
being ruinod by the revenue system of British India. 
Between 1804 and LS85 the military expenditure 
bad increased by five croms. In 1809 it stood at 14 
crores. Since 1885-80 to 1890-01 it bad increased 
54 crores, and it continued to increase. 

Our readers will remember that Mr. Gokhale's 
Bill for Education was rejected as involving an 
expenditure of "between, 5 and JO crores annually ". 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya remarked that 
Indian soldiers had gone outside India, and had shed 



128 HOW ItfDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

their blood for the Queen wherever t she wished, but 
they could only be Subedar and Resaldar Majors, 
subject, after 25 years of service, " to the sub- 
lieutenant who joined yesterday ". It was said they 
spoke with bitterness and warmth : " It is the man 
who is being flogged who cries out, not the mere 
bystanders/' Mr. K. G. Deshpande dealt with the 
frequent land assessments, showing their ruinous 
effect on the peasantry, and the absurdity of 
arguing from the rise in prices for peasants, 
who cultivated not to sell, but to eat. Others 
followed, one land-holder saying that in his 
district a new settlement had recently been 
made which in one sub-district had enhanced the 
revenue 66, in another 99, in a third 116 per cent. 
In a few villages the revenue had been raised 300 to 
1,500 per cent. The peasants were being destroyed. 
The President summed up the discussion caustically : 

The result of the whole argument is that there are 
facts and figures of a very telling character impaling ua 
on the horns of a dilemma : either, if we believe the 
authorities, to submit to Russian aggression, or, if we. 
look to facts, to calmly look on when millions upon 
millions of our countrymen die of famine every decade. 
That is^the sum and substance of the whole of what has 
been said. We call upon the Government to take away the 
one horn of that dilemma, which is based on undeniable 
farts and is goring us even now, and leave us, if needs he, 
exposed to that other shadowy and still very distant horn, 
in which, sooth to say, we have no belief. 

The Resolution was unanimously carried. 

i nn;i rt -u ^oved Resolution IV, urging that 
British Government defends you, 



THX SEVENTH CONGRESS 129 

why want arms ? was easily answered. The Govern- 
ment undertakes to defend 250 millions of people 
against wild beasts and the wild bear of the north. 
As their own returns show, they do not defend the 
people against wild beasts, and as for the northern 
enemy they would doubtless do their best when the 
time came, but meanwhile their preparations were 
crushing the life out of the country. They did not 
wish the people starved to death, because the Russians 
might make a raid 25 years hence. 

Mr. All Muhammad Bhimji remarked that the 
German soldier cost Bs. 145, the French Bs. 185, 
the English in England Bs. 285, but in India Bs. 775. 
The income per head in England was 42, in France 
28, in Germany 18, in India 1. 10s. Others follow- 
ed and the Besolution was carried. 

Resolution V, for simultaneous examinations, was 
proposed, seconded and carried, and Besolution VI 
on Taxation and Excise was also carried. On Besolu- 
tion VII, on the Judicial and Police Administration, 
the President gave a case which should be placed 
on record : a magistrate was determined to convict 
an accused, and his prejudice was so marked 
that the case was sent to the Sessions; the last 
sentence in his order ran : "I am perfectly 
satisfied as to the guilt of the accused; I was 
prepared to convict him and pass sentence on 
him, but my hands have been tied." The Sessions 
Court, after hearing the case for the prosecution, 
acquitted the accused honorably* without calling on 
him for any defence. 



130 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE PEEEDOM 

Mr. Herambo Chandra Maitra, in moving Reso- 
lution VIII on education, declared tha,t they would 
not allow the Government to assert, uncontradicted, 
that it was anxious to promote primary education, 
while doing nothing for it, and trying to withdraw 
from higher education. If the educated were a 
" microscopical minority," who but the Government 
were to blame ? He concluded with a fine appeal : 

It is hard upon three score years ago that this great 
problem formally forced itself on the consideration of the 
British Nation : " Shall we for ever retain these Indians, 
whose destinies God has confided to our charge, ignorant 
and as slaves, or shall we educate and raise them to be fit 
and anxious to join, as free men, in the administration of 
their own country ? " Day after day, in both Houses of 
Parliament, the great debate was carried on, until the 
Nation, through its peers and representatives, decided for 
the latter and nobler course. For years this decision was 
honestly acted up to, and Lord Derby's (then Lord 
Stanley's) despatch of 1859 and John Stuart Mill's famous 
despatch of 1854, remain proofs of the honesty of purpose 
of the British Nation. But ever since the Congress arose to 
advocate and vindicate the cause of constitutional freedom, 
and threaten the autocratic powers and exclusive privileges 
of the great Indian bureaucracy, this latter, alarmed for 
these its cherished possessions, has begun to crave for a 
retrogade movement into the policy which their nobler 
countrymen, 60 years ago, indignantly repudiated. 

It is too late, my friends too late ; the seed has been 
sown broadcast, has germinated, is germinating every- 
where ; in vain you try now everywhere to repress and 
discourage higher education by every insidious means. 
You may delay, but you cannot destroy. You may earn 
hatred, you cannot secure the enslavement of tho&e who 
now know that they are free British subjects. It is too 
late ; put aside this folly, accept the inevitable and fore- 
seen results of the policy your nobler predecessors 
deliberately adopted. Abstain from discouraging, as you 



THE SEYENTH CONGRESS 181 

now are discouraging, education ; be true to the higher and 
better impulses of a Briton's heart ; be true to the edieisof 
your senates, the orders of our Queen-Empress , stimulate, 
heart and soul, as in days gone by, education of all kinds 
and of every grade, and then, in lieu of a Frankenstein 
monster ever on the alert to destroy you, you will find in 
the educated generations that will rally round you, not 
indeed the servile sycophants that ignorance might have 
furnished you, but true, loyal and capable colleagues, 
whose foremost aim and chief glory it will be to labour' on 
equal terms, side by side with you, to secure the safety, 
honour and welfare of our common Sovereign and all her 
dominions. 

Mr. Gr. K. G-okhale seconded, not as thinking that 
anything would come from a Commission, but Com- 
mission Keports were useful to students. Education 
meant the growth of the section which worked to 
secure the happiness and contentment of the people. 
" Truly in the happiness and contentment of India's 
people lie England's glory and England's strength ; 
and in England's sense of honour and justice lie, at 
this critical period, all our hopes and all our aspira- 
tions/' 

With the passing of this Resolution the Congress 
adjourned. 

The third day opened with a Resolution which 
recited a telegram from General Booth and proposed 
the reply drafted by the Subjects Committee, which 
was unanimously adopted by the Congress and carried 
as Resolution IX. 

Mr. W. 0. Bannerji then brought up the report 
of the Committee appointed by Resolution I, recom- 
mending that the Congress should continue its annual 



132 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

sittings and this, seconded by Pandit Ayodhyanath, 
was earned as Resolution X. 

Mr. Peter Ifyul Pillai moved Resolution XI on the 
Forest Laws, and depicted the injury to agriculture 
caused by them in the Madras Presidency to which 
he belonged : 

With a single stroke of the legislators' pen, the 
Forest Laws have extinguished the communal rights of 
the ryot~-rights which have been enjoyed from time 
immemorial-7-rights recognised and respected by former 
Governments, and even by the British Government in 

former times By the extinction of communal 

rights village society has been revolutionised .... Under 
pressure of necessity they are driven to infringe the all- 
embracing Forest Laws and thus stand liable to criminal 
prosecution. For petty infringements of these vexatious? 
forest ordinances, thousands of criminal prosecutions take 
place in my district. 

As a matter of fact the Forest Laws have done 
more to alienate the peasantry from British rule than 
any other thing ; the Salt Tax is bad ; the Assessment 
Settlements are cruel ; but the Forest Laws sting at 
every point, and the unhappy peasant, doing as his 
forefathers have done for countless generations, finds 
himself haled up as a criminal. Mr. Pillai showed 
that the Government had realised in 1890 a lakh and 
a half from pasture fees, and three and a half lakhs 
as penal fees by impounding cattle for trespass on 
the confiscated communal lands. In one district, 
North Arcot, during January to September, 1891, 
800,000 cattle perished for want of pasture over and 
above the normal mortality. Mr, Filial reccmatei $ 
number of other grievances, and s^icl %e 




THE SEVENTH CONGKESS 138 

Indian Christian that all appeals to press and 
Government having failed, their only hope was in the 
Congress. 

Among other speakers was Mr. S. B. Bhate, who 
said that in his district the cattle were starving 
because of the forest administration, which would not 
even open the old grazing land temporarily, and pea- 
sants were giving their cattle away, and selling 
10 or 12 for a rupee. Mr. Nunbkar spoke, "an 
original inhabitant," he said, " of a poor hilly village in 
a poor district ". Forests, jungles, wilds, gave things 
men wanted, fuel, wood, grass, stones, earth, leaves, 
bark, roots ; all had been taken from them, not by 
God, but by avaricious men. For hundreds of genera- 
tions they had enjoyed these unchallenged, and now 
they were deprived of what nature gave them. 
Forests were blessings in the days of Hindu and 
Muhammadan rulers ; now they were curses. His land 
was on the hills, but he could not use forest, brush, 
scrub, though they were his own. He might not use 
leaves from his own trees, though he had grown them. 
Where might his cattle graze ? The forest reserves 
were not fenced, and cattle trespassed, and the owners 
were fined. A villager, having' no doctor, tried 
to gather medicinal herbs, he was fined ; the herbs 
were all in the forests. Nothing could add to the 
pathos of the simple recital of the facts among which 
the speaker lived, The Resolution was, of course, 
unanimously passed. 

.Resolutions followed of thanks to friends living in 
this world, of grief and gratitude to Charles 
12 



134 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE flBBBDOH 

Bradlaugh, lost to India's cause. Several voiced their 
deep and abiding sorrow, and all stood in silent 
reverence till the Resolution was declared carried, 

Resolution XV postponed the holding of a Con- 
gress in ^London as a General Election was impending* 
Funds were voted to the British Committee, Mr. A. 0. 
Hume and Pandit Ayodhyanath were elected General 
and Joint General Secretaries, the invitation to 
Allahabad for the next Session of the Congress was 
accepted, and a vote of thanks to the President was 
passed. Thus en.ded the Seventh National Congress. 

No one who reads these records of Congress work 
can fail to recognise the single eyo to the freedom, 
prosperity, and happiness of the Motherland tvr 
shown by the Congress. The intense sympathy with 
the sufferings of the maHSBHj the effort to gain pri- 
mary education for them, the protest against the 
laws and administration that were reducing the 
peasantry to hopolasn poverty, these wore all dose to 
the heart of the Congressman, Never was then* a 
falser accusation than that which tried to divido the 
Voice of India from the inarticulate masses whose 
sufferings it proclaimed, by calling the Congress a 
movement merely of discontented educated men, 
wanting place and power. 

BBJSOfcUTIONS 

I. Resolved That a Committee be appointed to consider and 
report, on or before the morning of the 80th instant, whether, or 
not, 'it is advisable to discontinue the Annual Sessions of the Indian 
National Congress until after the British Session, and, if not, under 
what regulations, as to numbers of delegates, localities for assem- 
blage, and the Hfep, future Congresses shall be held. The Committee 
to be composed as follows j 



JTHE SJBVJHUNTH CO&G&&BS 135 

MBMBBBS : 



The President. 

The Chairman of the Reception Committee. 

The General Secretary. 

The Joint General Secretary. 

The Standing Counsels to the Congress. 

OKDINAET MEMBERS = 

Messrs. Surendranath Bannerji. Messrs. Mnrlidhar. 

Yiraraghava Chariar. Mndholkar. 

Hafiz M. Abdul Bahim. Deo Bao Vinayak. 

Gangaprasad Varma. Gopal Bao Bhide. 

Fringle Kennedy. Bipin Krishna Bose. 

Guruprasad Sen. Daji Abaji Khare. 

D. E. t Waoha. Madan Mohan Malaviya. 

M. B.* Namjoshi. Saligram Singh. 

Hamid Ali Khan. Sankara Nair. 
Vishnu Moreshwar Bhide. 

Representation 

II. Resolved That this Congress reaffirms the conclusion 
arrived at by all previous Congresses, tnz., that India can never be 
well or justly governed, nor her people prosperous or contented, 
until they are allowed, through their elected representatives, a 
potential voice in the Legislatures of their own country, and respect- 
fully urges the people of Great Britain and Ireland, whose good 
will towards India it gratefully recognises, to permit no further 
delay in the concession of this just and necessary reform. 

III. Resolved That this Congress, concurring in the views 
set forth in previous Congresses, affirms 

That fully fifty millions of the population, a number yearly 
increasing, are dragging out a miserable existence on the verge of 
starvation, and that, in every decade, several millions actually 
perish by starvation. 

That this unhappy condition of affairs is largely due to 

(a) the exclusion of the people of India from a due 
participation in the administration, and all control over the 
finances, of their own country, the remedy for which has been set 
forth in Resolution II j to 

(6) the extravagant cost of the present administration, 
Military and Civil, but especially the former j and to f 



136 HOW INDIA WBOTJGHT FOR FREEDOM 

(c) a short-sighted system of Land Bevenue Administration, 
whereby not only is all improvement in the agriculture of the 
country, on which nine-tenths of the population depend for 
subsistence, rendered impossible, but the gradual deterioration of 
that agriculture assured. 

That hence it has become imperatively necessary 

that the cost of the administration be greatly reduced ; in the 
Military branch, by a substantial reduction of the standing army, by 
the substitution of long term local European troops like those of the 
Hon. E. I. Company, for the present short term Imperial regiments 
with their heavy cost of recruitment in England, in transport and of 
excessive mortality amongst non-acclimatised youths; by the 
cessation, of the gigantic waste of money, that has gone on now for 
several years, on so-called Frontier Defences, and by a strict 
economy in the Commissariat, Ordnance and Store Departments ; 
and in the Civil branch, by the wide substitution of a cheaper 
indigenous "agency for the extremely costly imported Staff ; and 
that measures be at once taken to give, as was promised by the 
British Government thirty years ago, fixity and permanence to the 
Land Revenue demand and thus permit capital and labour to 
combine td develop the agriculture of the country, which, under the 
existing system of temporary settlements, in recent times often 
lasting fpr short periods, in some cases only extending to 10 and 
12 years, is found to be impossible ; and to establish Agricultural 
Banks. 

That this Congress does most earnestly entreat the people of 
Great Britain and Ireland not to permit any further sacrifice of life 
by the shortcomings of the existing, doubtless well-intentioned, 
but none the less unsatisfactory, administration, but to insist, and 
speedily, on these reforms. 

Military 

IV. Eesolved That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, is of opinion that, to ensure the adequate protection 
and efficient defence of the country, it is desirable that the Govern- 
ment should conciliate Indian public opinion and encourage and 
qualify the Indians to defend their homes and their Government 

(a) by so modifying the rules under the Arms Act, as to 
make them equally applicable to all residents in, or visitors to, 
India, without distinction of creed, class or colour ; to ensure the 
liberal concession of licences wherever wild animals habitually 
destroy human life, cattle or crops, and to make all licences, granted 
under the revised rules, of lifelong tenure, revocable only on proof 
of mlsnse,,and valid throughout the Provincial Jurisdiction in which 
they are issued; 



THE SEVENTH CONQRB8S 137 

(6) by establishing Military Colleges in India, whereat 
natives of India, as defined by Statute, may be educated and trained 
for a military career, as commissioned or non-commissioned officers 
(according to capacity and qualifications) of the Indian army 3 

(c) by organising, throughout the more warlike races of the 
Empire, a system of Militia service ; and 

(eZ) by authorising and stimulating a widespread system of 
Volunteering, such as obtains in Great Britain, amongst the peopl 
of India. 

Taxation and Excise 

V. Resolved That as one stop towards ensuring the wider 
employment of Indians in the administration of the country, and as 
a matter of simple justice to the people of India, this Congress, 
agreeing with previous Congresses, declares it to be essential that 
all -examinations for any and all of the Civil branches of the Public 
Service in India, which at present are held only m England, should 
henceforth be also held simultaneously in India. 

VI. Resolved -That this Congress con< urs with its predecessors 
in strongly advocating 

(a) the reduction of the salt tax, by at least the amount of 
its latest enhancement ; 

(b) the raising of the income tax taxable minimum from 
Ks. SOOtoRs. 1,000; 

(c) persistent pressure by the Government, of India on all 
Provincial Administrations, to induce them to eairy out, in its 
integrity, the excise policy enunciated in paras 103, 104 and 105 
of the despatch, published in The Guzclteof Indta, of March 1st, 
1890, and the introduction of a simple system of local option in the 
case of all villages. 

Law and Polioe 

VII. Reached That having regard to the unsatisfactory 
character, in many respects, of the Judicial and Police Administra- 
tion, this Congress concurs with its predecessors in strongly 
advocating 

(a) the complete separation of Executive and Judicial functions, 
such that in no case shall the two functions be combined in the same 
officer; 

(b) the extension in many parts of the country, where it 
is not at present in force, of the system of trial by jury 5 

(c) the withdrawal from High Courts of the powers, first 
vested in them in 1872, of setting aside verdicts of acquittals by 
juries j 



138 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM. 



(d) the introduction, into the Code of Criminal Procedure 
of a provision enabling accused persons, in warrant oases, to demand 
that instead of being tried by the Magistrate ihey be committed to 
the court of sessions ; 

(e) the fundamental reform of the Police Administration, by 
a reduction in the numbers and an increase in the salaries, and in 
the qualifications of the lower grades, and their far more careful 
enlistment, and by the selection for the higher poses of gentlemen of 
higher capacities, more in touch with the respectable portions of 
the community, and less addicted to military pretensions, than the 
majority of the existing Deputy Inspectors-General, Superintendents 
and Assistant Superintendents, of Police, 

Education 

VIII Resolved That this Congress, concurring with pre- 
vious Congresses, affirms the importance of increasing (instead of 
diminishing, as appears to be the present policy of the Govern- 
ment) the public expenditure on all branches of education, and the 
expediency, in view to the promotion of one of the most essential 
of these branches, the technical,, of appointing a mixed Commission 
to enquire into the present industrial condition of the country. 



General Booth 

IX. 

Read the follmoing telegram, from General Booth : 

" May I be allowed to commend to the attention of the Congress, 
the claims of the millions of India's starving poor, and to urge the 
consideration of some scheme by which these destitute multitudes 
can be placed upon the waste lands of the country, in such an 
organised and befriended manner as will enable them to gain for 
themselves, those necessaries of a healthy existence which, in their 
present circumstances, are denied ; praying for the blessing of God 
upon the labours of the Congress, yours, in sympathy with every 
effort for the amelioration of the miseries of mankind." 

Resolved That the following telegram bo despatched in reply 
to General Booth : 

" The Congress, having received and considered your kindly 
message, thank you cordially for the same. No possible scheme of 
internal immigration can perceptibly relieve, the fif ty to sixty 
millions of half-starving paupers, whose sad condition constitutes 
the primary rcnson d'Stre of the Congress. It is only by modifying 
the adverse conditions out of which -this widespread misery arises, 
and by raising the moral standard of the people, that any real 



THE SEVENTH CONGRESS 139 

relief is possible. As regards the first, the Congress programme 
now embodies all primarily essential reforms; as regards the second, 
in every Province and in every, caste, associations, public or private, 
are working with a yearly increasing earnestness. Many good 
missionaries are labouring in the same field, and we have to thank 
you that your Army too is now engaged in the good work of 
elevating our masses. May your efforts and ours, in both directions, 
be crowned with success. Congress, including men of many creeds, 
welcomes cordially all who seek to benefit our suffering brethren." 

Congress Work 

X. 

Read the Report of the Committee appointed, under Resolution I, 
which runs as follows 

" Your Committee have considered the matter referred to them 
and have also consulted, informally, various members of the 
Subjects Committee and other delegates They are clearly of 
opinion that it is not advisable to discontinue the Annual Session 
of the Indian National Congress until after the British Session, and 
that future Congresses should be held under the same regula- 
tions as heretofore " 

Resolved That the Annual Sessions of the Congress m India 
continue to be held until all necessary reforms have been secured. 

XV. Resolved That in view of the General Election now 
impending in England, and in accordance with the recommendation 
of our British Committee, the provisional arrangements, set on foot 
in pursuance of the Resolution passed at the Calcutta Congress of 
1890, for holding, all things being convenient, a Congress of not 
less than 100 Delegates m England in 1892, bo now suspended until 
after such General Election. 

XVI. Resolved That a sum of Rs. 40,000, exclusive of 
individual donations, is assigned for the expenses of the British 
Committee of the Congress, and Rs 6,000 for the General Secretary's 
office and establishment, and that the several circles do contribute 
as arranged in Committee for the year 1892. 

Forest Laws 

XI. Resolved That having regard to the very serious discon- 
tent created, especially in Peninsular India, by the practical 
administration of the Forest Laws, the Government of India be 
most respectfully, but earnestly, entreated to investigate this care- 
fully, and endeavour to mitigate its harshness and render it less 
obnoxious to the poorer classes. 



140 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Thanks of Congress 

XII. Resolved Tit at this Congress hereby tenders its most 
grateful acknowledgments to Sir W, Wedderburn, and the members 
of the British Congress Committee, for the services rendered by 
them to India during the past year, and respectfully urges them to 
widen henceforth the sphere of their usefulness, by interesting 
themselves, not only in those questions dealt with by the Congress 
here, but in all Indian matters submitted to thorn, and properly 
vouched for, in which any principle accepted by the Congress is 
involved. 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress puts on record an expres- 
sion of the gratitude felt, throughout India, for the signal services 
rendered by the late Mr Charles Brndlaugh to that country's 
cause, and of the deep and universal sorrow which his untimely 
death has engendered 5 and that a copy of this Resolution, signed 
by the President, bo transmitted through the British Committee 
for presentation to Mrs. Bradlaugh Boniier. 

XIV. Resolved That this Congress, hereby, puts formally on 
record its high estimate and deep appreciation of the great services 
which Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji has rendered, during more than a 
quarter of a century, to tho cause of India, that it expresses its 
unshaken confidence in him and its earnest "hope that he may 
prove successful, at tho coming elections, in his candidature for 
Central Finsbury, and, at the same time, tenders, on behalf of the 
vast population it represents, India's most cordial acknowledgments 
to all in England, \\ hcther in Central Finsbury or olsewlutre, who 
have aided, or may aid him, to win a seat in the HOUHO of Commons. 

Formal 

XVII. Resolved Thai Mr. A. 0. Hume and Pnmlit Ayodhyn- 
nath are re-elocted General and Joint-General Secretaries for the 
ensuing year. 

XVIII. Resolved That tho Eighth Indian National Congress 
do assemble on the 36th December, 1892, at Allahabad. 



CHAPTER VIII 



THE Eighth National Congress met at Allahabad on 
December 28, 1892, in the same place as the Fourth, 
in Lowther Castle and its grounds, but these were 
now lent by the Maharaja of Darbhanga instead of 
being leased, hot-foot, to secure an abiding-place 
against ' the efforts of the official elements in Allaha- 
bad. The Maharaja had been a warm supporter 
of the National Movement, and, as he had become 
possessed of Lowther Castle, he gladly placed it at 
the disposal of the Congress. There was raised the 
Pavilion for the Congress, holding 3,500 chairs, to 
accommodate the delegates and the expected visitors. 
The country was represented as follows : 



Madras ......... 

Bombay ......... 

0. P., Berar and Secvmderabad 



K. W. P. and Oudh 
Paiijab 



of 



38 

77 

63 

105 

323 



625 



Committee 



142 HOW INDIA WEOUGHT FOB FKEEDOM 

admirable speech. After welcoming the delegates, 
he made a touching reference to the loss the move- 
ment had sustained in the passing away of that 
sterling patriot, Pandit Ayodhyanath, and then said 
a few strong words for the Congress : 

Every true Englishman, with whom the love of 
liberty is an instinct, must rejoice in his heart to witness 
that that proud day in the history of the British occupa- 
tion of India has come,, when the children of the soil have 
learnt to stand upon their feet, and are now claiming their 
just rights in a constitutional manner. Both posterity 
and the history of our movement when written calmly, 
will, I am convinced, accord a just appreciation to its 
legitimate aims and reasonable objects. They not only 
err, but sin, and sin criminally too, who insinuate that this 
movement is calculated to sap and undermine the founda- 
tion of constituted authority .... We are now at the 
fag-end of the 19th century, and live under the aegis of 
a rule which recognises only lawful agitation by consti- 
tutional means. Hence the necessity of our resorting to 
such a course. Whether such agitation is a blessing or 
a curse of the present civilisation, I do not propose to 
discuss here. We must go on, and go on vigorously, and 
not -cease to agitate until we reach the goal of our 
ambition 

Mr. P. Ananda Charlu proposed, Mr. D. B. Wacha 
seconded, _ the election of Mr. W* C. Bannerji as 
President. It was put and unanimously carried, and 
he took the chair. A telegram from the Maharaja 
of Darbha.Hga was read, which welcomed the delegates 
to Lowther Castle, and expressed his pleasure " that 
the first use of this property, since my acquiring it, 
has been for Congress purposes ". 

Mr. Bannerji, in delivering his Presidential Address, 
referred to the reasons for the non-interference by 



THE EIGHTH CONGRESS 143 

the Congress with social questions, and then said a 
few words on the loss the movement had sustained in 
the passing of Pandit Ayodhyanath and Mr. G-eorge 
Yule, who had been respectively the President of tne 
Reception Committee and of the Congress, when the 
Congress met in Allahabad in 1888. He alluded to 
the passing of Lord Cross ' India Councils Bill, the 
value of which depended on the Rules framed to give 
effect to it, and then congratulated the Congress on 
the election to Parliament of Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji 
by the Central Finsbury constituency a noble and 
generous recognition of the claim of India to make 
her voice heard. He spoke warmly against the 
withdrawal of grants for higher education, and 
scathingly against the withdrawal of trial by jury 
in seven of the districts of Bengal in serious cases. 
In closing, the President made a powerful appeal 
on the right of Indians to be heard, in answer to some 
who had said that an agitation of theirs might 
be disregarded because " it was only a ' native ' 
agitation ". 

Is our voice not to be listened to because, forsooth, 
to that voice has not been added the voice of our European 
fellow-subjects ? We would welcome, welcome with open 
arms, all the support which we can get from our European 
fellow-subjects . . . . . But, apart from that, why is our 
voice to be despised ? It is we who feel the pinch ; it is 
we who have to suffer ; and when we cry out, it is said 
to us : * Oh, we cannot listen to you ; yours is a con- 
temptible and useless and a vile agitation, and we will 
not listen to you." Time was when we natives of the 
country agitated about any matter, with the help of non- 
official Europeans, the apologiats of the Government u 
to say triumphantly : " This agitation, is not the agitati 




144 HOW INDIA WROUftHT FOE FREEDOM 

of the natives of the country, but has been got up by a 
few discontented Europeans ; don't listen to them, it is not 
their true voice; it is the voice of these European*." 
And now we are told: "Don't listen to them; it is 
their own vojce, and not the voice of the Europeans." 

The Subjects Committee, elected by the delegates 
was then submitted to and approved by the Congress, 
A telegram was sent" to Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, 
congratulating him on his election to the House of 
Commons and thanking the electors of Central 
Finsbury, and the Congress adjourned. 

The meeting of December 29th began by sending 
a congratulatory telegram to Mr. Gladstone on his 
83rd birthday, and then the President read out the 
rules for the conduct of business. 

The first Resolution, accepting the India Councils 
Bill, but regretting that it did not formally recognise 
the right of the Indian people to elect their repre- 
sentatives, was moved by Rai Bahadur Ananda 
Oharlu, who emphasised the regret. He quoted 
Mr. Gladstone, who looked forward to " not merely 
a nominal, but to a real living representation of the 
people of India/' and Lord Salisbury, who said : 

If we are to do it, and if it has to be donerlet us do 
it systematically . . . . taking care that the machinery 
to be provided shall effect the purpose of giving repre- 
sentation, not to accidentally constituted bodies, not to 
small sections of the people here and- there, bu* to the 
living strength and vital forces of the whole community 
of India. * 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji seconding, alluded to 
the statement (often heard since) that the Congress 
movement was discredited and enthusJUjsm on the 



THE EIGHTH CONGRESS 145 

wane, and remarked that this very Act was due to the 
Congress, and pointed to other signs of progress. 
Mr. Gladstone had spoken in 1892 of representative 
institutions as the "consecrated possessions . . . 
entrusted to the care and the guardianship of the 
English people ". 

We appeal to Mr. Gladstone, we appeal to his 
colleagues, to admit us into this inestimable legacy of the 
Anglo- Saxon race. Wherever floats the flag of England, 
Self-Government is the order of the day. Whererer 
Englishmen have gathered together in their Colonies, be 
they in the frigid zones of the north, or amid the blazing- 
heat of the Equator, or in those distinct tracts watered 
by the southern seas, Self -Government again is the order 
of the day. We are not Englishmen, or men of English 
race or extraction, but we are British subjects, the 
citizens of a great and free Empire , we live under .the 
protecting shadows of one of the noblest Constitutions the 
world has ever seen. The rights of Englishmen are ours, 
their privileges are ours, their Constitution is ours. But 
we are excluded from them. How long is this exclusion 
to last ? That will depend very much upon ourselves. 
If we are true to the, traditions of the Congress, and loyal 
to the noble teachings of our great Chief, who, though not 
present in body is present in spirit with us if we live 
up to the exalted standard of his noble life, if we con- 
secrate our efforts by the spirit of self-sacrifice, if we are 
unsparing in our pecuniary sacrifices, unremitting in our 
personal efforts, then the great God who presides over 
the destinies of fallen Nations will, in' His own due time, 
pour down upon us, in plentiful abundance, His choicest 
blessings j and thouga we may receive a temporary 
check, and the flag we now hold aloft may drop from our 
sinking hands, I am confident that in the near future there 
will rise up others, who, more fortunately situated than 
ourselves, will carry that standard to victory, and 
establish in this luckless land those principles of 
liberty, which, while they will serve to weld together 

13 



146 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

the diversified elements of our common Nationality, 
will at the same time place the "Empire of Britain in this 
country upon the only unchangeable basis upon which it 
can rest, the love, the gratitude, and the contentment of 
a vast and immeasurable population. 

The Resolution was supported by Raja Rampal 
Sinha, Mr. M. B. Namjoshi, Mr. Uma Shankar, Hafiz 
Muhammad Abdul Rahim and Moulvi Wahab-ud-din, 
and carried unanimously. 

The second Resolution expressed the deep regret 
of the Congress with the resolution of the Govern- 
ment of India on the Report of the Public Service 
Commission, narrowing even the proposals made by 
that Commission. It was proposed by Mr. G. K. 
Gokhale, who pointed out that the Report of the 
Commission actually put Indians in a worse position 
than they were in before. They had had by the 
rules of 1879 " one-sixth of the whole recruitment" 
each year, and as there were 600+150 posts, reserved 
and* unreserved, Indians would have had 125 posts. 
But, by a juggle, they had only 108 set apart for 
them. These 108 should have been incorporated in the 
Provincial Service, created by the Commission for 
Indians only. But the Secretary of State managed 
to have 93 or 9'4 of these kept on a separate list, and 
would appoint to them under the Act of 1870. 
Mr. Gokhale drily said that he was not sure that the 
discretion of Government would not be abused. Thus 
India lost the certainty of the 108, or 93, appoint- 
ments, and they were made discretionary. Th 
number recommenced was rectoeed, the highest 
were withheld, and 



THE EIGHTH CONGRESS 

a large and perilous discretion has been reserved 
by Government to itself which is almost sure to be abused. 
And all this as the outcome of the labours of a Commission 
solemnly appointed to do full justice to our claims for 
larger and more extensive employment in the higher 
grades of the Public Service ! 

On simultaneous examinations Mr. Gokhale spoke 
forcibly and indignantly : 

Unfortunately the fact cannot be gainsaid, that of 
late our rulers have been showing a disposition to regret 
the promises given us in the past ; and I should not be 
surprised if they one day turned round and said that 
these promises were never intended to be carried out. In 
that case I 'say it would be well for them to openly and 
publicly fling into the flames all these promises and 
pledges as so much waste paper, and tell us once for all 
that, after all, we are a conquered people, and can have 
no rights or privileges. That the Government has, of 
late, been pursuing a policy of retrogression is clear to 
every one. Turn whichever way we may, we find that a 
change, and a change for the worse, is qoming over the 
spirit of the Government. "Whether you consider the 
Jury Notification in Bengal, or the curtailment of edu- 
cational grants, or the treatment accorded to Municipali- 
ties, you cannot help feeling that Government is treating 
us with increasing jealousy and mistrust every day. And 
unless this regime of distrust is soon changed, unless 
the policy of Government is inspired by more sympathetic 
feelings, darker days cannot bat be in store for this poor 
country. 

The warning was disregarded. Mr. Gokhale was 
looked on as an enemy, and followed by police spies, 
instead of being looked on as a friend, warning th>e 
Gorernment of dangers which he, as an Indian, kw 
to exist, but to which the Government were blind. 
When, emit, of despair, Anarchism was born, Ms words 
were remembered^ too late. 



148 HOW INDIA WROUGHT 70S FKEEDOM 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya seconded the 
Besolution, and after giving some figures to " show 
the great and inordinate drain of India's money 
because <tf the inordinate employment of Europeans 
in the higher ranks of the Public Service," that 
was "at the bottom of the increasing poverty of 
the people of this country," went on to support 
Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji in pressing upon the attention of 
Parliament the injustice done to India by the refusal 
of simultaneous examinations in India and England 
for the Indian Civil Service. The examinations 
ought really to be held only in India, since the 
Service was Indian. 

It is singularly unjust to compel the people of this 
country tp go 10,000joiiles away from their country to pass 
an examination to qualify themselves for service in their 
own' country. No other people labour under such an 
awful (Disadvantage. Must we alone be subjected to it 
because we are the subjects of a strong Power like 
England ? England, we know, has got the strength of a 
giant, but she should not use it as a giant in enforcing 
unfair terms and conditions against a people placed by 
Providence under her care, but should allow her nobler 
instincts to guide her in this matter as they have guided 
her in many others, and see that we are governed 
practically, and not merely theoretically, in consonance 
with those noble principles of justice and good govern- 
ment which her honoured Sovereign and her statesmen 
have laid down for the purpose, and which guide her 
in the conduct of her own affairs. We pray only for 
a fair field and no favour. 

Mr. Gokhale and Pandit Madan Mohan spoke m 
1892. Twenty-three years have passed, and this 
little concession has not been made ! Still India's 
son* must travel 10,000 miles on the chance of 



THE toiattflfi CONGBBSi 149 



entering thd Indian Civil Service in a competitive 
examination for the number of posts open every year, 
for the privilege of employment iff their own country. 
And in the face of this, a concession that would cost 
England nothing, and would not touch the junda? 
mental injustice of her autocracy here, we are asked 
not to raise any controversial question now, but Tto,, 
trust to her good-will that after the War she will 
give us Self-Government. 

The Resolution was supported by Mr. Janardana 
Raghunath. Nimkar, Moulvi Umrao Mirza Hairat, 
and Rai Jotindranath Ohaudhuri who said very 
pertinently : 

To serve one's own country is a right inalienable 
from its people. So in this view I look upon all those 
appointments which can be safely give'n to the natives of 
the soil and which are filled by foreigners, as so many 
appointments robbed from the people to whom they 
belong by natural right, specially in India, where we 
Indians are most cruelly debarred from all the higher 
employments. 

Munshi Roshan Lai pointed out the caste difficulty, 
which the Government knew very well, and which, 
with the expense incurred by the journey and stay in 
England, made the nominal opening of the Service 
to Indians of very little value to them. The 
Resolution was carried unanimously. 

Mr. R. N. Mudholkar moved tKe third Resolution 
on the then already well-worn subject of the separa- 
tion of judicial and executive functions, which has 
since been moved and carried 22 times in vaini^ 
Mr. Mudholkar gave his own experience -with.tiieii 



150 HOW' INDIA WBOtfQHT flOR FBEMDOJi 

who were civil judges, criminal judges, and revenue 
officers rolled into one, whose courts travelled and 
had to 1 a followed by the unlucky litigants or ac- 
cused persons, and who, being busy men, had no 
time to study intricate laws, and who were not to be 
blamed for their ignorance which caused them to 
give unjust decisions- nor for their incompatible 
functions which led them to give biassed decisions. 
He quoted the Judges of the Calcutta High Court, 
who said : 

It not unfrequently happens that the chief executive 
Magistrate practically becomes the prosecutor and may 
frequently become the Judge, though he may have 
formed a strong opinion on the case behind the back of 
the accused, without having had the opportunity of 
hearing his explanation or defence. 

It may be remembered that a striking case of this 
was mentioned in the last chapter. 

Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar seconded the Be- 
solution, and described the condition of things in 
Bengal, where the Lieut.-Governor over-rode the 
Codes, and insisted on improper methods, which up- 
set the administration of justice. He mentioned 
some striking cases of abuse of processes of law by 
executive officers. 

Mr. Hun Chandra Eai, supporting, said, very 
truly, that the interference of District Officers with 
the subordinate Magistracy, by referring cases tc 
them with " almost plain directions as to how they 
are to be decided. . . . has brought about a wide- 
spread feeling of alarm, which it is in the interests 
of good Government instantly to allay v Mfc. K. Gf. 



THIS EIGHTH CONGRESS 151 

Natu, Rao Sahab Deva Eao Vinayak and Mr. 
Murlidhar further supported, and the Resolution was 
carried unanimously. 

Mr. D. E. Wacha moved Resolution IV on the 
Currency question, remarking that the Congress 
delegates 

earnestly desire at this critical juncture, when some 
action on the part of Government is reported to be im- 
minent, that it will refrain from either taking a leap 
in the dark, or adopting precipitately a measure which 
might eventually prove to be infinitely worse in its con- 
sequences than the evils to be witnessed at present. 

Mr. Wacha dealt at length with the matter with 
a clarity all his own, explaining the effects of the 
demonetisation of silver by Germany in 1873, the 
bearing of the " Home (foreign) Charges " on India, 
the Sherman Act of 1890, the effect on India of a 
gold standard as jeopardising the interests of the 
masses. Captain Banon and Professor Bhagiratiha 
Prasad followed, and the unanimous passing of the 
Resolution brought the second day to its close. 

On- the third day, Mr. G. S. Khaparde brought in 
the "Omnibus Resolution," No. V, including, this 
year, Salt Tax, Income Tax, Excise, claim to com- 
mittal to Quarter Sessions, Police, Arms, Military 
Colleges, Militia and Volunteering. He was followed 
by the Rev, T. Evans, Mr. Qudh Behari Lai, Munshi 
Sheikh Husain, Mr. B. S. Sahasrabnddhe, and Munshi 
Abdul Qudir,-and the Resolution was then carried. 

Mr. Guruprasad Sen, in moving the sixth Resolu* 
tion, demanding the withdrawal of the Jury Notifica- 
tion in Bengal and the extension of the Jury system, 



152 HOW INDIA 5VEOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

gave a mass of facts and figures in support of his 
motion. Mr. Baikunthanath Sen seconded, and 
glanciwg at the history of the Jury system, dwelt on 
the scandal of suddenly abolishing a vested right, 
enjoyed for 30 years, by a sudden fiat of a Lieut.- 
Governor. 

Mr. Lalqshmmath Bezbarna, from Assam, said they 
had enjoyed it for 60 years, and needed it specially, 
because of the raw and inexperienced Civilians who 
administered justice in a lawless manner. Six other 
delegates spoke, and the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. D. E. Wacha moved and Pandit Madan Mohan 
Malaviya seconded Eesolution VII, which pointed out 
that England should bear part of the cost of the 
military expenditure caused by Imperial policy which 
related, not to the defence of India, but to Britain's 
relations with the great European Powers. It was 
carried. 

Then Mr. Brajendranath Seal made an eloquent and 
informing speech, moving Eesolution VIII, which 
deprecated the diminution of grants for higher 
education, and urged increased expenditure on all 
branches of education. He brought abundant argu- 
ments to his thesis, and ridiculed the idea that there 
were too many graduates, who, finding no outlet, 
sowed discontent. England had 22,000 University 
students out of a population of 27 millions, India 
15,000 out of a population of 220 millions. 

Mr. Heramba Chandra Maitra seconded, 
Messrs. K. V. Joshi and Hari Prasad Chatterji sup- 
ported, and the Eesolution was carried unanimously. 



THE EIGHTH CONGRESS 153 

The sore poverty of India and the remedies therefor 
were the subject of Resolution IX, reaffirming Reso- 
lution III of 1891 ; it was moved by Mr. Baikuntha- 
nath Sen, seconded by Mr. Peter Paul Pillai, 
supported by four other speakers, and carried 
unanimously. Resolution X took up the harshness of 
the administration of the Forest Laws, Mr. Karandi- 
kar moving and Mr. P. Kesliava Pillai seconding, the 
latter recounting the grievances he lias been strug- 
gling to remedy ever since. The Resolution passed, 
but the grievances still remain. 

Then Mr. A. Nandy moved Resolution XI for a 
Committee of four delegates, to draw up a petition to 
Parliament against the results of the Public Service 
Commission, and tins, seconded by Mr. Kali 
Prasanna Kavyavisharada, was carried. One thing 
mentioned by the mover, an Indian Christian, may be 
put on record. Sir Auckland Colvin had admitted 
that some grievances might exist : 

But what was the advice Sir Auckland Colvin gave 
for the redress of these grievances ? 99 out of 100 
Englishmen would have said : " Agitate, and agitate 
strongly, till you attain your object." Not so the ex- 
Lieut.- Governor . He expressed a pious horror of agitation, 
and stigmatised in bitter terms what he called the. 
professional agitator, but wound up by advising his 
hearers, if they had a grievance, to do what ? to lay 
them before the District Magistrate ! 

If the Magistrate failed, there was the Commis- 
sioner, and lastly the Local Government. Still 
Government officials detest agitation, and .some 
Indians, even, are afraid of it. 



154 HOW INDIA WROUGHT TOR FREEDOM 

Mr. Kanhaya Lai and Mr. Murlidhar moved and 
supported Resolution XII, asking for a Legis- 
lative Council for the Panjab. Carried. Then came 
Resolution XIII, thanking the British Committee 
and Mr. Digby, and Resolution XIV, protesting 
against State-regulated immorality in India. Resolu- 
tion XV postponed the English Session of the 
Congress until after that of 1893, and Resolution XVI 
appointed Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji as India's repre- 
sentative in Parliament, and thanked the electors of 
Central Finsbury for sending him thither. Reso- 
lutions XVII and XVIII dealt with Congress finance, 
and XIX re-elected Mr. A. 0. Hume and gave him 
Rai Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu as Joint Secretary. 
Resolutions XX, XXI and XXII fixed the next 
Congress at Amritsar, thanked the Maharaja of 
Darbhanga for the loan of Lowther Castle, and con- 
firmed the appointment of Pandit Bishambharnath as 
one of the Trustees of the Permanent Fund. With 
a few words from the President, and the usual vote 
of thanks, the Eighth Congress dissolved. 

BBSOLUTIONS 
Representation 

I. Resolved That this Congress, whilo accepting in a loyal 
spirit the Indian Councils Act recently enacted by the Parliament 
of Great Britain, as explained by the present Prime Minister, with 
the assent of the then Under- Secretary of Stata for India that it 
is intended by it to give the people of India a real living representa- 
tion in the Legislative Councils regrets that the Act itself does 
not, in terms, concede to the people the right of electing their own 
representatives to the Council, and hopes and expects that the rules, 
now being prepared under the Act, will be framed on the lines of 
Mr. Gladstone's declaration in the House of Commons, and will do 



TH1 EIGHTH CONGRESS 155 

adequate justice to the people of this country j further, that it prays 
that these rules may be published in the official Gazettes, like 
other proposed legislative measures, before being finally adopted. 

Public Service 

IT. Besolved That this Oongress hereby places on record its 
deep regret at the resolution of the Government of India on the 
report of the Public Service Commission, in that 

() Whereas, if the recommendations of the Public Service 
Commission had been carried out in their integrity, the posts 
proposed to be detached from the schedule of the Statute of 1861 
would have formed part of an organised Service, specially reserved 
for the Natives of India, the resolution of Government leaves these 
posts altogether isolated, to which appointment can be made only 
under the Statute of 1870; 

(b) Whereas, while 108 appointments were recommended by 
the Public Service Commission for the Provincial Service, 93 such 
appointments only have actually been thrown open to that Service 
the number to be allotted to Assam not having yet been announced ; 

(c) Whereas, while a Membership of the Board of Revenue 
and a Commissionership of a Division, were recommended for the 
Province of Bengal and some other Provinces, the Government has 
not given effect to this resolution ; 

(d) Whereas, while one-third of the Judgeships were re- 
commended to be thrown open to the Provincial Service, only one- 
fifth have been so thrown open. 

And this Congress, again, distinctly puts on record its opinion, 
that full justice will never be done to the people of this country, 
until the open Competitive Examination for the Civil Service of 
India is held simultaneously in England and in India. 

XI. Resolved That Mr. W. 0. Banner]!, Mr P. M. Mehta, 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, and Rai Bahadur Ananda Charlu, 
be appointed a Committee to prepare a petition on the line 
indicated by the petition printed at foot, and that the President 
be authorised to sign it, on behalf of this Congress, and send it 
to Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, M.P., for presentation to the House 
of Commons. 

To 

The Honourable The Commons of Great Britain and Ireland 
in Parliament assembled. 

The humble petition of the President and Members of the 
Eighth Indian National Congress, held at Allahabad, on the 28th, 
29th and 30th of December, 1892 

Respectfully Skoweth, 



156 HOW INDIA WROUGHT IFOR FREEDOM 

(1) That in conformity with a resolution adopted at the Eighth 
Indian National Congress, your humble petitioners beg to bring to 
!' the attention of your Honourable House, the deep disappointment 

' which prevails in all parts of Her Majesty's Indian Empire at the 

i orders passed upon the labours of the Public Service Commission. 

' (2) That the Commission was instructed by the Government of 

, India to submit a scheme which might reasonably be expected to 

1 possess the elements of finality and to do full justice to the claims 

1 of the Natives of India to higher and more extensive employment in 

the Public Service. Neither object has been secured by the labours 
of the Public Service Commission The Statutory Service, under 
which appointments had been made, has been abolished, and 
nothing has been done to secure to the people the full enjoyment of 
the boon conferred upon them by the Act of 1870 The Government 
of India, in their resolution appointing the Commission, observed : 
"That the Statute of 1870 is one of remarkable breadth and 
' liberality, and it empowers the Government of India and the 

| Secretary of State, acting together, to framo rules under which 

; Natives of India may be admitted to any of the offices hitherto 

,| reserved for the Covenanted Civil Service." But the result of the 

!| Commission's enquiry has been q. reduction in tho number of offices 

i open to Indians. 

(3) That in inspect, likewise, to simultaneous examinations in 
;l England and in India for appointment in tho Civil Service, the 

Beport of the Commission, endorsed by tho Government of India, 
has given no satisfaction whatever Tho weight of the evidence 
1 j taken by the Commissioners was distinctly in favour of simultaneous 

1 ! examinations. Among the witnesses examined, thoro was a very 

J large preponderance of those who wore in favour of simultanooiiH 

, examinations. 

(4) That the disappointment which IH everywhere folt at 
, , the resolution of the Government of India on tho Public Horvioo 

i : Commission, is of such a character that this Oongrosn has folt. 

i, constrained to lay the matter before tho Honourable HOUHO, and to 

pray that it will direct the Government of India to givo full effect 
j to the Act of 1870, in, the matter of appointing Natives of India to 

| the Public Service of their country. 

', Legal 

; III. Resolved That this Congress, woing the seriouH 

mischief arising to the country from the combination of Judicial 

1 1 and Executive functions in the same official,, once again puts on 

record its deliberate and earnest conviction that a complete 
separation of these functions has become an urgent necessity, and 
that, in its opinion, it behoves the Government to effect this 
< separation without further delay, even though thia ahould, in some 

Provinces, involve extra expenditure* 



EIGHTH CONGRESS 157 

VI. Resolved That this Congress views with the deepest 
concern and alarm the recent policy of Government with respect to 
trial by Jury, and particularly the action of the Governments of 
Bengal and Assam in withdrawing the right of trial by Jury in the 
majority of serious offences, and most respectfully, but firmly, 
protests against such policy and action as retrograde, reactionary, 
and injurious to the best interests of the country, and prays that 
the same may be reversed by the Government of India, and failing 
that, by the Government in England , and that, as prayed for in 
resolutions of previous Congresses, the right of trial by Jury be 
extended to those parts of the country where it is not now in force", 
it being the only safeguard for the people in the present 
unsatisfactory condition of the administration of Criminal Justice 
in British India. 

* 

Currency 

IV. Resolved That having regard to the diversity of 
opinion that prevails on the Currency Question, and the importance 
of the question itself, this Congress desires to express its earnest 
hope, that unless its hands are forced by the action of any Foreign 
Power, necessitating a change in the currency, 01 the tandard, 
which might prove injurious to the interests ot the country, the 
Government of India will refrain from taking any steps, until the 
labours of the Brussels Conference have been completed and, further, 
that the Government will lay before the Public, for discussion, the 
proposals which Lord Herschell's Committee may recommend, 
before definite action, if any, is resolved upon. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

V. Resolved That this Congress concurs with its predeces- 
sors in strongly advocating 

Taxation 

(a) The reduction of the salt duty by at least the amount of its 
latest enhancement , 

(b) The raising of the Income-tax taxable minimum from five 
hundred to one thousand ; 

Excise 

(c) Persistent pressure by the Government of India on all 
Provincial Administrations, to induce them to carry out, in its 
integrity, the Excise policy enunciated in paragraphs 103, 104, 106 
of the Despatch, published in The Gazette of lad-ia of March, 1890, 
and the introduction of a simple system of ' local option in the 
case of all villages j 

14 - 



158 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Legal 

(cZ) The introduction into the Code of Criminal Procedure of a 
provision enabling accused persons in warrant cases, to demand 
that instead of being tried by the Magistrate they may be 
committed to the Court of Sessions ; 

Police 

(e) The fundamental reform of the Police administration, by 
a reduction in the numbers and an increase in the salaries and in 
the qualifications of the lower grades, and their far more careful 
enlistment ; and by the selection for the higher posts of gentlemen 
of higher capacities, more in touch with the respectable portions of 
the community, and less addicted to military pretensions, than the 
majority of existing Deputy Inspectors-General, Superintendents, 
and Assistant Superintendents of Police are ; 



(/) A modification of the rules under the Arms Act, so as to 
make them equally applicable to all residents in, or visitors to 
India, without distinction of creed, caste or colour ; to ensure the 
liberal concession of licences Wherever wild animals habitually 
destroy human life, cattle or crops; and to make all licences, 
granted under the revised rules, of life-long tenure, revocable only 
on proof of misuse, and valid throughout the Provincial jurisdiction 
in which they are issued ; 

(g) The establishment of Military Colleges in India, whereat 
natives of India, defined by statute, may be educated and trained 
for a military career as Commissioned or Non-commissioned 
Officers (according to capacity and qualifications) of the Indian 
Armyj 

(h) The organising throughout the more warlike races of the 
Empire of a system of Militia service ; and 

(t) The authorising and stimulating of a wide-spread system 
of Volunteering, such as obtains in Great Britain, amongst the 
people of India. 

Military 

VII. Resolved That having regard to the fact that the 
abnormal increase in the annual Military Expenditure of the Empire 
since 1886-86 is principally owing to the Military activity going on 
beyond the natural lines of the defences of the country, in pursu- 
ance of the Imperial policy of Great Britain* in its relation with 
some of the Great Powers of Europe, this Congress is of opinion 
that, in bare justice to India, an equitable portion of that expendi- 
ture should be boune by the British' Treasury, and that the revenues 
of 'India -should be pvoppvtionately relieved of thai buiden. 



THB EIGHTH CONGRESS 

Education 

VIII. Resolved That this Congress is emphatically of opinion, 
that it is highly inexpedient in the present state of Education m the 
country, that Government grants for High Education should in any 
way be withdrawn, and, concurring with previous Congresses, 
affirms in the most emphatic mnuuer, the importance of increasing 
the public expenditure on all branches of Education, and the 
expediency, in view to the promotion of one of the most essential 
of these branches, i. e., the technical, of appointing a mixed Com- 
mission to enquire into the present industrial condition of the 
country. 

Poverty and Permanent Settlement 

IX. Resolved That this Congress emphatically re-affirms 
Resolution III of the Congress of 1891, and having regard to the 
fact that fully fifty millions of the population, a number yearly 
increasing, are dragging out a miserable existence on the verge of 
starvation, and that in every decade several millions actually 
perish by starvation, deems it imperatively necessary that the cost 
of administration, especially in the military branch of the Public 
Service, should be greatly reduced, and that measures should at 
once be taken to give, as was promised by the British Govern' 
ment over thirty years ago, fixity and permanence to the land 
revenue demand, and thus permit capital and labour to combine 
to develop the agriculture of the country, which, under the existing 
system of temporary settlements, in recent times often lasting for 
short periods, in some cases only extending to ten and twelve years, 
is found to be impossible ; and to establish Agricultural Banks. And 
this Congress, again, most earnestly entreats the people of Great 
Britain and Ireland, not to permit any further sacrifice of life owing 
to the shortcomings of the existing, doubtless well-intentioned, but 
none the less unsatisfactory, administration, but to insist, and, that 
speedily, on the reforms, then and now, so earnestly advocated. 

Foreit Laws 

X. Resolved That this Congress entirely adopts Resolution 
XI of the Congress of 1891, and reiterates its prayer, that having* 
regard to the very serious discontent created, particularly in 
Peninsular India, by the practical administration of the Forest 
Laws, the Government of India do investigate this matter carefully, 
and endeavour to mitigate the harshness of such administration^ 
and render it less obnoxious to the poorer classes. 

Letf4ltiv* Council (Painjab) 

XII. Resolved r-Thet thi* Congees, in- concurrence with, the 
first Congress held at Bbmtoayin 1885, consider that the creation 



160 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

of a Legislative Council for the Province of the Panjab is an 
absolute necessity for the good government of that Province, and, 
having regard to the fact that a similar Council has been created 
for tho United Provinces, hopes that no timo will be lost in creating 
such a Council. 

Thanks of Congress 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress hereby tenders its most 
grateful acknowledgments to Sir W. Wedderburn and the members 
of the British Congress Committee, for the services rendered by 
them to India during the past year, and entirely approves and 
confirms the re-construction of tho British Committee of the 
Congress which has been effected by them, as also the new arrange- 
ments which they have made in regard to their ofhce establishment, 
and the journal India , and that this Congress also tenders its 
thanks to Mr. W. Digby, C.I.B , for tho services which he rendered 
to the cause during his tenure of office as Secretary to the British 
Committee. 

XVI. .Resolved That this Congress most respectfully and 
cordially tenders, on behalf of the vast population it represents, 
India's most heartfelt thanks to the electors of Central Finsbuary 
for electing Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji their member in the House of 
Commons , and it again puts on record its high estimate and deep 
appreciation of the services -which that gentleman has rendered to 
this country, reiterates its unshaken confidence in him, and looks 
upon him as India's representative in the House of Commons. 

XXI. Resolved That this Congress hereby tenders its best 
thanks to His Highness the Maharaja of Darbhanga, for having so 
kindly lent his Cnstle and grounds for the holding of this Congress. 

Prostitution 

XIV. Besolved That this Congress is thankful that the 
House of Commons is vigilant in regard to the recent purity 
legislation by the Government in India, and desires, once again, to 
enter its protest against all State-regulated immorality in India. 

Congress Work 

XV. Resolved That, regard being had to the present political 
situation in England, the provisional arrangements set on foot, in 
pursuance of the resolution passed at the Calcutta Congress, 1890, 
for holding all things being convenient a Congress of not less 
than one hundred delegates in England in 1892, be now suspended, 
until after the session of the Congress in 1893. 

XVII. Besolved That this Congress hereby empowers the 
Trustees of the Congress Permanent Fund now locked up in the 
" New Oriental Bank Corporation, Ld., " at present in liquidation 



THE EIGHTH CONGEE SS 161 

to send, at least, five hundred pounds out of it to the British Com- 
mittee, to be recouped by subscriptions from the Standing Congress 
Committees* 

XVIII. Resolved That, regard being had to the representa- 
tions received from the British Committee, this Congress is of 
opinion, that a sum equivalent in Rupees to two thousand eight 
hundred pounds sterling, be allotted for the expenses of the British 
Committee, for the year 1892-93 ; that deducting the money TChich 
has been received up to now, the balance be allotted amongst the 
different Standing Congress Committees, in accordance irith 
arrangements come to with them j and that the sum be remitted to 
England as soon as practicable. 

Formal 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress re-appoints Mr. A. 0. 
Hume, 0. B., to be its General Secretary, and appoints Rai Bahadur 
P. Ananda Charlu, to be its Joint- General Secretary for the 
ensuing year. 

XXII. Resolved That this Congress confirms the appoint- 
ment of Pandit Bishumbharnath, in place of the late Pandit 
Ajodhyanath, as one of the Trustees of the- Congress Permanent 
Fund. 

XX. Resolved That the Ninth Indian National Congress do 
assemble on such day after Christmas, 1893, as may be determined 
upon, at Axnritsar. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE Ninth National Congress met at Lahore not at 
Amritsar as chosen by the preceding Congress on 
Becember 27, 28, 29 and 30, 1893. The pavilion 
was raised on a piece of vacant ground, and contained 
4,000 seats, which were not able to accommodate all 
who crowded to attend. The delegates numbered 
867, and, as sent by Provinces, were as follows : 



Bengal 

K.W.P. and Oudh ... 

Panjab 

Bombay (7*) and Sindh (47) 

C.P. and Bevar 

Madras 



59 

133 

481 

.124 

39 

31 

i '"T 

867 



The first sitting began on December 27 at 2 p.m. 
as usual. The Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
Sardar Dayal Singh Majithia, was suffering from a 
violent attack of rheumatism, and handed his address 
to Mr, Harkishan LaJ to read. After characterising 
the Congress as " the greatest glory of the British 
Rule in this country/ 9 he paid a tribute of thanks 
to Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick and the officials who had 



THE KINTH C0J*GBBS8 

put no hindrance in the way of their preparation*, 
and said that the martial races of the P&njab we.re in 
full sympathy with the Congress movement. 

The wand of the magician has touched our eyes. 
The history and literature of England hare permeated 
our minds, the great heritage of our western Aryan 
brethren has descended on us, collaterally, as it were, and 
we are allowed at times, grudgingly it may be, to have a 
share in it. We happily live under a Constitution whose 
watchword is freedom, and whose main pillar is toleration. 
We look back complacently on our past history 1 , and 
glory in it. Can we then in the midst of this !N~atianl. 
upheaval remain quiescent and indifferent P 

Eai Bahadur Ananda Charlu moved, and Moulvi 
Muhurram Ali Chiste seconded, the proposal that 
Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, M.P., should be the President 
of the Congress, and the whole pavilion was shaken 
with the welcome the delegates offered to the first 
Indian elected to the House of Commons. 

After expressing his thanks to the Congress, the 
President referred feelingly to the passing away of 
their staunch supporter Justice Kashinath Trimbafe 
Telang, " one of the most active founders of the 
Congress," and " its first hard-working Secretary in 
Bombay ". Even after he had become a Judge, he 
always helped with advice. He then read a message 
to the Congress from his English constituents, 
expressing their gratification with his work in the 
House of Commons, and spoke of the small approach 
to representation granted in the Councils 'and -the 
concession of the right of interpellation. He painted 
out tha* it would be " the height of unwisdom " for 



164 HOW DTDIA WROUGHT FOR FKHBDOM 

the Baling Authorities to alienate the educated 
Indians, and to 

drive his force into opposition instead of drawing it 
to their own side by taking it into confidence and thereby 
strengthening their own foundation. This Congress re- 
presents the aristocracy of intellect and the new political 
life created by themselves, which is at present deeply 
grateful to its creator. Common sense tells yon have it 
with you instead of against you. 

Mr. Naoroji spoke of the formation of an Indian 
Parliamentary Committee in the House of Commons 
a body sorely needed now and expressed his be 
lief *' that our faith in the instinctive love o( justice 
and fair play of the people of the United Kingdom is 
not misplaced," even though he added that " we are 
to all intents and purposes under an arbitrary rule *'. 
The poverty of India was " the rock ahead," find it 
was due to the system of UoYernment, not to the 
officials, though they, unfortunately, took criticisms 
of the system as personal attacks. As the Duke of 
Devonshire said, the Anglo-Indian official " is not a 
person who is distinguished by an exceptionally 
calm judgment ". Lord Cromer's fwerage income of 
the Indian as Us. 27 per head indtaded the rich and 
the incomes of European planters, manufacturers and 
mine-owners, and the poor had a much lower average ; 
he put it at Es. 20. This poverty was the greatest 
danger. If India were allowed to enjoy the fruits of 
the people's labours, then 

Britain may defy half a dozen Ruasias. Indians will 
thaw fight to the last man and the last rupee for their 
share, as patriots, not as mercenaries. The rulers will 
only jhave to stamp their foot, and millions will spring up 



THE NINTH CONGKRE88 . 185 

to defend the British Power and their own hearths and 
homes. . . . Were we enemies of British rule, our best 
course would be not -to cry out, but remain silent, and let 
the mischief take ^ its course till it ends in disaster as it 
must. But we do not want that disaster, and we there- 
-fore cry out, both for our own sake and for the sake of 'the 
rulers. This evil of poverty must be boldly faced and 
remedied. 

It has not been faced ; it has nob been remedied. 
And the words spoken are as true in 1915 as in 1893. 
Mr. Naoroji concluded : 

The day, I hope, is not distant when the world will 
see the noblest spectacle of a great Nation like the British 
holding out the hand of true fellow- citizenship and of 
justice to the vast mass- of humanity of this great and 
ancient land of India, with benefits and blessings to the 
human race. 

He said in the course of his speech : " I shall hope 
as long as I live/' He is now m his 91st year. May 
his hope be realised ere he passes away. 

TJie names of the Subjects Committee were read out 
and approved, and the Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, Mr. E. N. Mudholkar moved 
the first Resolution, dealing with the unsatisfactory 
results of the Councils Act of 1892. He pointed out 
that some success had indeed been gained, but less 
than they wished. Since 1887 reform had been asked 
for by the Government of India, and in three sessions 
Bills were brought into Parliament ; in 1892 an Act 
was passed, as the Conservative Government feared 
that its successor would bring in a more liberal 
measure. That Act did not give the right of election, 
bat allowed the Viceroy to make rules, to fee approved 



HOW INDIA WKOUGHT FOB FKBEDOM 

by the Secretary of State, and in these there was 
"a sort of a right of election w ; also the right of 
interpellation was granted, but no discussion of the 
answers ; and the submission -of the Budget to the 
Council, without any right to vote thereon. Mr. 0. 
K. Gokhale, in seconding, said : 

Gentlemen, in regard to these Rules [framed for che 
Presidency of Bombay to give effect to the Act], I will not 
my that they have been deliberately so framed as to defeat 
the object of the Act of 1892, but I will say this, that if 
4&e officer who drafted them had been asked to sit down 
with the deliberate purpose of framing a scheme to defeat 
Chat object, h could not have done better. 

After this opening, Mr, Gokhale proceeded to prove 
his case, showing how the Government of Bombay 
the section assigned to him having 6 seats to dispose 
of, gave one each, to the European Chambers of 
Bombay and Karachi and none to the Indian 
Mercantile Community, one each to the Sardars of 
the Deccan and the Zemindars of Sindh, land-holders 
much under the thumb of the Government Sindh 
having thus, two members but the Central Division 
of the Presidency, containing Poona and Satara, had 
none. Four seats out of the six were thus secured for 
the Government. \ 

Pandit Bishen Narayan Dhar dealt with the 
BtUes for the N.W.P., and Mr. Baikunthanath Sen 
with those for Bengal. Mr. T. Kemchand said 
that Bindh's two members were unjustly allotted. 
The Central Provinces were particularly unfortunate, 
said Mr, Keshava -Vinayak Joshi. Bai Bahadur 



THE NINTH CONGRESS 107 

0. Janibulingam Mudaliar explained the grievances 
of Madras. The Resolution was carried. 

Then Resolution ll, asking for a Legislative Council 
for the Panjab, was passed, and the "Omnibus 
Resolution " followed as No. IV. Dr. Bhadurji next 
moved resolution V, which asked for the recon- 
struction of the Indian Civil Medical Service quite 
apart from the Military. He gave a very full and 
detailed account of the grievances of Indian doctors, 
as regarded their colleges, their pay, and their 
prospects, being allowed much more than his time 
because the subject was a new one. Dr. M. M. Bose, 
Dr. Bhalchandra Krishna and Dr. Bhugatram Sawhuy 
followed, and the motion was carried, the Congress 
thereupon adjourning. 

The third day of the Congress opened on a joyous 
note; after the usual birthday telegram to Mr. 
Gladstone, Resolution V was moved by the Hon. 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, thanking the House of 
Commons for carrying a Resolution in favour of simul- 
taneous examinations. He gave a long list of 
broken pledges for which he arraigned "the 
Government of India before the Bar of British and 
Indian public opinion before the Bar of ctvihseef 
humanity in all parts of the globe ; for the history 
of the Civil Service question is one unbroken record 
of broken promises w . It shows, however, the 
strength of the Indian Civil Service, that despite all 
the broken promises and the Resolution of the House 
of Commons, examinations for the I.0.S. are still 



168 HOW nroiA. WROTTOHT FOB PEEBDOM 

seconded the resolution on behalf of his co-religionists, 
and was followed by Eaja Eampal Singh in a breezy 
speech ; he pointed out that after 35 years there were 
20 Indians in the I.C.S. and between 900 and 1,OOC 
Europeans ; he had been asked by an Englishman 
which Government he thought the better, English or 
Muhammadan ; he had answered that the English 
W-as the better for security, education and railways, 
but for the wealth of India the Muhammadan, for the 
Muhammadans became Indians, and the riches stayed 
in the country, while the English carried the wealth 
of the country away. He remarked that English 
Civilians made India their happy hunting ground ; 
they came' and " return to England with our money ". 
Mnnshi Roshan Lai met the objection that simulta- 
,neous examinations would make the I.C.S. " the 
monopoly of the Bengali "Babu ". If so, where was 
the objection, in view of Her Majesty's Proclamation ? 
Let the Bengalis fill it if they could ; they would 
have only the same chance as men of other Provinces, 
whom he believed to be their equals. Mr. C, Venkata 
Raman Naidu further supported, and the resolution 
was carried. 

Mr. Kalicharan Bannerji proposed Resolution VI, 
which asked that the Secretary of State should order 
schemes for the separation of judicial and executive 
functions to be prepared by Committees appointed 
for this purpose. He showed the need by a shocking 
case that had just occurred, in which four men were 
sentenced to death and three to transportation for life, 
after a trial in which rules of law were disregarded 



THK NINTH CONGRESS 169 

and the magistrate acted as a prosecutor and judge 
combined. The Hon. Mr. N. Subbarao Pantulu 
seconded, and mentioned a case in the Madras Presi- 
dency which showed that under present conditions, 
justice was not done. Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar 
showed that by the efforts of that great agitator 
HnjM Ham Mohan Kai the functions had been separ- 
ated, but that they were ro-uiiited in 1858. He 
proceeded to make a magnificent speech, exhausting 
the subject, which should be carefully studied, for in 
1915 the scandal still continues. 

Resolution VII, a protest against " State-re- 
gulated Immorality in India," was moved by Mr. 
I). K. Wlichn, seconded by the Hon. Mr. C. G. Mitra 
sind carried. 

Then Pandit Madau Mohan Malaviya moved Re- 
solution VI 11, on the perennial starvation of the 
peasantry, and begged members of the House of 
Commons, it they would not accept the statistics 
which proved that the poverty of the country was 
increasing, to come over to India, visit the villages, 
and see in what misery the people live. Let them ask 
the people what the country was before the Mutiny : 

Where are the weavers, where are those men who 
lived by different industries and manufactures, and where 
are the manufactures which were sent to England and 
other European' countries in yery large quantities year 
after year V All that has become a thing of the past ; 
every one sitting here is clothed in cloth of British, make 
almost every one and wherever ^ou go, you find British 



manufactures ad ijWfcisli goods faring you in. the face. 
All . that is left to 4fe w}- 4M* 4W ^ n * a 



170 HOW INDIA WROUGHT JOB JOfflUDOM 

existence by agricultural operations, and make infinitesi- 
mal profit out of the little trade left to them. In the 
matter of the Services, in the matter of trade, our people 
are not enjoying one-hundredth part of the profit and 
gain which they used to enjoy fifty years ag. How then 
is it possible for the country to be happy P 

He then gave a number of figures and quotations 
to prove his contention. Pandit Gopinath seconded, 
and Mr. Ambikacharan Maitra, Mr. Muhammad AH 
Bhimji and Moulvi Mohurram Ali Chiste supported 
the motion, and it was unanimously carried. 

Once more the harshness of the administration of 
the Forest Laws was brought up Resolution IX 
and instances of injustice were given ; Pandit Meghan 
Bam showed how the Rules framed by the Panjab 
Government were specially cruel and unjust, " very 
arbitrary and unworthy of a civilised Government ". 
An owner or occupant of land was made liable for an 
accidental* fire caused by any one on his land, and 
might be " treated/' said the Rule, " as if he had been 
guilty of the infraction of the Rules ". The hill-men, 
again, used grass and wood : " it is their life and 
the life of their cattle n ; they were prevented from 
taking them. In their severe climate, they had kept 
fires going night and day ; now they could not even 
cut down their own trees for warmth. The Resolution 
was carried, but the Forest Laws remain. 

On the fourth day, Mr. Peter Paul Pillai opened the 
proceedings by moving Resolution X, asking the 
Government to fulfil their thirty years' old promise 
to grant Permanent Settlement, and drew attention to 
the alarm caused by its interference with that in Bengal 



THE NINTH CONGRESS 171 

and Bihar, declaring that "such tampering with 
solemn public pledges " was " a National calamity ". 
He complained bitterly of the breach of the terms of 
sanads granted by Government, and commented in 
terms none too severe on the dishonour of such 
breaking of faith with the public. Mr. Baikunthanath 
Sen Seconded, and then Sheikh Wahab-ud-din spoke 
strongly as to the Panjab. Their Province had been 
annexed by the British Empire 43 years before, and 
they were fiscally and physically stronger then. The 
people had become poorer and poorer, and peasant 
and gentleman had scarcely any margin to support 
their families or provide for the future. Mr. B. G 
Tilak pointed out that in Bombay the increase in 
30 years had sometimes amounted to 30 per cent. 
Sardar Gurucharan Singh showed how in the Panjab 
the failure of a crop meant ruin to the cultivator : 

The family is broken up, their cattle are sold for 
debts, the breadwinner of the family either dies of a 
broken heart, or lingers in the dark recesses of a Civil 
Gaol under the decree of the money-lender. If he has 
any son, the poor youth leaves home in despair and joins 
the army, where he ends his days at a handsome salary 
of Rs. 7 a month. 

These are the conditions which have afforded 
materials for revolutionary plots; people who are 
starving and in despair lend a ready ear to sug- 
gestions of revolt. Mr. K. V. Joshi brought evidence 
from the Central Provinces, where the enhancement 
had been in some cases from 200 to 300 per cent/ and 
where he had found the people so poor that they were 
living on mowra flowers and the seeds of tamarinds. 

i 



172 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT POK FKEEDOM 

Resolution XI, moved by Mr. D. A. Khare, regret- 
.ted thafe Government had not carried out its pledges 
of 1862, 1865, 1882, and 1884. In addition to these, 
he quoted Lord Reay's solemn promise that improve- 
ments made by the holder should not be taxed, and the 
breaking of the promise in the then recent settlement 
in the Pen wall Taluq. In another case a petition wa 
presented, and a year passed and the Commissioner 
gave no answer. The petitioners applied to the 
Government of Bombay; the petition was returned 
because a copy of the order was not attached. The 
local officer had written no order. The petition 
dropped. Mr. G. S. Khaparde seconded, Mir Nisar 
AH Shohrat supported, and the mot-ion was carried. 

Resolution XII was a long and important one on 
Education, urging increased expenditure, an enquiry 
into the industrial condition of the country' with a 
view to technical education, the reduction of fees to 
meet the means of parents and their remission lo 
the very poor, and pointing out that equal care 
should be directed- to physical as to mental develop- 
ment. Mr. M. B/ Namjoshi moved it, and asked for 
free and compulsory education, citing the example 
of the Gaekwar. Mr. Nibaran, Chandra Das seconded, 
Bakshi Earn Lalbkaye supported, and then Lala 
Lajpat Rai took up the question in a vigorous speech. 
He specially urged technical 'education, as that would 
increase the wealth of the country. 

It is 30 or 35 years that the Department of Public 
Instruction has been started here ; but do you know what 
progress has been made since then ? One of the two 
Government Colleges has been abolished ; I moan the 

* 



THE NINTft CONGRESS 173 

Delhi Government College. The fees in Government 
Colleges have been this year raised from Bs. 2 to Rs. 12 
per mensem, and they have also been raised in schools. 
The bravery of the Punjabis, the Sikhs and the Rajputs on 
the fields of Egypt, Abyssinia and Afghanistan has 
been rewarded by shutting- the doors of higher education 
and the benefits of civilisation on their children. 

Mr. S. K. Nair seconded, contrasting the policy of 
Japan with thai of Britain as regarded technical 
education. 

Resolution XII J regretted the despatch of the 
Secretary of State, saying that the Executive might 
have to review " judicial errors," a dangerous doc- 
trine, threatening the independence of the Courts. 
Rai Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu moved it and 
Mr. Kalicharau Bannerji seconded, pointing out that 
the despatch put might above right. Rai Jotindra- 
nath Chaudhuti followed, and Pandit Mohan Lai 
nrade a powerful speech, showing how English Judges 
had vindicated the independence of their Courts 
against both King and Parliament. After the motion, 
was carried, Mr. D. E. Wacha moved Resolution XIV, 
against the stoppage of silver coinage, showing the 
evils resulting, and pointing out that 

the hard-working labtmrers, the overtaxed peasantry, 
Are being impoverished in order that Government officials 
and usurers may fatten at their expense/. . . It robs 
the ryotn ; it entails an additional burden on them in. 
order to actually compensate a microscopic minority 
already in receipt of salaries which find no parallel in 
any part of the civilised globe. 

Mr. B P. Kavandikar seconded) and the Resolution 
was carried. , . 



,.'- i 



A 

" 



174 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Then followed a protest against the exchange com- 
pensation allowance to Europeans and Eurasians 
Resolution XV that the Yiceroy had called the 
" crime of the 26th of June," moved by the Hon. 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, \vho charged " the 
Government of India with trifling with the interests 
of the people and having been guilty of injustice to 
the interests committed to its care by granting this 
absurd allowance to its non-domiciled Europeans. 
It is a grave charge, but I make it deliberately." 
The Government, he pointed out, never had funds for 
reforms. No money to improve the police, no money 
to separate judicial and executive functions, no 
money for sanitation. 

But -when it comes to a question of granting com- 
pensation to the Services, then Government is as rich as 
the richest Government in* the world ; and from whom is 
this money taken ? You heard yesterday the story of 
India's poverty related in graphic and earnest language 
by Pandit Madan Mohan ; you heard on the highest 
official authority that 20,000,000 of people had died of 
starvation in the last few years ; you heard that 40,000,000 
live on one meal a day ; and now these 40,000,000 people 
will be burdened with additional taxation. They will be 
stinted of their food, of their rice and of th.eir salt, in 
order that the highly paid officials of the Government 
may be provided .with their usual brandy, beef and 

champagne. I thirik it is an unutterable shame We 

are the children of the soil 5 we are the helots of the 
land, the hewers of wood and the drawers of water, and 
we exist for the Services, the gods of thd bureaucracy. 
Illustrious men of Bombay, men of the Panjab, men of 
northern India, men of Bengal, let us combine, Idt us take 
a firm stand, and let us not rest till we have succeeded 
in convincing these gods of their iniquities ; let us not 
rest till we have disenchanted them of the illusion 



TH1 NINTH CONGRESS 175 

under which they labour, namely that the country is theirs 
and not ours. The country is ours and theirs ; and India 
is for England and also for India ; primarily for India 
and secondarily for England. 

Mr. W. A. Chambers seconded the motion in a 
strong speech, denouncing the compensation as 
neither Christian, nor righteous. Mr. D. E. Wacha 
supported with some telling statistics. 

Resolution XVI was a request to the Government 
to put an end to forced labour, moved by Lala Dharm 
Das Sari and seconded by Lala Kanakya Lai in an 
impassioned speech. He pointed out that forced 
labour was slavery, and England put down slavery 
in Africa, but winked at it in India. It was for- 
bidden, but officials used it. 

Resolution XVII thanked Lord Northbrook for 
pleading in Parliament for the reduction of the 
Home (Foreign) Charges. It was moved by 
Mr. G. K, Gokhale, who remarked that the state- 
ments made in the debate on Lord Northbrook's 
motion furnished an indictment, if the Government 
were ever put on its trial; it was admitted that 
burdens justly belonging to England were thrown on 
India, and the Duke of Argyll said the grievance 
should be removed before India heard of it, as though 
Mr, Wacha had not* protested against it from the 
Congress platform I Home Charges had increased 
from 7 millions to 16 millions in years. With 
part of this the House of Commons had nothing to 
do, but it could deal with the India Office and the 
Army. The former might pass, for although it 
liberally its " respectable and at tha same tin^e 



v , 



176 HOW INDIA WROUGHT TOB FREEDOM 

and mischievous old gentlemen," the item was 
comparatively small. Bat tlie " Home Military 
Charges" had risen from 2 millions to over o 
millions, and the recruits which cost the War Office 
19 per head were charged to India at 105 per 
man. When England borrowed Indian troops, she 
forgot to pay for them; when India borrowed English 
troops, she paid all ordinary and extraordinary 
expenses. 

Mr. D. B. Chakradev seconded, and the Resolution 
was carried. 

Resolution XVIII asked for the raising of the 
Chief Court of the Panjab to a High Court : Resolu- 
tion XIX thanked the electors of Central Finsbury, 
and Resolution XX assigned Rs. 60,000 for the 
British Committee and India. Resolutions XXI, 
XXII and XXIII followed, thanking Sir William' 
Wedderbnrn and the British Committee, re-appoint- 
ing Mr. A. 0. Hume as General Secretary, and fixing 
on Madras as the meeting-place of the ntwtt Congress. 
Then a vote of thanks to the President was carried, 
and with a few words irom him, the Ninth Congress 
was dissolved. 

BHSOL.UTIONS 



J. Resolved That this Congress while tendering ils most 
sincere thanks to His Excellency the Viceroy for the liberaf spirit in 
\vhioh he has endeavoured to give effect to the Indian Councils' Act 
of 1802, regrets to havtf to pat on record the facts, that, alike in the 
Btiles of the Government <tf India and in the practice of most of the 
Xocal Governments, notably in that of the Government of Bombay, 
material alterations nre necessary if real effect is to be given to th 



THB NINTH CONGRESS 177 

spirit of this Act, and, that the Panjab, one of the most important 
Provinces in the Empire, is still denied the right to be represented, 
either in the Viceroy's or in any Local Council. 

JLgilativ Council and High Court (Panjab) 

II. Resolved That this Congress, in concurrence with the 
first Congress held at Bombay m 1885 and other subsequent 
Congresses, considers that the creation of a Legislative Council tot 
the Province of the Panjab is an absolute necessity for the good 
government of that Province, and, having regard to the fact that a 
similar Council has boon created for the United Provinces, hopes 
that no time will bo lost in creating such a Council. 

XVIII. Resolved That in the opinion of thin Congress, the 
linn' IIUH now conje to misc the utatus of the Chief Court of the 
Panjal> to that of a Chartered High Court, in tln> interest of the 
gchmnititratioli of justire in that Province. 

Confirmation of Previous Soolution 

III. Re*alTfcd~~f l hftt this Congress concurs with its predecessors 
in strongly *dvoc*tmg (repeats exactly Resolution V of 1892, Eighth 
CongMM). 

Civil M4ioal ftmnrtoej 

IV. Revolved That this Congress in of opinion that the time 
has arrived when, in 'ihe interest of public medical education and 
the advancement of medical science and of scientific work in this 
country, as also in the cause of economic administration, the Civil 
Medical Service of India should be reconstructed on the basis of 
such service* in other civilised countries, wholly detached from and 
independent of the Military service, so as to give full effect to the 
oduoali mal policy of Government, which Is to encom age education 
for it* own sake in every branch, and to raise a scientific medical 
profession In India by throwing open fields for medical and 
scientific work to the best talent available and ind'genons talent 
in particular. 

**! 

VI, Heolvod That this Congress having now for many 
successive years vainly appealed to the Government of India to 
remove one of the gravest tigme on British role in India, one 
fraught with incalculable oppression to all classes of the community 
throusriiottt the country, now kopelefs of any other redress, humbly 
entreat* the Secretary of State for India ft order the immediate 
apointment, i each Province, of a Comtittee (M n 



, 

ofwha* mtMttbe *Hail be nomolnoial utyw of India, quality 
by education and experience in the working* of the varknu Courts 



178 HOW OTOIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

to deal with the question) to prepare each a scheme for the 
complete separation of all Judicial and Executive functions in their 
own. Province with as little additional cost to the State as may be 
practicable, tad the submission Q such schemes, with the com- 
ments of the several Indian Governments thereon, to himself at 
some early date which he may be pleased to fix. 

Prostitution 

711. Resolved That this Congress having considered the 
Report of the Parliamentary members of the India Office Committee 
on the subject of the Rules, Orders and Practices in- Indian Canton- 
ments with regard to prostitution and contagions disease, hereby 
endorses their conclusions : 

1. That the system and incidental practices described in that 
Report and the statutory rules, so far as they authorised or permitted 
the same, did not accord with the plain meaning and intention of 
the resolution of the House of Commons of June 5th, 1888 ; and 

2. That the only effective method of preventing these system- 
atic malpractices is by express legislation. 

Poverty 

Till. Resolved That this Congress, concurring in the views 
set forth in/ previous Congresses, affirms 

That ,-fully fifty millions of the population, a number yearly 
increasing, are dragging out a miserable existence on the verge of 
starvation, and that in every decade, several millions actually perish 
by starvation. 

And humbly urges, once more, that immediate steps be taken 
to remedy this calamitous state of affairs. 

Forest Lawn 

IX. ResolvedThat having regard to the very serious 
discontent created, especially in Peninsular India and in certain 
hilly tracts in the Panjab, by the practical administration of the 
Forest Laws, the Government of India be most respectfully, but 
earnestly, entreated to investigate this matter carefully and endear- 
our to mitigate its harshness and render it less obnoxious to the 
poorer classes. 

Permanent Settlement 

X. Resolved That this Congress having on many previous 
occasions urged on the Government of India the. necessity for 
giving, as was promised by the British Government over thirty 
years ago, fixity and permanence to the Ijand Revenue demand, 
wherever this has not already been conceded, desires now to 
reiterate emphatically this recommendation and to call attention to 



THB NINTH OONGBB8S 179 

the profound alarm which has been created by the action of Govern- 
ment in interfering with the existing- permanent settlement in 
Bengal and Behar (in the matter of the survey and other ceases) 
and with* the terms of the sanads of the permanently settled estates 
in Madras, and deeming such tampering with solemn public pledges, 
no matter under what pretences, a national calamity, hereby 
pledges itself to oppose, in all possible legitimate ways, any and all 
such reactionary attacks on permanent settlements and their 
holders. 

XI. Resolved That this Congress regrets oxtremoly that the 
Government of India have not only failed to curry out the pledges 
for a permanent settlement in the Provinces in which it doofl not 
exist (given hjr the Secretary of State in IUH despatvhoH of 1S62 and 
1865) bat have also failed to give effect to tho policy of grunting a 
modified fixity of tenure and immunity from cnhaiuiermmtH, laid 
down in 1882 and 1884 by the Government of India, and approved 
by the Secretary of State 

Education 

XII. Resolved That this Cong-roan is of opinion that it i inex- 
pedient in the present state of Education in the country, that 
Government grants for High Education should in any way be 
withdrawn, and concurring- with previous Oongroflpos, ulilrmH in th 
most emphatic manner, the importance of inrniituiuif the- public 
expenditure on all branches of Education, jind tho expediency (in 
view to the promotion of one of the most essential of thoso brunches, 
i.e , the technical,) of appointing- a mixed Cornmisnion to <uquiro into 
the present industrial condition of the country , and looking to tho 
great poverty of many classes of the community, strongly recom- 
mends, that in all classes of Government or Municipal Schools arid 
Colleges, all fees shall be reduced in proportion to the means of 
parents and relations and remitted wholly in the case of very poor 
students ; and, focussing the universal opinion of tho Indian Coin- 
munity that undue stress is being laid at present upon mere mental 
development, this Congress earnestly recommends that henceforth, in 
all grades and classes of Schools and Colleges, at least equal Attention 
should be devoted to tho physical development of the students. 



Executive bn4 Btnoh 

XIII. ResolvedThat this Congress regrets to notice that the 
(Secretary of State for India, in his recent despatch to the Govern- 
ment of India has enunciated 'the doctrine that occasions may ftpjoQ 
in which it may be the duty of the Executive Government to 
criticise Judicial errors, the Congress being of opinion that inch 
criticism is calculated to afcake the confidence of the people in the 
independence of Judicial tribunals. 



180 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Monetary 

XIV. Resolved That this Congress places on record its deep 
regret at the recent hasty legislation of the Government of India 
cloning the Indian mints against the private coinage of silver, 
whereby the people of this country have been subjected to further 
indirect taxation of a burdensome and indefinite character, and 
some of the most important trades nnd industries, notnbly tho Mill 
industry, have been seriously disorganised and injured. 

XV. Resolved That this Congress records its emphatic 
protest agamst the Exchange Compensation Allowance granted to 
the undonndled European and Eurasian employees of Government, 
involving an annual expenditure of over a crore of Rupees, and to 
the Banks, to the extent of 131,000, at a time when the financial 
situation of the country is far from satisfactory and the country is 
threatened with additional taxation. 

Forced Labour and Supplies 

XVt. Resolved That the Government of India be moved, 
once for all, to put a stop, by new and express legislation, (the 
existing provisions of the Penal Code having proved inoperative) to 
the existing oppressive system of forced labour (known as Begnr) 
and forced contributions of supplies (known as Rasadsi), which, 
despite numerous Resolutions of the Government of India, are still 
prevalent through India. 

Thanks of Congress 

V. Resolved That this Congress desires to thank the British 
House ot Commons for their just and wise vote in regard to 
Simultaneous Examinations in England and in India, and most 
earnestly prays that august body to insist upon their orders boim*- 
given prompt effect to by the Secretary of State for India and th? 
Government of India. 

, XA ? L r 5f a J lv !2r Tll ? t this C %** tender* its most sincere 
thanks to Lord Northbrook for MB powerful advocacy of India's 
claim to have her burden of Home Charges reduced, and respect. 
fully entreats the House of Commons to appoint at an early date a 
Committee of their Honourable House to arrive at some eqnitable 
settlement of the matter. *4*w*w 

the SL?y^~7%* ? i8 ? n S* e88 ***&** fa best thanks to 
** Central Finsbury, both for their kindly sympathy in 

" gne8ly ****** to * th * ^M 
who is destined, the 



Central 



THE NINTH CONGRESS 

XXI. Besolved That this Congrefis hereby tandem it* wop* 
grateful acknowledgments to Sir W. Wedderbnrn and the member* 
of the British Congress Committee for the services rendered by 
them to India daring the past year 

%F 

Gongreaa Work 

XX. Resolved That a gum of Rs. 60,000 be aatimd tor 
the expenses of the British Committee and the cost of th> Confrrem 
Publication, Indut, and that the several civc'tea 'do eMkferitat* M 
arranged either now, or hereafter in Committee, for the ytar 18M 

Formal 

XXII. Resolved That this Congress re -appoints Mr. A. 0. 
Hume, C.B., to be its Cjenernl Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XX III. Resolved That the Tenth National Congrew do 
assemble on such day after Christmas Day, 1894, as may be later 
determined upon, at Madras. 



CHAPTER X 

Tflfc Congress of 1894 marked the close of the first 
decade of its work, and it came back to Madras, after 
seven years, to find the fair city stronger than ever 
in her devotion to the work. Rs. 40,000 had been 
collected' by the Reception Committee before the 
Congress met, and 1,163 delegates gathered in the 
huge pandal which gave accommodation to nearly 
5,000 people. The delegates from Madras Presidency 
of course headed the list : 



Madras... 

Bombay (128) Sindh (4) ... 

C. P., Berar and Secunderabad 

Bengal 

K. W. P. and Oudh 

Panjab ... 



,. 947 

. 132 

. 37 

.. 30 

.. 13 

.. 4 

1,163 



Madras is so far south that it is difficult for dele- 
gates to reach her, but she is one of the best, perhaps 
the best, organised circle. 

December 26th was the first day of the Con- 
gress, and the Hon. Mr. P. Rangiah Naidu, 
M the Chairman of the Reception Committee 



THE TBKfH CONGRESS 183 

welcomed the delegates, and remarked that as 
their influence grew, opposition grew also, and 
pointing as proof to the Parliamentary Blue Book 
on Simultaneous Examinations, showing the " strain- 
ing of the relations between educated Indians and 
the officials," who cried down the men educated in 
the schools and colleges founded by the British, 
characterising " them as a class of disloyal men, 
devoid of influence with their own countrymen and 
incapable of discharging any responsible public 
duty ". He described the evils which arose from the 
class of Englishmen who came to India merely to 
earn their living and had no permanent stake in the 
country, but who influenced opinion. " An absentee 
Government involves a frightful strain on the 
country's financial resources, an overgrown military 
system absorbs one-third of the net revenue, the 
Free Trade principles thrust on us have destroyed 
the old industries, the population has grown in 
advance of the food supply, and poverty is increasing 
from year to year." After offering warm thanks 
to Colonel Moore, the Chairman of the Madras 
Municipality, for much kindly help, he called on 
the Congress to elect its President. 

Raja Sir Savalai Ramaswami Mudaliar proposed, 
and Baja Rampal Singh seconded, the election of 
Mr. Alfred Webb, M.P., an Irishman. 

In taking the chair, the President glanced at fch* 
past of the Congress, and mentioned the death at 
Mr! Charles Brad^ugjh, M.P., tb whom " 
lost a better am 4ft**K|er ton& lew 



184 HOW JJHDIA WROUGHT IOR FREEDOM 

were ever, so sincerely mourned by a larger propor- 
tion of the human race." There spoke the gratitude 
of an. Irishman to Ireland's true friend. Mr. Webb 
pointed to the figures of Indian taxes spent abroad, 
** 25 per cent of your total expenditure. No country 
could permanently afford such a drain." He urged 
the well-worn arguments on taxation, on agriculture, 
on representation ; and concluded by declaring that 
the Congress was " in truth the greatest combined 
peaceful effort for the good of the largest number of 
the human race that history has recorded " 

At the conclusion of Mr. Webb's speech, a generous 
gift of Rs. 10,000 to the Congress funds from the 
Raja of Kamnad was announced, the Subjects 
Committee was confirmed, and the Congress adjourned. 
The work of the second day began with the reading 
of the rules for the conduct of. business, and 
Mi*. D. J3. Wacha moved Resolution I, protesting 
against the injustice of imposing excise duties on 
cotton goods, crippling "the infant mill industry of 
India and sacrificing the interests of India to those 
of Lancashire. He praised the Government of India 
for its resistance to the Excise Bill, and blamed the 
Secretary of State. The tax was unjust, and it was 
also impolitic, for it retarded industrial development. 
He lamented the helplessness of the Government 
of India, remarking that it might as well cease to 
exist if it was merely " the registrar of the ukases ef 
the great autocrat for the time being at Westmins- 
ter ". The Hon. Mr. A. Sabapati Mudaliar seconded 
the Resolution and it was carried. 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 185 

Resolution II, moved by Mr. Baikunthanath Sen, 
who had seconded a similar one in 1893, expressed 
the alarm caused by the breach of the Government 
pledges as to settled estates, and its interference with 
the permanent settlement in Bengal and Bihar The 
Han. Mr, Natu seconded, and pointed out how Bombay 
waa being ruined by resettlements, the increase in 
six Taluqs in the Ratnagiri and Albag Districts being 
1,200 per cent. The entire assessment in Bombay 
was increased by 12 lakhs. , An amendment was 
moved but there waa no seconder, and the Hon. 
Mr. Kalyanasundram Iyer supported the resolution, 
pointing out that in a country where 80 per cent of 
the population cultivated the land, there was really 
no unearned increment to be claimed by the State. 
Maim Vikrama Raja spoke for Malabar, where Hindu 
rulers had imposed no taxation, and there had been 
much trouble over the question, for a. permanent 
settlement had been granted 7* 1803 and 1805, and 
any interference was a breach of faith. Four other 
speakers followed, and the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. Seymour Keay, M. P. moved Resolution III on 
remedying the poverty of India, and said that after 
32 years of close intercourse with the Indian masses, 
he was obliged to recogro*e a a cause the enormous 
cost of an alien Government. Some of them had 
tried to force un enquiry in tjie House of Commons 
into the state of the masses, and their power to sus- 
tain the enormous cost of Government, He showed 
how the Secret Department of the Government of 
India had been used to obtain figures to- controvert 



186 HOW INDIA WKOtttHT 90B FREEDOM 

statements that had been made, and how they had 
forced Sir John Grorst to put the Blue Books in their 
hands. He then gave many figures from these/ and 
finally declared that India's only hope lay in bringing 
the facts before the English Parliament and people : 

Once inform them of the truth, and I 'say, and I say 
it with all assurance, that the great heart of the English 
Nation will grant you both speedy, and effective remedy. 

Alas ! how often we have heard that, but the great 
heart does not respond. But I believe that an agita- 
tion in Britain, based on facts and itgures would move 
the British Democracy. Successive British Govern- 
ments have long known it, but they will not see. We 
must reach the Democracy. It will be reached by the 
little book mentioned below, and by the English 
Division of the Home Rule League. 

Mr Nandi seconded the Resolution and pointed 
out that the highest officials were kept in ignorance 
of facts, and even when on tour the addresses present- 
ed to them contained the views of the officials, not 
of the people supposed to present them ; hence they 
inevitably lived in a roseate atmosphere, and were 
angry with any who spoke of the facts. Here and 
there a conscientious officer mentioned the facts. 
Mr. H. 0. Irwin, of the Bengal Civil Service, writing 
of the poverty of Oudh said : " While the millions 
suffer from chronic hunger, it would be as easy to 
make a pyramid stand upon its apex as to regenerate 
them by ornamental legislation, . or by anything but 

1 A number of these are given in 1117 little book, Indiaa Nation, 
in Jack's People's Books. Let tt see the 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 187 

putting them beyond the ceaseless pressure of physi- 
cal want." He sternly added that Oudh had been 
annexed on the plea of the degradation of the 
cultivators; let it not be said that with "all the 
means in our hands of raising the peasantry of Oudh 
from the squalid poverty and debasement which for 
centuries past have been their lot, we ignobly suffered 
them to perish ". Lala Murlidhar supported, sarcastic- 
ally saying that as it was " easier for a camel to 
pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich 
man to enter into the kingdom of heaven," the people 
of India should surely be happy, since " the doors of 
heaven, have been opened to you while they have 
been shut against all the people of Europe ". The 
poor need not fear thieves. As for facts and figures : 

Go and see those figures in houses and see their 
squalid condition, pale and miserable, with no food to eat, 
and with no drink to take, and with no salt. Well, then, 
is not that the condition of anchorites and hoi}' people V 
What do you want more ? Why do you ask the GoNern- 
ment for this or that ? . , . You are an ungrateful people. 
Really you are. You ask to be admitted to the Govern- 
ment of your country. Why should you have all this 
botheration ? Numerous troops have been provided to 
protect you and your lives. Numerous civil officials have 
taken the care off your shoulders. Then what do you 
want more P 

Mr. Vishnupada Chatter ji followed with further 
quotations from Government authorities, and aftr a 
Telugu speech from Mr. Parthasarati Naidu, the 
resolution was carried. 

Mr. Bardley Norton was called on to move Resolu- 
tion IV, asking for the aWition of the India Council, 



TBS HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

without which the re-constitution of the Legislative 
Councils was useless. "At present we stand sand- 
wiched between officials in [ndia and officials in 
Europe." The Council members 

were swayed by the same official interest, trained in 
the same official career, steeped in the same official pre- 
judices as "fcke men out here, who, also with the best 
of intentions, are resolutely endeavouring to thwart and 
obstruct your moral, material and political reforms. 

He quoted some striking opinions of English states- 
men on the way in which the Council and the 
Secretary of State worked ; no one seemed to know 
which was the real power : 

If the Secretary of State is to be controlled by thq 
Council, then abolish the Secretary of State. If the 
Council is to be controlled by the Secretary of State, then 
abolish the Council. The dual existence is useless, danger- 
ous, expensive, obstructive. 

He gave instances of commercial incapacity, such 
as sanctioning the Calcutta ancj S. E. Railway against 
fjord Canning's protest, guaranteeing interest at 5 per 
cent, and when it was practically bankrupt, buying 
it at half a million sterling. 5 per cent interest was 
guaranteed on a million sterling for the Madras Irri- 
gation Company, and as the work never paid its ex- 
penses, it was purchased for India at par. It bought 
at Rs. 1,000 per share the shares of the Blphinstone 
Land and Press Company, selling in the market at 
Rs. 389. A Council of twelve members so incapa- 
ble, at 1,200 a year each, was dear. Then politi- 
cally, Mr. Gladstone had remarked : 

Suddenly in the dark, in the privacy of the Council 
Chamber, I believe in answer to a telegram, without the 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 189 

knowledge of Parliament without the knowledge of the 
country, a law was passed, totally extinguishing the 
freedom of the native press. I think a law such as that 
is a disgrace to the British Empire. 

What would Gladstone have said of the deeper 
disgrace of the Press Act of 1910 ? After a caustic 
review of the expenses of the India Council, including 
the wages of 28 housemaids, 1 housekeeper and 
3 charwomen, Mr. Norton gave way to Mr. R. N. 
Mudholkar, who seconding the Resolution remarked 
that the Council was supposed to protect Indian 
interests, but it had failed and egregiously. The 
Resolution was passed, and an invitation from the 
Cosmopolitan Club for the 29th December was extend- 
ed to the Congress. 

The third day, the 28th December, began with 
Resolution V, asking for a Select Committee of 
the House of Commons to enquire into Indian 
finance, and Rai Bahadur C. Jambulingam Mudaliar 
gave some striking facts to prove the need for 
enquiry. He specially thanked Mr. Wesfcland, 
the Financial Secretary to the Government 
oi India, whose sophistry and bad logic had 
afcfcuacted exceptional attention to the Indian Budget, 
and exposed Sir Richard Temple's fatuous statements. 
Mt. H. Morgan-Browne seconded, and took up the 
qtte&feion of the -Famine Insurance Fund, quoting the 
promise qf the Government that- the money 
by the new taxation should be devoted wholly 
10 famine. Belief and Insurance, and ye't out of 24 
crfcftear $ m>eea tlms yake^only 16 crores had beeo 

* y S M * j. f 



190 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POR FREEDOM 

used as promised. He touched on the Exchange 

Compensation, on the " Stores/' one of the meanest 

and most corrupt departments ; India was made to 

pay Rs. 120,000 for a ball in Constantinople, on the 

ground that it was well for India to be on good terms 

with the Sultan of Turkey by means of a ball, 

outraging Oriental and Mnsahnan views of decency ! 

Mr> Gr. Subramania Iyer urged that there was no 

responsible authority to control Indian administration 

and remedy its defects, and the interests of India 

suffered. Sir William Hunter in The Times impugned 

the honesty of the Government of India, and where 

such accusations were made enquiry was needed. 

After two other speeches the Resolution was carried. 

The Hon. Mr. Surendranath Banner ji was then 

called on to move Resolution VI, on the evergreen 

subject of Simultaneous Examinations, and laid 

special stress on the way in which the promises of 

equal treatment had been broken. He concluded 

with a glowing picture of the land of promise on 

which their eyes -were fixed, 

where their fetters will fall off, their badge of 

political slavery will disappear where under the 

fostering influence of free political institutions, they will 
develop a civilisation the noblest which the world has 
ever seen, the emblem of indissoluble union between 
England and India, a civilisation fraught with unspeak- 
able blessing's to the people of India, and unspeakable 
renown to the English name. 

The Hon. Raja Rampal Singh seconded, and was 
followed by Mr. R. Venkata Subba Rao, Moulvi 
Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Mr. M. V. Joshi, and Professor 
Gr. K. Gokhale. The last-named pointed, out that 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 191 

the idea of an " irreducible minimum of Europeans 
in the Service " had now been boldly put forward 
for the first time. The Secretary of State and the 
Government now said that the highest posts must 
"for all time to come be held by Europeans " That 
meant 

that the present arrangement ahould be perpetuated 
and is, in fact, an attempt to keep us always under as a 
subject race. Gentlemen, is it not plainly our duty as 
men not to allow this barefaced Attempt to succeed ? . . . 
Let our opponents put themselves into our position, and 
then say what they would feel. I believe they will allow 
that it is not wrong to love one's country. I believe 
they 1 will allow that it is not wrong to have a high ideal 
for one's country. And then I believe they will allow 
that it is not wrong for us to be dissatisfied with our 
present condition Well, gentlemen, the pledges of equal 
treatment which England has given us have supplied us 
with a high and worthy ideal for our Nation ; and if these 
pledges are repudiated, one of the strongest claims of 
British rule to our attachment will disappear. 

Mr. Gokhale was followed by Mr. Grlmlam Ahmed 
Khan and Mr. Seymour Keay, who remarked that 
the Blue Book had " not a hint or whisper in it of 
any admission that the natives of India have even 
the faintest right to- live on their own soil, much 
less that they have any preferential claim over the 
other subjects of the British Empire to administer in 
their own country ". The Resolution was then 
carried unanimously. 

The Hon, Mr. N. Subba Rao moved Resolution VII 
on the recruitment for the Judicial Service, and com- 
plained of the system which made men judges with- 
out any sufficient training in law. These gentlemen 



192 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB PJREEDOM 

then supplied some- of the Judges of the High 
Court, so that " litigation has become a question of 
gambling, and no one can be sure, notwithstanding 
he has a good case, that that would be the view 
which would prevail in the Courts ". Mr. K. G. Natu 
seconded; Mr. A. R. KYislma Iyer supported, and the 
Resolution was carried. 

Resolution VIII on the Medical Service was moved 
by Dr. Bahadur ji, who proved by definite figures 
and facts the gross injustice done by the privileged 
position of the members of the J.M.S. to the Sub- 
ordinate Medical Service, though some of the latter 
had passed higher educational tests than the men 
of the I.M.S. The latter rose from Rs. 500 to 
Rs. 2,500, while the former rose from RH. 100 to 
Rs. 200. He also urged : 

Then there are two other enlistments for the sub- 
ordinate service one military and the other civil the 
former being open to Christians only. But see what 
difference the element of religion makes in the treatment 
accorded to the two classes. John, the Christian, and 
Pandu, the non- Christian, both seek admission to their 
respective services. John, the Christian, need not know 
more than the High School fourth standard, reading-, 
writing, and sums, but Pandu, the non-Christian, must 
pass a much . higher test. They both go through the 
same professional course and examination. If anything, 
Pandu has to undergo a sev&rer examination. John, the 
Christian, then begins as a Military Apothecary, and 
works under the regimental Surgeons. His salary 
ranges from Rs. 50 to Rs. 450. He *may, however, be 
promoted to the uncovenanted grade and given even 
Rs. 750 by being found a post in the Civil Depart- 
ment. His new designation is Assistant Surgeon, 
I.M.S., and he rises from the rank of Lieutenant to that of 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 193 

Major. But Panda, the non-Christian, begins as a Hospital 
Assistant and dies a Hospital Assistant. His work is as. 
vast as it is responsible. He practises medicine, surgery 
and midwifery. He it is who really dispels the ignor- 
ance and prejudice of the masses in regard to the western 
system of medicine. He treats a thousand times more cases 
in a month than the highest officer of a hospital does in a 
year. On his judgment, intelligence and integrity depend 
the lives of his fellow citizens in the Muffasal, questions 
of life and death turning upon the nature of his evidence 
in medico-legal cases. But, alas ! the respectability and 
responsibility of this most important servant of the State 
are in an inverse ratio, and that too in very abnormal 
proportions/ One feels almost ashamed to say that the 
non-Christian Pandu, who does such responsible and 
excellent work for the Government is paid no higher 
salary than is paid to a senior punka-walla in the 
hospital, or a cook or a coachman. The scale of his 
pay is Bs. 16 to Rst 80 odd. 

The Eesolution was seconded by Kai Bahadur 
P. Ananda Charlu, supported by Dr. M. Gr. Desmukh 
and carried. 

The last Resolution of the day was No. IX, on 
Legislative Councils, proposed by Pandit Madan 
Mohan Malaviya, seconded by Bakshi Jaishi Bam, 
supported by three others and carried. 

The President announced the sad and unexpected 
death of the Maharaja of Mysore, just before the 
Congress adjourned, and on the following day, 
December. 29th, the first business done was the 
passing, in silence of a resolution of grief for his loss*. 

The last day of the Congress was, as usual, crowd- 
ed, no less than 18 resolutions being crushed into it. 
The Hon. Mr. Setalvad proposed Resolution XI, the 
extension of trial by jury, the restoring of finality to 
It 



194 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FBBEDOM 

the verdicts given by juries as before 1872, and the 
removal of the Government's power to appeal against 
-acquittals that scandalous peculiarity of Indian law. 
Mr. K, N. Desmukh seconded, and Mr. AmbikaCharan 
Mozumdar made a splendid and argumentative speech 
in support, full of facts. The effect, he said finally, 
of the law was to divide the population into two 
castes, European Brahmanas and Indian Shudras, 
And after pointing out that the place where a murder 
was committed decided whether the accused 
should "be dealt with as a true citizen or as 
bondsman/' he finished with a passionate appeal : 

Sir, we are judged without evidence, and condemned 
without trial ! Alas, we seem to he nobody's care. Even 
the Yiceroy, whom we loyally welcome as a hereditary 
ruler, in his anxiety to accentuate the invidious distinction 
of colour, has lost no time in issuing on his own motion 
confidential circulars to protect the rights of those who 
virtually need no protection. But though the people have 
been long crying for help in this and other connections, 
the Grods are asleep, and there is no response to their call. 
Is the race of British philanthropists extinct ? And have 
the mighty builders of this vast Empire left no heritage 
of broad and noble ideals of ]ustice for their successors >fj 
"We are not appealing to Jews or Cossacks, but to those 
for whom they proudly say Milton wrote and Sydney died, 
and for whom the Magna Carta was obtained ; and, in 
making our present appeal; we are asking not only for the 
protection of our life, liberty, and property, but also for 
the vindication of the honour and dignity of the great 
British Constitution. 

The Resolution was carried. 

Resolution XII, the familiar separation of Judicial 
and Executive functions, was moved, seconded, support- 
ed and carried, and once more the status of a High 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 195 

Court was claimed for the Panjab (No. XIII). No. XIV 
was on Military Expenditure, and was moved and 
seconded by two powerful speakers the Hon. Mr. 
C. Sankaran Nair and Mr. D. E. Wacha. Being 
carried, it was followed by Resolution XV on Educa- 
tion, and then came the Omnibus, driven this time 
by "Pandit Bishan Narayana Dhar. Four other 
speakers were the horses drawing it to victory. 

Resolution XVII protested against the further 
powers conferred on magistrates as most arbitrary, 
dangerous and unwise, and was carried after two 
short speeches by Messrs. R. N. Mudholkar and 
M. B. Namjoshi. Resolution XVIII thanked the 
Government of India for its circular in October 1894, 
declaring that fiscal interests must be subordinated 
to the needs of the ryots in the management of 
forests, a good result of the three preceding Sessions 
of the Congress. 

A Government of India Notification of June, 1891, 
depriving the Press of liberty in territories under 
British administration in Feudatory States, formed 
the subject of the next Resolution (JS T o. XIX), moved 
by Mr. P. Ramachandra Pillai, one of the delegates 
from Secunderabad, a place affected by the Kotifica- 
tion, which ran as follows ; 

Whereas some misapprehension Las hitherto existed 
as to the regulations m force in territory under the 
administration of the Governor- General in Council, but 
beyond the limits of British India, with reference to 
newspapers published with in sueh ^erritory, the Gorernor- 
G-en^af i^ C9u&QiVl*a^Tbeef^ka&e$ fa make the following 
order: , ' ,. , ' .; , ., 



HOW INDIA WKOUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

1. No newspaper or other printed work, whether 
periodical or other, containing public news or comments 
on public news shall, without the written permission for 
the time being in force of the Political Agent, be edited, 
printed, or published, after the 1st day of August 1891, 
in any local area administered by the Governor-General 
in Oouncil but not forming part of British India. 

2. If after the day aforesaid any person shall- without 
finch permission as aforesaid edit, print, or publish any 
such newspaper or other work as aforesaid in any such 
local area as aforesaid the Political Agent may by order 
in writing ; 

I (a) require him to leave such local area within 

! seven days from the date of such order ; 

' (6) and prohibit him from re-entering such local 

area without the written permission of the Political Agent. 

3. If any such order as is mentioned in the last fore- 
going paragraph be disobeyed, the offender shall be 
liable to forcible expulsion from such t local area in pur- 
suance of an order to be made in writing by the Political 
Agent. 

It may be noted that at the present time (Septem- 
ber, 1915) Sir Hugh Daly, Resident in Bangalore, 

I has, tinder this, stopped an English paper which has 

existed there for many years. Mr. G. Subramania 
Iyer, then Editor of The Hindu, seconded, and the 

] Resolution was carried. 

I Resolution XX brought up the consideration of the 

Water-cess, varying in amount at the will of the 
Government, and urged thafc it should be levied on 
some fixed principle. It was effectively moved by- 
Mr. G. Venkataratnam, seconded by Mr V. V. 
Avadhani, supported by Mr. 8. B. Sankaram and 
carried. 



THE TENTH CON0EESS 197 

A protest Resolution (No. XXI) against the 
disfranchisement of Indians in S. Africa the first of 
many protests, was moved from the Chair and carried. 
Resolution XXII nominated a deputation to Lord 
Elgin, the Viceroy, and Mr. Fowler, the Secretary of 
State, to present to them some of the Congress 
resolutions. Resolutions XXIII and XXIV, on the 
grant to the British Committee and conveying the 
thanks of the Congress for their work ; Resolution 
XXV, re-appointing Mr. A. 0. Hume as General 
Secretary ; Resolution XXVI, fixing the next meeting 
of the Congress at Poona, were carried. The 
President then moved an important Resolution (No. 
XXVII) for shaping a Constitution for the Congress, 
and requested the Standing Congress Committee of 
Poona to draft and circulate draft rules among the 
remaining Standing Committees for report, the whole 
to be considered by the next Congress. 

A vote of thanks was then passed to the President, 
and with his brief reply the Tenth Congress closed. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Hxoiae Duty 

I. Resolved-- 

(a) That this Congress respectfully enters its emphatic pro- 
test against the injustice and impolicy of imposing excise duty on 
Cottons manufactured in British India, as such excise is calculated 
to cripple seriously the infant Mill Industry of this country. 

(6) That this Congress puts on record its firm conviction 
that in proposing this excise the interests of India have been sacri- 
ficed to those of Lancashire, and it strongly deprecates any such 
surrender of Indian interests by the Secretary of State. 

(c) That in case the Excise Bill becomes law this Congress 
earnestly prays .that the Government of India will without delay 
seek the sanction of the Secretary of State to exercise the powers 



198 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

which the Bill confers on Government to exempt all Cottons from 
" twenties " to " twenty-fours " from the operation of the Act. 

(d) That the President be authorised to telegraph the above 
Resolution to the Government of India and to the Secretary of State. 

Permanent Settlement 

II. Resolved 

(a) That this Congress desires to express the profound 
alarm which has "been created by the action of Government in inter- 
fering with the existing Permanent Settlement in Bengal and 
Behar (in the matter of Survey and other cesaes) and with the 
terms of sanads of permanently settled estates in Madras ; and, 
deeming such interference with solemn pledges a national calamity, 
hereby pledges itself to oppose in all possible legitimate ways all 
such re-actionary attacks on Permanent Settlements and their 
holders, and resolves to petition Parliament in that behalf. 

(6) 9?hat this Congress regrets extremely that the Govern- 
ment of India have not only failed to carry out the pledges (given by 
the Secretary of State in his despatches of 1862 and 1865) for Pef- 
manent Settlement in the Provinces in which it does not exist, but 
have also failed to give effect to the policy of granting modified 
fixity of tenure and immunity from enhancements laid down in 
1882 and 1884 by the Government of India and approved by the 
Secretary of State ; and this Congress hereby entreats the Govern- 
ment of India to grant a modified fixity of tenure and immunity 
from enhancement of land-tax for a sufficiently long period of not 
less than sixty years, so as to secure to landholders the full benefits 
of their own improvements. 

Poverty 

III. Resolved That this Congress, concurring in the views 
set forth in previous Congresses, affirms . 

That fully fifty millions of the population, a number yearly 
increasing, are dragging out a miserable exi&tence on the verge of 
starvation, and that, in every decade, several millions actually 
perish by starvation. 

And humbly urges, once more, that immediate steps be taken 
to remedy this calamitous state of affairs. 

India Council 

IV. Resolved That this Congress considers the Abolition of the 
Council of the Secretary of State for India, as at present constituted, 
the necessary preliminary to all other reforms ; and suggests that in 
its place a Standing Committee of Members of the House of 
Commons be appointed. 



THE TENTH CONQBESS 199 

Finance 

Y. Resolved That this Congress, while thanking Her 
Majesty's Government for the promise they have made to appoint a 
Select Committee of Members of Parliament to enquire into the 
financial expenditure of India, regards an enquiry with so limited a 
scope as inadequate, and is of opinion that if the enquiry is to bear 
any practical fruit it must include an enquiry into the ability of the 
Indian people to bear their existing financial burdens, and into the 
financial relations between India and the United Kingdom. 

XIV. Resolved That having regard to the fact that the 
embarrassed condition of the finances of the country has been 
giving cause for grave anxiety for some years past, this Congress 
records its firm co'nviction that the only remedy for the present 
state of things is a material curtailment in the expenditure on the 
Army Services and other Military Expenditure, Home Charges, and 
the cost of Civil Administration, and in view of the proposed 
appointment of a Parliamentary Committee to investigate the 
subject, this Congress strongly recommends that the Standing 
Congress Committees of the several Presidencies and Provinces 
should, so far as practicable, make arrangements to send to England 
at least one well-qualified delegate from each Presidency or Province 
to urge such reduction before the Committee. 

Public Service 

VI. Resolved 

(a) That this Congress expresses its deep sense of disappoint- 
ment at the despatch of the Secretary of State supporting the views 
of the Government of India on the question of Simultaneous Exam- 
inations, and this Congress hereby places on record its respectful 
but firm protest against the despatch, as, among other things, 
introducing a new principle inconsistent with the Charter Act of 
1833 and the Proclamation of the Queen of 1st November 1858 (the 
solemn pledges contained in which the Secretary of State and the 
Government of India now seek to repudiate) by creating a disability 
founded upon race, for the despatch lays down that a minimum of 
European officials in the Covenanted Service is indispensable. 

(b) That in the opinion of this Congress the creation of the 
Provincial Service is no satisfactory or permanent solution of the 
problem, as this Service, constituted as it is at present, falls short 
of the legitimate aspirations of the people, and the interests of the 
subordinate Service will not suffer by the concession of Simultaneous 
Examinations. 

(c) That no attempt has been made to make out a case 
against the holding of Simultaneous Examinations for the recruit- 
ment of the Engineering, Forest, Telegraph and the higher Police 




200 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Service Examinations, and the Congress regrets to notice that the 
despatches of the Secretary of State,, the Government of India, and 
the various local -Governments are absolutely silent with regard to 
this aspect of the [Resolution of the House of Commons. 

'(d) That this Congress respectfully urges on Her Majesty's 
tovernnient*that the Resolution of the House of Commons of 2nd 
June, 1893, on the question of Simultaneous Examinations should 
be speedily carried out as an act of 1 justice to the Indian people. 

Legal 

VIL Resolved That this Congress views with great 
dissatisfaction the system of recruiting the higher Judicial Service 
of the country, and is of opinion that provision should be made for 
proper Judicial training being given to persons who are appointed 
to the post of District and Sessions Judge, and that the higher 
Judicial Service in Bengal, the N.W.P. and Oudh, Bombay and 
Madras, and the Judicial Service generally in other parts of the 
country, should be more largely recruited from the legal profession 
than is now the case. 

XI. Resolved 

(a) That, in the opinion of this Congress, the time has now 
arrived when the system of trial by Jury may be safely extended, 
in oases triable by Sessions Courts, to many parts of the country 
where it is not at present in force. 

(b) That, in the opinion of this Congress, the innovation 
made in 1872 in the system of trial by Jury, depriving tne verdicts 
of Juries of all finality, has proved injurious, to the country, and 
that the powers, then, for the first time, vested in Sessions Judges 
and High Courts, of setting aside verdicts of acquittal, should be at 
once withdrawn. 

(c) That in the opinion of this Congress it is extremely 
desirable that the power at present vested in Government to appeal 
against acquittals be taken away. - 

XII. Resolved That this Congress having till now vainly 
appealed for many successive years to the Government of India, 
and also to the Secretary of State, to remove one of the gravest 
defects in the system of administration and one fraught with 
incalculable oppression to all classes of people throughout the 
country, and having noted with satisfaction the admission of the 
vil by two former Secretaries of State (Lord Kimberley and Lord 
Cross), and being of opinion that the reform is thoroughly 
practicable, as has been shown by Messrs. R. D. Dutt, M. M. Ghose 
and F. M. Mehta, entreats the Government of India to direct the 
immediate appointment in each Province of a Committee (one-half 
t least of whose members shall be non-official natives of India, 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 201 

qualified by education and experience in the workings of varions 
Courts to deal with the question) to prepare a scheme for the 
complete separation of all Judicial and Executive functions in their 
own Province with as little additional cost to the State as may be 
practicable, and the submission of such scheme?, with the opinions 
of the several Governments thereon, at an early date. 

XIII. Besolved That this. Congress reaffirms the opinion of 
the preceding Congress that the time has now come to raise the 
status of the Chief Court of the Panjab to that of a Chartered 
High Court in the interests of the administration of justice in this 
Province. 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress hereby empowers its 
President to convey to the Government of India its opinion that 
the powers proposed to be conferred on District Magistrates by 
amendments and additions to section 15 of Police Act Vof 1861, with 
respect to the levy of the costs of punitive police and of granting 
compensation, are of a most arbitrary, dangerous, and unprecedented 
character 

Medioal Service 

VIII Resolved 

(a) That this Congress is of opinion that the present 
constitution of the Higher Civil Medical Service is anomal- 
ous, indefensible in principle, injurious in its working, find un- 
necessarily costly; that the time has arrived when in the interests 
of Public Medical Education, and the advancement of Medical 
Service and of scientific work in the country, as also in the cause of 
economic administration, the Civil Medical Service of India should 
be reconstructed on the basis of such Service in other civilised 
countries, wholly detached from and independent of the Military 
Service. 

(6) That the very unsatisfactory position and prospects of 
Members of the Subordinate Civil Medical Service (Assistant- 
Surgeons and Civil Hospital Assistants) compared with members of 
similar standing in other departments of the Public Service, require 
thorough investigation and redress, and prays that Government will 
grant for the purpose an open enquiry by a mixed Commission of 
official and non-official members. 

(c) That whilst this Congress views with satisfaction the 
desire of the Imperial Government to reorganise the Chemical 
Analyser's department with a view to its administration as an inde- 
pendent scientific department, it earnestly hopes that Government 
will not fail to recognise the responsible and meritorious work of 
Assistants, or as they in reality are, Government Chemical Analy- 
sers, and place them on the footing of Specialists. 



202 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FEBBDOM 

Legislative Councils and Rules 

- IX. Resolved 

(a) That this Congress, in concurrence with the preceding 
Congresses, considers that the creation of a Legislative Council for 
the Province of the Panjab is an absolute necessity for the good 
Government of that Province, and having regard to the fact that a 
Legislative Council has been created for the N. W, Provinces, 
urges that no time be lost in creating such a Council for the Paajab. 

(b) That this Congress, in concurrence with the preceding 
Congress, is of opinion that the Rules now in force under the Indian 
Councils Act of 1892 are materially defective, and prays that His 
Excellency the Viceroy in Council will be pleased to have 'fresh 
Rules framed in a liberal spirit, with a view to a better working of 
the Act and suited to the conditions and requirements of each 
Province. 

Vote of Sympathy 

X. Resolved That this Congress wishes to express its re- 
spectful condolence and sympathy with the Royal Family of Mysore 
in their recent sad and sudden bereavement, and at the same time 
to testify to its deep sense of the loss which has been sustained in 
the death of the Maharaja of Mysore, not only by the State over 
which he ruled with such wisdom, ability and beneficence^ but also 
by all the Indian peoples, to whom his constitutional reign was at 
onco a vindication of their political capacity, an example for their 
active emulation, and an earnest of their future political liberties. 

Education 

XV. Resolved That this Congress is emphatically of opinion 
that it is inexpedient in the present-state of "Education in the country 
that Government grants for Higher Education should in any way be 
withdrawn, and, concurring with previous Congresses, affirms in the 
most emphatic manner the importance of increasing public 
expenditure on all branches of Education and the expediency of 
establishing Technical Schools and Colleges. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

XVI. Resolved That this Congress concurs with its predecessors 
in strongly advocating previous (a) (*) 

(j) The discontinuance of the Exchange Compensation 
allowance granted to undomiciled European and Eurasian employees 
of Government, involving an annual expenditure of over a crore of 
rupees while the Exchequer is in a condition of chronic embarrass- 
ment, 

(*) The giving effect to the Report of the Parliamentary 
members of the India Office Committee on the subject of the Rules, 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 203 

Orders, and Practices in Indian Cantonments, with regard to 
prostitution and contagious disease, and the endorsing of their 
conclusions 

(I) That the system and incidental practices described In that 
Report, and the statutory rules, so far as they authorised or 
permitted the same, did not accord with the plain meaning- and 
intention of the Resolution of the House of Commons of June 5th, 
1888; and 

(II) That the only effective method of preventing these 
systematic malpractices is by express legislation 

Forest Administration 

XVI II. Resolved That this Congress records "its deep-felt 
gratitude to tho Government of India for its circular resolution 
No. 22/F, published in tho Supplement to The Gazette of India, dated 
20th October, 1894, and its high appreciation of tho generous prin- 
ciple, which it enunciates, of subordinating fiscal interest to the 
needs and agricultural interests of the ryot population in the 
management of forests 

And would further represent that in forests falling under 
classes 3 and 4 of the said resolutions, fuel, giazing concessions, 
fodder, small timber for building houses and making agricultural 
implements, edible forest products, etc., may bo granted free of 
charge in all cases, undei such restitutions as to quantity, etc., as 
the Government may deem proper, and that wherever hardship 
may be felt, under present conditions, the policy of the said 
Resolution may be carried out with reference to existing Forest 
areas, and the existing Reserve boundaries HO adjusted as to luu/ve 
a sufficiently large margin to facilitate, the enjoyment by the 
agricultural population of their communal rights without molesta- 
tion and annoyance by the minor subordinates of the Department 

Coercion of the Press 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress, being of opinion that the 
Government of India Notification of 26th June, 1891, in tho Foreign 
Department, gagging the Press in territories under British admi- 
nistration in Native States, is retrograde, arbitrary, and mischievous 
in its nature, and opposed to sound statesmanship and to the 
liberty of the people, most respectfully enters its emphatic protest 
against the same and entreats its cancellation without delay 

Water-Cess 

XX. Resolved That this Congress views with apprehension 
the arbitrary policy of the Government of India with, regard to the 
imposition, of water-cess, introducing as it does a disturbing element 
in. taxation, and suggests that the imposition of the said cess be 



204 HOW INDIA WBOUGfflT FOB FBHSDOM 

regulated by certain defined principles affording security to the 
rights of landowners and of persons investing money in land. 

South Africa 

XXI. Resolved That this Congress earnestly entreats Her 
Majesty's Government to grant the prayer of Her Majesty's Indian 
subjects, resident in the South African Colonies, by vetoing the Bill 
of the Colonial Government disenfranchising them. 

Deputations 

XXII. Resolved That a deputation consisting of the following 
gentlemen be appointed for the purpose of presenting Resolutions 
numbered 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 2L to 
His Excellency Lord Elgin ; and that the British Committee of the 
National Congress be requested to arrange a similar deputation to 
wait upon the Secretary ot State for India in London. 

From Bengal and Behar: His Highness the Maharaja 
Bahadur of Durb'hauga, Sir Romesh Chandra Mitra, Kt., Hon Mr. 
W C. Bannerji, Hon. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, Mr. J Ghosal, 
Babu Saligram Smgh, Mr. Shuref-ud-din, Rai Jotendranath Chau- 
dhnri and Babu Baikunthanath Sen 

Fiom the North-West Provinces Hon. Raja Rampal Singh, 
and Hon Babu Ghuru Chandra Mitra. 

From Oudh Sheikh Raja Hussein Khan, Mr. Hamid Ali 
Khan and Babu Gokal Chand. 

From the Panjdb Sardar Dayal Singh Majithia, Mr. Kali 
Prasanua Rai, Mr. Jussawala, Shaik Umar Bunksh, Lala Murlidhar 
and Bakshi Jaibhi Ram. 

Fiom Bombay Hon. Mr. P. M. Mehta, C.IJE. 

From the Central Provinces Hon. Mr. G M. Chitnavis and 
Rai Bahadur C. Naramswami Naidu. 

From Poona Rao Bahadur V. M. Bhide, Mr. S. B. Bhate, 
Mr. N. B. Mule and Mr. P. L. Nagpurkar. 

From Berar Rao Sahab Deorao Vmayek. 

From Madras . Manivikram, Raja of Calicut, Hon. Mr. Sabapati 
Mudaliar, Rai Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu and Mr. G. Subramania 
Iyer. 

Congress Work 

XXIII. Resolved That a sum of Rs. 60,000 be assigned for 
the expenses of the British Committee and the cost of the Congress 
publication, India, and that the several circles do contribute as 
arranged, either now, or hereafter in Committee, for the year 1895* 



THE TENTH CONGRESS 205 

Thanks of Congress 

XXIV. Resolved That this Congress hereby tenders its most 
grateful thanks to Sir W. Wedderburn and the other members of 
the British Congress Committee for the services rendered by them 
to India during the present year. 

Formal 

XXV. Resolved That this Congress roappoints Mr. A. O. 
Hume, C.B., to be its General Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XXVI Resolved That the Eleventh Indian National 
Congress do assemble on such day after Christmas Day, 1895, as 
may bo later determined upon, at Foona. 

Congress Constitution 

XXVII. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that the 
time has come when the Constitution of the Congress should be 
settled, and rules and regulations laid down as to the number of 
Delegates, their qualifications, the localities for assemblage, and 
the like, and with this view the Congress requests the Standing 
Congress Committee of Poona to draw up drnfh rules and 
circulate them among the different Standing Congress Committees 
for their report , those reports, together with the draft rules and 
the report thereon to be laid before the next Congress for its 
consideration, 



4 ' 



CHAPTER XI 

THE second decade of the life of the National Congress 
opened at Poona, the great capital city of Maha* 
rashtra, on Pecember 27, 1895, and it sat for three 
days, December 27, 28 and 30, the 29th being omitted, 
as a Sunday. No less than 1,584 delegates were pre- 
sent, and there was a huge crowd of visitors. The 
delegates were distributed as follows : 

Bombay (1,246), Sindh (11) .. . . 1,257 

Berar, C. P 131 

N. W. P. and Oudh 24 

Bengal . . . 51 

Panjab .,. .. ... .. ... 3 

Madras 118 



1,584 

The proceedings of the Congress opened as usual 
with the welcome address of the Chairman of the 
Reception Committee, Rao Bahadur V. M. Bhide, a 
noble and venerable man of seventy year-s of age, 
who, after a word of welcome, asked Professor Gr. K. 
Grokhale " as I am a very old man " to read his 
speech. At Poona it was, he said, that Mr. A. 0. 
Hume had first discussed the scheme of the Congress 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 207 

with his Indian friends; Poona had been first 
chosen for its gathering, though the meeting had to 
be transferred to Bombay ; and it was fitting that its 
second ten years' cycle should begin there. The 
speech was a particularly fine one, commencing with 
a reminder that a hundred years before Poomi had 
been the centre of a Confederacy which held together 
the continent of India from the Himalayas to Gape 
Comorin, from Dwaraka to Cuttack, and vindicating 
India's Nationhood. Met there were they, he said, 
to " do all that is in their power to build up the 
great Indian Nation, which has been their aspiration 
by day and dream by night, and which, if not fulfilled 
before their eyes, will certainly be accomplished in the 
near future ". It was for them to justify those, hopes 
and aspirations, " to realise the dream of a united 
and federated India ". The Hon. Mr. Surendranath 
Bannerji had been chosen as President', a man who 
" joins in himself all that is good and enlightened in 
young and in old India," holding "the foremost 
place in the hearts of what may well be called the 
hope and blossom of coming years the hearts of 
many thousands of students ". 

The Hon. Mr. P. Ananda Charlu proposed, 
Dr. K". N. BaJbadurji seconded, and Mr. R. N. 
Mudholkar supported the election of the Hon. 
Mr, Surendranath Bannerji, and it was carried by 
acclamation. 

Mr, Surendranath Bannerji, after a few graceful 
words of thanks, referred to a difference that had 
arisen as to the Social Conl&rence put an end to by 



208 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

the tolerant and wise action of Mr. Justice Ranade 
and said that the Congress was not of one social 
party rather than another : 

It is the Congress of United India, of Hindus and 
Muhamraadans, of Christians, of Parsis and of Sikhs, of 
those who would reform their social customs and those 
who would not. Here we stand uon a common platform 
here we have all agreed to "bury 6ur social and religious 
differences, and recognise the one common fact that being 
subjects of the same Sovereign and living under the same 
Government and the same political institutions, we have 
common rights and common grievances. And we have 
called forth this Congress into existence with a view to 
safeguard and extend our rights and redress our 
grievances. 

The President then earnestly besought the 
delegates, to shape a Constitution for the Congress. 
In 1887 the Congress appointed a Committee to 
consider what rules, if any, should be framed. They 
reported, and a Resolution was passed to circulate 
the suggested rules to the Standing Congress Com- 
mittees who were to work on them and report to the 
next Congress of 1888. That was passed in Madras, 
and nothing '.was done till the Congress returned to 
Madras in 1894, - although at Lahore, in 1893, a wish 
for a Constitution was expressed. In 1894, the Stand- 
ing Committee at Poona was requested to draw up and 
circulate rules; they drew them up, at the last 

moment, and sent them round, but there were no 

* * > 

reports from the other Standing Committees. Let 
them form a Committee to frame rules and report on 
the last 'day, not circulating them to the Committee t 
"That is the old plea for inaction. We shall not 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS $09 

have any rules at all if we are to repeat the hapless, 
experiment of former years." 

Turning- to National affairs, the President pointed 
out the utter inadequacy of the Councils Act of 
1892 ; for instance, Bengal, with a population of 70 
millions, had 7 elected members. The right of inter- 
pellation had been usefully exercised. The members 
were allowed to talk about the Budget, but might not 
move any resolution thereon. He then discussed the 
tremendous increase of the military expenditure due 
to the frontier and other wars carried on by the 
G-overnment. The whole policy was both wrong and 
ruinous " Let me tell the Government of India, in your 
name, that the true scientific frontier against Russian, 
invasion does not lie in some remote inaccessible 
mountain, which has yet to be discovered, nor is it to 
be found in the House of Commons, as some one said; 
but it lies deep in the heart of a loyal and contented 
people." 

Having considered other points of expenditure and 
the woeful poverty of the people, the President touched 
on import duties, the exchange compensation allowance, 
the question of industries, and the then sitting Royal 
Commission to enquire into Indian expenditure. He 
spoke bitterly of the exclusion of Indians from the 
higher branches ojf the Services, especially the Army, 
" this ostracism of a whole people, " and quoted Sir 
Henry Lawreuce: "If Asiatics and Africans 
obtain honourable position in the armies of 
and France, surely Indians, after a tried servffe 
d* a o<mtury under flftgtol's banner, are 
18 



210 HOW INDIA WROUGHT IOE 1REEDOM 

to the same boon, nay, justice." He reviewed 
many; other matters in the field of Indian politics, 
and nrged that they should be made party questions in 
the English Parliament. After expressing gratitude 
for the improvements so far made, the President 
concluded : 

Nevertheless we feel that much yet remains to be 
done, and the impetus must come from England. To 
England we look for inspiration and guidance. To 
England we look for sympathy in the struggle. From 
England must come the crowning mandate which will 
enfranchise our peoples. England is our political guide 
and our moral preceptor in the exalted sphere of political 
duty. English history has taught us those principles of 
freedom which we cherish with our life-blood We have 
been fed upon the strong food of English cqnstitutional 
ireedom. We have been taught to admire the' eloquence 
and genius of the great masters of English political 
philpsophy. We have been brought face to fape with the 
struggles and thj triumphs of the English people in thfeir 
stately march towards constitutional freedom. Where 
will you find better models of courage, devotion, and 
sacrifice ; not in Rome, not in Greece, not even in France 
in the stormy days of the Revolution courage tempered 
by caution, enthusiasm leavened by sobriety, partisanship 
softened by a large-hearted charity all subordinated to the 
one predominating sense of love of country and love of God. 
, . . The noblest heritage which we can leave to our children 
and our children's children is the heritage of enlarged 
rights, safeguarded by the loyal devotion and the fervent 
enthusiasm of an emancipated people. Let us so work 
with confidence in each other, with unwavering loyalty to 
the British connection, that we may accomplish this great 
object within a measurable distance of time. Then will 
the Congress have fulfilled its mission justified, the hopes 
of those who founded it, and who worked for it not, 
indeed, by the supersession of British rule in India, but 
.by broadening its basis, liberalising its spirit, ennobling 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 211 

its character, and placing it upon the unchangeable 
foundations of a nation's affections. It is not severance 
that we look forward to but unification, permanent 
embodiment as an integral part of that great Empire 
which has given the rest of the world the models 
of free institutions that is what we aim at. But per- 
manence means assimilation, incorporation, equal 
rights, equal privileges. Permanence is incompatible 
with any form of military despotism, which is a temporary. 
makeshift adapted to a temporary purpose. England is 
the august mother of free Nations. She has covered the 
world with free States. Places, hitherto the chosen abode 
of barbarism, are now the home of freedom. Wherever 
floats the flag of England, there free Governments have 
been established. We appeal to England gradually to 
change the character of her rule in India, ^liberalise it, 
to shift its foundations to adapt it to the newly-developed 
environments of the country and the people, so that, in 
the fulness of time, India may find its place in the great 
confederacy of free States, English in their origin, English 
in their character, English m their iiihtitutioiib, rejoicing 
in their permanent and indissoluble union with England, 
a glory to the mether-country, and an honour to the 
human race. T lion will England have fulfilled her great 
mission : a the East, accomplished her high destiny among 
Natiorg, repaid the long-standing debt which the West 
owes to the East, and eo\red herself with imperishable 
and everlasting glory. 



The speech . was an exceptionally fine one, both for 
matter and manner, keeping throughout a high level 
of sustained eloquence, and it was enthusiastically 
cheered. The Subjects Committee was approved, and 
the Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, Mr. Ghosal moved, and 
Mr. Jaishi Ram seconded Resolution I, which ordered 
that the draft rules framed by the Poona Council 
should be circulated, with instructions to report to 



212 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

the General Secretary and Standing Counsel three 
months before the next Congress, and it was carried 
unanimously. 

Mr. Baikunthanath Sen moved Resolution II, stating 
the opinion that the enquiry on Expenditure could not 
be satisfactory unless evidence were given other than 
official and Anglo-Indian. The value of the Commis- 
sion did not lie in the examining of accounts, but in 
an enquiryinto the policy, which was at the root of the 
expenditure. This view was supported by the 
seconder, the Hon. Mr. Jambulingam Mudaliar, who 
pointed Out that enquiry should be made into the 
enormous Home (Foreign) Charges, and the purchase 
of all stores in England, instead of developing 
manufactures here; also into the trans-frontier 
warfare and the scientific boundary search. Why 
should the enquiry be heard in camera, like an 
indecent divorce suit? there was nothing private 
about it. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya spoke of the 
joy with which India had welcomed direct Govern- 
ment by the Crown, believing that the transfer meant 
a share in free institutions and an improvement of 
the condition of the people. But the bureaucracy 
which ruled them forced them to doubt if they were 
right in their joy. Far more attention was paid to 
India, there was a keener desire to see that no 
injustice was done, and the interests of the people 
were more considered, hef ore the Crown took over the 
Government. When the East India Company applied 
for the renewal of their charter every 20 years, 
a Parliamentary Committee enquired into their 



THE ELEVENTH CONGJBESS 213 

administration and reforms were made. But since the 
Crown took things over, there had been no such 
enquiry. They said to England : 

If you do not think us fit to govern ourselves ; if you 
think we cannot understand our own finances, and say what 
we can and what we cannot spend, considering what ow? 
means are ; if yon think you are better judges of it, |>ray 
devote a little time and attention to the consideration of 
these matters. If you cannot find time to do so, permit us, 
pray, to do it. Why make us suffer by reason of your 
inability to attend to our concerns, and by preventing 
us from attending to them, from doing what we are most 
anxious to do, not only in our own interests but in the 
interests of the Government as well r 1 

The eloquent speaker concluded : 

I ask English gentlemen, I ask the people of England, 
to seriously consider the position in which India is placed. 
That position is simply this. Educated Indians, 
representing the cultured intelligence of the country, 
have been praying for an enquiry, a fall and fair enquiry, 
into the administration of this country during the lafct, 
forty years. We have impeached that administration to 
almost every conceivable ground. We charge the 
Government of England, with having saddled us with *n 
unnecessarily costly expenditure on the Civil Service & 
India ; we charge them with having forced upon te.8 a 
crushingly heavy military expenditure > we charge them 
with indulging in a great waste of India's money beyond 
the borders of India ; we charge them with want 
fairness in their dealings with India in the matter & 
the Home Charges ; nay more, we charge them"***4|Btf 
Government of India, the Government of England *p* 
the people of England with them with being : 




by reason of their neglect to adequately perform 
duty toward a India, f6r the loss of millions of livi 
are lost in every decade from starvation, kxp * 
result of overtaxation and inefficient admimstrmtiou. 



214 HQW INDIA WKOUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

We charge the people of England, because as some one 
has said, 

Hear him, ye senates, hear this truth sublime, 
He who allows oppression shares the crime. 

If the English Parliament, if the people of England, 
who hare solemnly taken upon themselves the duty of 
governing India, by reason of their neglect, to do that 
duty properly, allow any loss of life to occur in India 
which they could prevent, they are surely answerable be* 
fore God and man for that loss of life. In the face of 
such an impeachment, does it become the great English 
people and the English Parliament to give us a lame 
Commission, to enquire imperfectly into one branch only 
of this administration ? Would it not become them rather 
to stand up, like true Englishmen, and say : " We shall 
face all these various charges, and either prove them to be 
untrue, or admit that they are true and make amends for 
them." The charges are not of a light nature nor are 
they lightly made, and if the English people do not care 
to enquire into them in the interests of their Empire, if 
they care not to do so in the interests of v suffering 
humanity, if they do it not, even as a matter, of duty, let 
them do it at least for the sake of the honour of England, 
which, I hope and trust, is still clear to every 
Englishman. 

The Resolution was then carried. 

Finance was still to the fore, and Resolution III 
dealt with Civil and Military expenditure. If the 
Commission would not go into policy, the Congress 
would, and Mr. Wacha pointed out that Sir 
James "Westland had seriously misrepresented the 
fact by saying that the increase was due to the ex- 
change, and that General Sir Henry Brackenbnry had 
joined him by saying that, out of 62 lakhs of increase, 
57 J wet** due to the fall in exchange. Mr. Wacha 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 215 

gave the official figures, proving the inaccuracy of 
the statement beyond possibility of dispute. 

Munshi Shaik Hussain seconded, Mr. S. K. Nair 
and Dr. K. N. Bahadurji supported, and The Resolu- 
tion was carried unanimously. 

Resolution IY, the perennial separation of Judicial 
and Executive functions, was moved, this year by 
Mr. Mano Mohan Ghose. He added to the arsenal a 
statement by Mr. James, a Commissioner, in which he 
said that the union was " the mainstay of the British 
power in India" a sorry confession. The Hon. 
Mr. C. Setalwad seconded, four other delegates 
supported, and it was carried. 

Mr. W. C. Bannerji, m proposing the, extension of 
the Jury system (Resolution V), made a new point in 
urging that a judge, translating in his mind the 
vernacular of a rustic witness, was too engrossed with 
the language to properly attend to the witness; 
Indian jurymen, understanding the language, would 
watch the demeanour of witnesses and would distin- 
guish truthful speech frojui false. He feared that the 
strange changes which were being introduced 'into 
criminal procedure would shake the faith of the people 
in the administration of justice. Mr. Veiikatasifbba 
Iyer seconded, and Mr. Venkatrao Gutikar, in sup- 
porting, pointed to the practical identity between the 
Panchayat and the Jury, and the Marathi proverb : 
ft The Five are the Voice of God." Sir Thomas Mnnro, 
in 1825, noted that the jury system was likely to suc- 
ceed in India, because the Indians were accustomed 
to sit on Pajnohayats, and were " in general sufficiently 



216 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

expert in examining and weighing evidence ". The 
Besolution'< was carried, after three more speeches. 

Mr. Seymour Keay, in an able and fiery speech, 
moved Resolution VI, on the gagging of the Press at 
the will of the Resident in Indian States (see Noti- 
fication in Chapter X) . In the State of Hyderabad 
several presses had been ruined, and in that State, 
bigger than the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, there was " not even a rag of an English 
newspaper published ". Mr. Ramachandra Pillai 
from Secunderabad seconded, and M*. Y. Y. Modak 
spoke of what had occurred in Mysore, and Mr. A. L. 
Desai in Kathiawar. The Resolution was passed. 

Mr. Kalicharan Bannerji, with great courage, 
brought up Simultaneous Examinations once again 
{Resolution VII), complaining that the deafness of the 
Government reminded him of the Bengali bogey, 
*' khaun khutla," the cutter off of ears, only it 
was the Government whose ears were cut off. Three 
other speakers followed and the Resolution was passed. 

The last Resolution on this day was the eighth, 
declaring that if England continued to use Indians 
in trans-frontier expeditions England should share 
the expense. This indubitably just proposal was 
moved by Mr. H. A. Wadia, in a very vigorous and 
sensible speech, condemning the "forward policy" 
advocated by Lord Roberts, Mr. Ourzon and the 
brothers Younghusband. It was evil in policy and 
illegal in practice, for no right existed to use Her 
Majesty's forces beyond the frontiers, without the 
sanction of Parliament. Asia was swept off the 



ELEVENTH CONGRESS 217 

surface of the globe, and Europe was advancing North 
and South and East ; " all that remains of the living 
Orient " was contained in Japan ; Russia and France 
threatened England in India !* Mr. D. G. Padhye 
seconded, Mr. W. A. Chambers supported, and with 
the passing of the Resolution, and a telegram to 
Mr. Gladstone on his 87th birthday, the, Congress 

adjourned to December 30. 



' The opening of the Congress on the third day was 
particularly interesting in view of subsequent events, 
for it asked the,,British to protect the Indians in South 
Africa, and Mr. G. Parameshvaram Pillai dealt 
specially with the disabilities imposed on them in the 
South African Republic then existing. Mr., Ali 
Muhammad Bhimji afsked if, in vie?v of Her Majesty's 
Proclamation, it could be contended that the competi- 
tion of coloured traders with white ones was to be stop- 
ped by disqualifying the former ? Mr. J. M. Sainant 
declared that the Act disfranchising Indians in South 
Africa was an insult to the whole Nation, but that the 
only hope of redress lay in appealing to English- 
men m England, "whose sense of Justice is not 
perverted and not contaminated by the slavery- 
producing atmosphere of Africa, or the tyranny- 
producing atmosphere of India ". Mr. Vithal Lax- 
man complained that while Englishmen kept the 
peace in territories subject to them, " their idea of 
justice becomes changed and one-sided. . . when 
the question of race comes, justice is set aside 
or is at least one-sided ". The Resolution was 
carried. 



218 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT IOR FREEDOM 

The tenth Resolution, moved by Mr. R, N. Mudhol- 
kar, dealt with agricultural indebtedness, and urged 
that measures should be taken to lessen this indebted- 
ness without depriving th.6 ryot of his right to dispose 
of land if he chose. Mr. R. P. Karandikar dealt 
specially with the rigidity of the revenue system. 
The .Resolution was carried.* 

Then, followed Mr. V. R. Natu with Resolution XJ, 
which asked that members, in making interpellations, 
might be allowed to preface a question with a short 
explanation, and the proposal was seconded by 
Mr. N". V. Gokhale, supported by Mr. P. S. Siva- 
swami Aiyar, and carried. 

Resolution XII was on the Medical Service, and 
was again introduced by Dr. K. N. Bahadur ji, and 
as readers ,do not need as much repetition as is 
necessary for Governments, it is sufficient to say that 
it was seconded by the Hon. Mr. B. G-. Tilak 
whose speech, being in Marathi, is not reported 
supported by three other delegates, and carried. 

Resolution XIII, on the danger of the meth.od 
proposed by Government for suppressing law- 
touts, was moved by the Hon. Mr. N. Subbarau 
Pantulu, seconded by Rai Jotindranath Choudhim, 
supported by Mr. M. V. Joshi and two others, and 



Mr. M. N. Samarth moved Resolution XIV, on 
fixity of land tenure, and ably summarised the 
arguments of an immense question in the very 
short time at his Disposal. Mr. Gr. Venkataratnam 
seconded, and Mr. B. G-. Tilak and another supported. 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 219 

Mr. Panduntng Bapuji, an agriculturist from Berar, 
made a poignant speech, telling bow the ryots of his 
Province lived ; the Survey officer reported hey 
were happy, and though a few "District officers, to 
their honour, reported against the proposal, the 
assessment was raised. He said : 

1 give the following information from the Berar 
Revenue Report for the year 1894-95. Out of the entire 
Berar soil nearly 77 lakhs of acres are brought under 
cultivation. Population of Berar is about 28 lakhs and a 
half. Two acres and a half, therefore, of the land under 
cultivation, are used up by each individual. Javaree and 
ootton are the common crops. These two crops find place 
in sixty-eight out of a hundred acres of land under 
cultivation. During the year" under report, one acre 
yielded 107 seers of javaree. The same" area produced 
44 seers of cotton. In the market javaree Avas selling at 
21 seers per rupee, while cotton was selling at 9 seers a 
rupee. It is thus clear that the entire produce of the 2 
acres of land which could be appropriated by a single 
individual was worth about 12i rupees. Now the total 
amount of land-revenue in Berar is a little above 72 lakhs 
of rupees. Each individual has thus to pay 'to the 
Government about Rs. 2-8-0. Deducting this amount 
from the value of the produce at his command, he finds 
only 10 rupees, out of which he has still to defray the 
expenses incident to cultivation. This mode of looking at 
things gives us an idea of how the cultivator lives. Upon 
the trash of some 7 or 8 silver pieces he i doomed to live 
one long year, shifting as best he can, through varied 
seasons, and battling with risks and dangers that human 
life is liable to meet with. It is better to imagine than 
realise the keen pain and anguish which is the lot of the 
cultivating classes. This situation is not a whit altered. 
It is the same all the years of their life. 80 per cent of 
the Berar population live upon the soil. I ask you, ladies 
and gentlemen, whether you really think, with these facts 
before. you, that the Berar people are happy and wealthy! 



220 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FBIEDOM. 

Are they not steeped, over head and ears, in deep 
misery and wbe ? The Government expends annually 
between 40 and 50 rupees on account of the maintenance 
of a single convict. The lawless and most dangerous 
foes of human peace and safety are circumstanced five 
times better than tjie peace-loving and law-abiding sub- 
jects. It is strange how such a state of things can 
b6 tolerated by the benign and most impartial British 
Government. 3Stgw, these observations apply to the 
state of things i^s it once existed, while the old 
assessment rates were in force. I leave it, ladies and 
gentlemen, to you to conceive how cheerfully the 
contemplation of enhancement on the part of the Govern- 
ment would be welcome to the impoverished ryot ! 

Mr. Bhagirath Prasad, from the Central Provinces, 
further supported, and the Eesolution was passed. 

The same gentleman moved Eesolution XV, pro- 
testing against the retrograde policy of the Government 
in nominating a member for the C. P. to the Supreme 
Council without any consultation with the Provinces 
he was supposed to represent. The Resolution was 
seconded and carried. 

Resolution XVI, against the Exchange Compensa- 
tion, was moved by Mr. Ambikacharan Mossumdar in a 
characteristically fine speech ; he concluded by saying; 
that " there ought to be reason in all things even in 
the administration of India," and that " if from Pay to 
Pension, from Pension to Compensation, is to be the- 
established order of financial progress of the Govern- 
ment, all that we Indians can say is, call it by 
any name you please, our legal phraseology has but 
one expression for it: it is illegal gratification". 
Mr. A. C. Parthasarathi seconded and, after two other 
speeches, the Resolution was carried. 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 221 

Resolution XVII thanked the Government fo'r 
recognising the grievances of , third class railway 
passengers, and asked them to proceed from recogni- 
tion to redress. Resolution XVIII repeated the 
protest against Forest Grievances, and XIX was 
against the Salt Tax. Professor G. K". Gokhale, 
in moving, compared the prosperous Manchester 
merchant with 

the starving, shrunken, shrivelled up Indian ryot, toil- 
ing and moiling from dawn to dark to earn his scanty 
meal, patient, resigned, forbearing beyond measure, 
entirely voiceless in the Parliament of his rulers, and 
meekly prepared to bear whatever burdens God and man 
might be pleased to impose upon his back. 

Mr. A. D. Upadhye seconded, saying that while 
they could do, at a pinch, without cloth or hut, they 
could not do without salt ; a basket of salt which 
cost 1 pice (Jth of an anna, or of a penny) cost 5 annas 
in British India. " What enormous crime have we 
committed that all should be put to this unbearable 
punishment of going without enough salt from year's 
end to year's end ? " he concluded. 

The twentieth Resolution was on Education, repeat- 
ing previous demands and was carried. The twenty- 
first, supporting import duties on cotton, was moved by 
Mr. Wacha, " the fire-brand of Bombay," speaking out 
of full knowledge, seconded by the Hon. Mr. P. 
Ananda Oharlu in three sentences, and supported by 
Mr. Tulsi Ram, representing the hand-weavers of 
Madura, and by one other speaker, and carried. 

The Omnibus (No. XXII) was driven this 
year by Mr. Ali Muhammad Bhimji* seconded by 



222 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Mr. N. M. Samarth, and supported by liai Sangavani, 
who said he was an. orthodox Hindu devotee, retired 
from the world, but he offered up to God " a meek and 
suppliant heart, devoted to thejnterests of my country 
an4 to the salvation of my race ". Verily, a devotee of 
the ancient type, "intent upon the welfare of the 
world ", Others supported, and the Resolution was 
carried, 

The hour was late, and Resolutions XXIII to XXVI 
were rushed through, passing the grant to the British 
Committee, thanking it, appointing Mr. A. 0. Hwne 
and Mr. D. B. Wacha as General Secretary and 
Joint General Secretary the omisgion of this last 
officer hi the previous year had not worked well- 
and fixing Calcutta for the meeting of the Congress 
in 1896. 

A vote of thanks to the Chair, and few eloquent 
words from the President especially urging the 
young to, carry on the work to " be entrusted to your 
care and to your keeping " closed the meeting, and 
the Eleventh Congress rose. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Congress Constitution 

I. Resolved That the draft rules in regard to the constitution 
and Working of tho Indian National Congress, as framed by the 
Poona Congress Committee in accordance with the resolution, in 
that behalf, of the last Congress, be circulated by the Poona Com- 
mittee to all tho Standing: Congress Committees, with .instructions 
to report to the General "Secretory anrl tho Standing Oowisel at 
least three months before the next CongrfSS 

Finance 

II. Hesolvecl--That tins Congress is of opinion that fchj en- 
quiry by the Lvpenditure Commission \nll not be satisfactory to the 



THE ELEVENTH CONGRESS 223 

people of this country, nor be of any practical advantage to the 
Government, unless the lines of policy which regulate expenditure 
are enquired into, and unless facilities are a/forded and arrange- 
ments made for receiving evidence other than 'official andT Anglo- 
Indian. And this Congress also feels that the enquiry would, in all 
probability, yield better results, if the proceedings were conducted 
with open doors. 

III. Resolved That this Congress again records its firm 
conviction that in view of the embarrassed condition of the finances 
of the country, the only remedy for the present state of things is a 
material curtailment in the expenditure on the Army Services and 
other military expenditure, Home Charges and the cost of Civil 
Administration ; and it notices with satisfaction that expert opinion 
in England has now come over to the view of the Indian Parlia- 
mentary Committee that growth in military expenditure is a more 
potent cause of Indian financial embarrassment than the condition 
of exchange. 

VIII. Resolved That m view of the great extensions of the 
British po\\or on the North-West and North-East of the proper 
frontiers of India into regions not contemplated by Parliament when 
it passed Section 56 of the Government of India Act, the Congress 
is of opinion that over and above the sanction of Parliament neces- 
sary before the revenue and forces of India are employed outside 
the frontiers of India, the interests of India absolutely demand that 
the expenses of all such expeditions should be 'shared between 
England and India. Without some such additional guarantee, the 
forward Military policy will involve India in hopefess financial 
confusion. 

Legal 

IV Resolved That this Congress again appeals to the 
Government of India and the Secretary of State to take practical 
steps for the purpose of carrying out the separation of Judicial from 
Executive functions in the administration of justice. 

V. Resolved That this Congress views with alarm tfee con- 
stant changes that are being made and threatened on the subject of 
trial by Jury ip-ihh Country, and, regard being had to the fad: that 
no demand for any such change has been made by any portion of 
the population- of British India, trusts that the Bill now before the 
Supreme Legislative Council on the subject will not be further 
proceeded with ; aaid this Congress, reaffirming resolutions passed by, 
fomer Congresses, also trusts that trials by Jury will be extended 
to districts and offences to which the system at present does not 
apply and that their verdicts should be final. 



224 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Coercion of the Press 

VI. Resolved That this Congress, being of opinion that the 
Government of India Notification of 25th June, 1891, in the Foreign 
Department, gagging 1 the Press in territories under British adminis- 
tration in Native States, is retrograde, arbitrary and mischievous in 
its nature and opposed to sound statesmanship and to the liberty of 
the people, agmn enters its emphatic protest against the same and 
urges its cancellation without delay. 

Public Service 

VII. Eesolved That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, again records its deep regret that tho labours of the 
Public Service Commission have practically proved void of any good 
results to tho people of this country, and repeats its conviction that 
no satisfactory solution of the question is possible, unless effect is 
given to .the resolution of the House of Commons of June, 1893, 
in favour of holding the competitive examinations for the Indian 
Civil Services simultaneously in India and England. 

South Africa 

IX. Eesolved That the Congress deems it necessary to record 
its most solemn protest against the disabilities sought to be imposed 
on Indian settlers in South Africa, and it earnestly hopes that the 
British Government and the Government of India will come for- 
ward to guard the interests of these settlers in the same spirit in 
which they have always interfered, whenever the interests of their 
British-born subjects- have been at stake 

Jjand Tenure 

X. Resolved That, in the opinion of this Congress, any pro- 
posal to restrict the right of private alienation of lands by legisla- 
tion as a remedy for the relief of agricultural indebtedness wiU be 
a most retrograde measure, and will, in its distant consequences, not 
only check improvement but reduce the agricultural population to a 
condition of still greater helplessness. The indebtedness of the 
agriculturist classes arises partly from their ignorance and partly 
from the application of & too rigid system of fixed revenue assess- 
ments which takes little account of the fluctuating conditions of 
agriculture in many parts of India ; and the true remedy must be 
sought m'lhe spread of general education and.a relaxation of the 
rigidity of the present system of revenue collections in those parts 
of the country where the Permanent Settlement does not obtain. 

XIV, Eesolved That this Congresses express its firm conviction 
that in. the interests of the country it is absolutely necessary that 
there shotfld be greater fixity in the tenure on which land is held in 
the temporarily settled districts than exists at present, and that 



THE ELEVENTH CONGEBSS 225 

Ctovernment should impose on its own action restrictions against 
enhancement or assessment similar to those which it has deemed 
necessary in the interests of tenants to impose upon the rights of 
private landlords in permanently settled estates. 

Interpellation 

XI* Resolved That this Congress notes wifch satisfaction that 
the right of interpellation, vested in non-official members of the 
Legislative Councils, has, on the whole been exercised in a spirit of 
moderation, which has secured the approval of the authorities here 
aucd in England ; and the Congress, being of opinion that the 
practical utility of interpellations would be greatly enhanced, if the 
members putting them were allowed to preface their questions by a 
Short explanation of the reasons for them, urges that the right to 
make such explanations ought to be granted. 

Medical Service 

XII. ttesolved 

(a) That this Congress notices with satisfaction that its views 
in regard to the urgency and lines of reform in regaid to the condi- 
tion of the Civil and Military Medical Services of the country are 
being endorsed in influential Medical and Military circles, and" that 
in the interests oft the public, Medical Science and the profession, as 
also in the cause of economic administration this Congress once 
again affirms (1) that there should bo only one Military Medi- 
cal Service with two branches, one for the European army 
and the otLor for Native troops, worked on identical lines; 
(2) that the Civil Medical Service of the Country should be recon- 
stituted a distinct and independent Medical Service, wholly detach- 
ed from its present Military connection, and recruited from the 
open profession of Medicine in India and elsewhere, with a due 
leaning to the utilisation of indigenous talent, other things being 
equal. 

(6) That this Congress further affirms' that the status and 
claims of Civil Assistant Surgeons and Hospital Assistants require 
thorough and open enquiry with a view to the redressing of long 
standing anomalies and consequent grievances ; and the Congress 
notices with regret that in their recent scheme of the reorganisation 
of the Chemical Analyser's department, the oft-admitted claims of 
Assistant Chemical Analysers have been apparently overlooked by 
tStovernment, 

Iigal Practitioners 

XIIL Resolved That this Congress, while fully sympathising- 
with any genuine effort which the Government may moke for the 
suppression of law-touts, views with grave alarm those provisions 



"226 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

of the Bill to amend the Legal Practitioners' Act, now pending the 
Consideration of the Supreme Legislative Council,, which propose to 
Invest, District Judges and Revenue Commissioners with the power 
of dismissing legal practitioners and, in cases coming under the Act, 
to throw the entire burden of proving their innocence upon the 
latter ; and this Congress, being of opinion that the provisions of 
the Bill are calculated to prejudicially affect the independence of 
the Bar and to lower the position of legal practitioners in the eyes 
of the prcdblic without, in any way, helping to suppress law-touts or 
t3 further the ends of justice, urges that it should be dropped. 

Representation 

JLV. Resolved That this Congress puts on record its emphatic 
protest against the retrograde policy that the Government of India 
have itMs time followed in nominating a gentleman for the Central 
"Provinces to the Supreme Legislative Council without asking Local 
Bodies to make recommendations for such nomination and earnestly 
hopes that Government will be pleased to take early steps to give to 
the Central Provinces the same kind of representation that it has 
already granted to Bengal, Madras, Bombay and the N W. 
Provinces. 

Exchange Compensation 

XVI. Eesolved That this Congress repeats its protest of the 
last two years against the grant of Exchange Compensation allow- 
ance to the undomiciled European and Eurasian employees of 
Government, involving now an annual expenditure of over a crore 
and a half of rupees. 

Third Class Passengers 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress, while thanking the 
Government of India for recognising the grievances of third class 
Railway Passengers, from whom the largest portion of railway 
revenue is derived, in their recent resolutions on the subject, desires 
to escpress its hope that Government will take effective steps to 
bring about an early redress of those grievances. 

Forest Administration 

XVIII Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that the 
action of the Forest Department, under the rules framed by the 
different Provincial Governments, prejudicially affects the inhabit- 
ants of the rural parts of the country by subjecting them to the 
annoyance and oppression of forest subordinates in various ways, 
which have led to much discdhtent throughout the country. The 
objects of forest conservancy, as announced in the resolution of 
1894^ are i declared to be not to secure the largest revenue but to 
conserve the forests to the interest chiefly of the agricultural classes 



THE ELEVENTH COJTOBESS 



227 



and of their cattle. The existing set of rules subordinate the latter 
.consideration to the former and an amendment of the rules with a 
view to correct this mischief is, in the opinion of the Congress, 
urgently called for. 

Thanks of Congress 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress tenders its thanks to the 
Secretary of State for India for his promise of September last to 
take an early opportunity to reduce the Salt Duty, and, concurring 
with previous Congresses, once more places on record its sense of the 
great hardship which the present rate of salt taxation imposes upon 
tho poorest classes of the country a hardship which renders it 
incumbent on Government to tnke the first opportunity to restore 
the duty to its level of 1888. 

XXIV. Resolved That tins Congress hereby tenders its most 
grateful thanks to Sir W. Wedderbum and the other members of the 
British Congress Committee for tho sei vices rendered by them to 
India during tho present year. 

Education 

XX. Resolved That this Congress is emphatically of opinion 
that it is inexpedient in the present state of Education in the country 
that Government grants for Higher Education should in any way be 
withdrawn, or that fees in educational institutions, wholly or parti- 
ally supported by the State, should be increased, and concurring 
with previous Congresses, uffiirns in the most emphatic manner the 
importance of increasing public exuondituie on all branches of 
Education and the expediency of establishing Technical Schools and 
Colleges. 

Excise Duty 

XXI. KoHohed That this Congress is of opinion that the 
objection taken by Lancashire manufacturers to the exemption of 
Indian yarns below " twenties " from excise duty is not well-founded, 
and trusts that the Government of India will stand firm in its policy 
of levying import dutuw for revenue purposes, AS such levy does not 
conflict in any way with principles of free trade 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

XXII. Resolved. That this Congress concurs with its prede- 
cessors in strongly advocating ; (previous (a) conies in XIX ; previous 
(b) (c) (d) are repeated, becoming (a) (b) (o) ; previous (e) is 
omitted ; previous (f ) (g) (h) (i) become (d) (e) (f ) (g) ; previous 
(j) and (k) are omitted;) finally, a new item is added : 

(h) The regulations of the imposition of the Water-cess by 
certain defined principles affording security to the rights of land- 
owners and of persons investing money in land. 



228 ROW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Congress Work 

XXIII. Beaolvea That a sum of Rs. 60,000 be assigned for 
the expenses of the British Comniittee and the cost of the Congress 
pabUcatrott, India, and also for the expenses of the Joint-General 
Secretary's office, and that the several circles do contribute as 
arranged, either now, or hereafter in Committee, for the year 1896. 

Formal 

XXV. liesolved That this Congress reappoints Mr. A. 0. 
Hume, C. B., to be its General Secretary , and appoints Mr. D. E. 
Waefui to be its Joint General Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XXVI. Resolved That the Twelfth Congress do assemble 
on such day after Christmas Day, 1890, as may be later determined 
upon, at Calcutta. 



CHAPTER XII 

CALCUTTA had been chosen for the holding 1 of the 
Twelfth National Congress, and it opened its four days* 
sitting on December 28th, 1896 The delegates 
numbered 790, the premier place being, of course, 
taken by the Presidency in which the Congress had 
its temporary home. The delegates were distributed 
as follows 

Bengal . . 605 

K W P. aridOudh . . <>0 

Panjab . . 7 

C. P , Berar, Seen nderu bad and Ra]putana 31. 

Bombay . ' . i>2 

Madra.s . . . ^8 

London . . 1 



784 

The Congress was welcomed by Dr Rash Behari 
G-hose, for the President of the Reception Committee, 
Sir Romesh Chandra Mitra, was, unfortunately, too 
ill to be preaen Dr. Rash Behari, however, read 
the speech which Sir Romesh had prepared, 
and which opened with the expression of his 
belief that, despite all the difficulties surrounding 
their work, "British Justice vivified by British 



230 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

magnanimity" would ensure its ultimate triumph. 
Difficulties of Government were always great ; how 
much greater were they when the "Government 
is ' a Government by foreigners, alien in man- 
ners and customs, sentiments and feelings to the 
subject race ". Hence the need for the Congress,. 
which showed the Government how India was 
feeling : " We offer help, but no menace, to the 
Government." He regretted the hostility and the 
suspicion of many of the ruling body, who claimed 
to know their thoughts better than they knew them 
themselves. As to the absurd statement that the 
Congress did not represent the masses, " it presup- 
poses that a foreign administrator in the service of 
the Government knows more about the wants of the 
masses than their educated countrymen ". In all 
ages it had been true " that those who think must 
govern those who toil," and could it be " believed 
that this natural order of things does not hold good 
in this unfortunate country ? " The masses were not 
familiar with western methods, and the educated 
Indians alone could explain these to them. No 
foreigner could " touch the inner life of the people ". 
The times were difficult. The land was suffering 
from famine ; " what is called the plague " had 
appeared in Calcutta. Famine was a recurring 
trouble, and there was a widespread idea that the 
country was being " impoverished by excessive taxa- 
tion and by over-assessment in the districts that are 
not permanently settled ". A feeling reference was 
'inade to the passing away of Mr. Mano Mohan Ghose, 



THE TWELFTH CONGRESS 231 

and a few words of deep admiration for the Queen* 
Empress, who had just overpassed the limits of any 
previous reign, closed the address. 

The President of the Congress, the Hon. Mr. 
Muhammad Bahimatullah Sayani, was then proposed 
by the Hon. Pandit Bishumbarnath, seconded by the 
Hon. Rao Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu, and elected 
with enthasiasm. 

The President referred to the origin of the Con- 
gress as due to the fact thai there was a consensus of 
opinion amongst educated Indians thai the political 
condition of the country needed vast improvement,, 
and that there were serums grievances and disabilities 
to be removed : 

They keenly felt the desire for A\hol<>some refortn, 
and discussed \\ ith freedom and candour their political 
condition, \\hich tlie\ considered to he dt ^radnii* Their 
intellectual attainments recoilod against w li it tlmy con- 
sidered to be political subservience , their educated 
notions revolted against political disabilities ; and their 
hearts aspired io attain a higher National ideal of citi- 
zenship under the beneficent rule of the British, which 
they highly appreciated. It was an ideal worthy to be 
encouraged and fostered by all right-minded and 
justice-loving Englishmen, and took complete hold of 
them. 

He then analysed the declarations of the Congress 
leaders, noted the subjects dealt with in the discus- 
sions, and showed how from the Act of 1813 onwards, 
England had recognised the duty of fostering edu- 
cation in India, giving extracts to prove that free 
institutions were promised, and that the Congress 



232 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

was therefore bound to win, " if the people of India 
are true to themselves ". 

In f ac$, a more honest or sturdy Nation does not exist 
under the sun than this English Nation ; and there ought 
to he no douht whatever as to the ultimate concession of 
our demands, founded as such demands are on reason and 
justice on the one hand, as on the declared policy and the 
plighted word of the people of England on the other. 

The President then considered the views of Musal- 
mans in relation to the Congress, and controverted 
their objections, and then proceeded to consider the 
condition of India, its heavy taxation, contrasted the 
differences between the financial treatment of Indians 
and English, and .{noted many passages from eminent 
Englishmen to show the poverty arid over-taxation of 
India, the ruinous drain upon her resources, the need 
for change, and the sad results financially of a century 
of British rule. He then proceeded to dpal with the 
famine, and condemned the pa^mc'iil of the la ad 
revenue m cash as having a perme:o:is3 effect on the 
tyot, whereas payment in kind al'.vtM g left him food 
enough for himself and his family. He pointed out 
that the evidence which was being given before the 
Boyal Commission on Expenditure justified the 
position taken up, but complained tLat the discussion 
of budgets in Legislative assemblies was purely aca- 
demic, since the most pungent criticism had no effect. 
The President concluded with a few words on the 
deaths of some Congressmen during the year, aud on 
the 60 years Jubilee of the Queen-Empress in the 
coming June. The Subjects Committee, as elected, 
was approved, and the Congress adjourned. 



THE TWELFTH CONGEE 8 S 23S 

The first Resolution conveyed the congratulation 
and hope for long life to the Queen-Empress, moved 
by jthe Maharaja of Natore, seconded by Prince 
Zaigam-ud-Dowlah, supported by Sardar Shrimant 
Shri Vasudev Rao Harihur, and carried by acclama- 
tion. Then came the second Resolution, of thanks 
to Sir William Wedderburu and to the British 
Committee, welcoming to the Congress its delegate 
Mr. W, S. Caine. Mr. Came, in replying, dealt with 
the Expenditure Commission, and finance in India. 
Not inappropriately he asked the Congress Standing 
Committee to be more regular in its payments for the 
support of the work in England. 

Resolution III brought up the separation of Judicial 
and Executive functions, moved by Mr. J. P. 
Goodridge, (J. S., seconded by Mr. N. N. Ghose, 
supported by three other speakers, and carried. 

Resolution IV introduced a new and important 
question the proposal to give greater fiscal responsi- 
bility to the Provincial Governments, only a fixed 
contribution to be levied by the Supreme Government 
on each. It was moved by the Hon. Mr. Bal 
Gangadhar Tilak in a short but effective speech, in 
which he described the arrangement between the 
Supreme Government and the Local Governments be- 
ing like that between an intemperate husband and his 
wife, that when the first had indulged all his 
extravagant habits, he asked his wife to surrender all 
her savings. As the Congress was taking up the 
subject for the first time, it should confine itself 
to the main principle, limiting the power of the 



234 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Supreme Government to draw on Provincial re- 
sources to a fixed amount, levied on a definite and just 
basis. 

Rai Yatindranath Choudhuri seconded, and dealt 
with his own Province, Bengal, showing how unfair 
a proportion of revenue was taken by the Supreme 
Government, and how every five years it appropriated 
the Provincial savings, gained by careful adminis- 
tration, thus making important public works of utility 
impossible of execution. Mr. G. Parameshvaram Pillai 
emphasised the hardships of the system, and Pandit 
Madan Mohan Malaviya urged that the progress and 
happiness of the people depended far more on good 
Provincial administration than on the doings of the 
Supreme Government, and that the former was sacri- 
ficed to the latter. If the latter appropriated the 
funds of the former, it should also assume its res- 
ponsibilities. He showed how the Government of his 
own Province was crippled, and education, specially, 
suffered. The Resolution was carried. 

After this excursion into the new, the Congress 
returned to its old demand for Simultaneous Ex- 
aminations in Resolution V, and not even Mr. G. 
Subramania Iyer, the mover, could find new arguments 
for it. Professor D. G. Padhye seconded it, and two 
more delegates supported it, and then it achieved its 
annual passing. Even now, in 1915, this minute con- 
cession remains ungranted. 

The Hon. Mr. A. M. Bose proposed Resolution VI, 
which was, as he said, brand-new, for it protested 
against the new injustice just perpetrated in the 



THE TWELFTH CONGRESS 285 

scheme for re-organising the Educational Service, as 
being calculated to exclude Indians from the higher 
grades of that Service. It would "be an astounding 
thing, were we not so habituated to it, that Indians 
should be systenncally kept out of the higher and 
better paid positions in their own country, and that 
this should be done as a matter of course. Mr. Bose 
asked indignantly if the cause 0C progress in India 
was " not only not to advance but to be put back ? 
Is the future to be worse than the past ? " The scheme, 
dealt with for the first time, divided the suporior 
Educational Service into two the higher, thfi Indian 
Educational Service to be filled by persons appointee! 
in England, and the lower, the Provincial rO. S. to be 
filled in Jndia. Before 1880, in Bengal, both Indians 
and Europeans in the higher Service received the same 
pay: both began on Rs. 500 p. in. In 1880 the pay 
for Indians was reduced to Ks. tt'W, and in 1 889 to 
Rs. 250, although the Indians had graduated in an 
English University. The highest pay for the Indian 
now was to be Rs. 700, however long he might serve, 
while the Englishman had Rs, 1,000 at the end of 
10 years. Those invidious distinctions caused the 
most brilliant Indians to refuse to outer the Service. 
The new scheme further barred Indians out of 
Principalships of certain Colleges, reserved for 
Englishmen. The year of Her Majesty's Jubilee 
should not have been selected for this retrograde 
policy. He appealed to the Congress to protest 
against this policy of exclusion, and te fight against 
it, and then " this attempt to fix on the brows of the 



286 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

people of this ancient land a new stigma and a new 
disability shall fail, as it deserves to fail ". 

The Hon. Rai Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu seconded 
the Resolution formally, and, supported by three 
other speakers, it was carried. 

Resolution VII, on the extension of the Jury 
System, was moved by Mr. Hem Chandra Rai in a 
very vshort speech, in which he quoted the opinion oi 
Sir Cecil Beadon as long ago as 1867, that the system 
should be universally adopted, <ts it would prove of 
tf decided benefit to the Courts/' and would increase 
public confidence. Mr. R. P. Karandikar said a few 
words only in seconding, and the Resolution was 
carried. 

Another long and vainly urged reform, that of the 
Salt Tax, was moved as Resolution VIII by Mr R. D. 
Nagarhar, seconded by M. S, Ramaswami Gupta, 
and carried, whereupon the Congress adjourned. 

The third day opened with telegrams of sympathy 
and adhesion, and then Mr. G. Parameshvaram 
Pillai was called on to move Resolution IX, protesting 
against the disabilities inflicted on Indians in South 
Africa, and calling on the Governments of Her 
Majesty and of India to protect them. He spoke 
strongly and bitterly as was natural, after describing 
the infamous Act passed in Natal, which compelled 
Indians who had gone thither either to renew the 
indenture whenever it expired, or to pay nearly half 
their annual earnings to the State. The Government 
of India had agreed "to this monstrous measure/' 
which would convert a large class of industrious 



THE TWELFTH CONGRESS 237 

people into hereditary bondsmen. Strange was the 
position of Indians : 

In India, we are permitted 'to become members of the 
Imperial Legislative Council. In England, even the 
doors of that august assembly, the House of Commons, 
are open to us. But in South Africa, we are not permitted 
to travel without a pass, we are not allowed to walk 
about in ihe night, we are consigned to locations, we are 
denied admission to the first anrl second classes on 
railways, we are driven out of tramcars, we are pushed 
off footpaths, we are kept out of hotels, we arc refused 
the benefit of the public paths, we are spat upon, we are 
hissed, w e are cursed, we are abused, and we are subjected 
to a variety of other indignities which no human being 
can patiently endure. 

He pointed out that Indians were urged to show- 
enterprise and go out into the world, and this was 
the result. They had better remain here, if the 
Government would not protect them, " till the merciful 
hand of pestilence or famine relieves an overburdened 
Empire of its surplus population ". 

Mr. V. N. Apte seconded, saying that they were 
told that England's mission was to raise all fallen 
and downtrodden races. Who would believe it in 
the face of South Africa ? Mr. R. D. Mehta support- 
ed, and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution X brought up the grievances of the 
Medical Services, moved by Dr. Nilratari Sarkar, who 
with Dr. Golab Chandra Bez Barna, and Dr. P. 0. 
Nandi, recounted and urged the facts which Dr. 
Bahadurji had laid before the, previous Congress. It 
was carried 

Resolution XI was the Omnibus, and it -was 
proposed by Mr. All Muhammad Bhimji, and seconded 



238 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

by Dr. Nibaran Chandra Das. It attracted four other 
supporters and was passed. 

Then the grim spectre of famine stalked into the 
Congress with Resolution XII, and the fion. Mr. 
Surendranath Bannerji undertook the sad task of 
moying it. Had the Government accepted the policy 
urged upon them by the Congress, there would have 
been no famine. Lord Elgin, the Viceroy, had spoken 
of the prosperity of the Central Provinces, but what 
was their state, as described by eye-witnesses? 
Consider the rise of the death-rate during the last 
two years, from 25 to 97 in one case, from 44 to 138 
in another, from 36 to 140 in a third. The Chief 
Commissioner spoke of famines as "visitations of 
Providence," but they came through the blunders 
of our Rulers. The speaker proved from figures how 
much better off Indian labourers were in the time of 
Akbar than now, and famines were Nature's reminders 
to Government to mend their ways. 

The resolution was seconded by the Hon. Rai 
Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu, who enquired after 
Lord Lytton's Famine Fund. The failure of one 
monsoon had reduced the country to starvation. 
Nine other speakers followed, giving details of relief- 
work, and pointing to the causes of famine in the 
drain, the over-taxation, the lavish expenditure, the 
destruction of industries, the many evils against which 
the Congress was ever protesting. 

Resolution XIII dealt with the normal poverty of 
India, so closely related to the f amines j people 
normally half -starved have little resistance power 



THE TWELFTH CONGBESS 239 

when complete starvation comes. Mr. R. N. 
Mudholkar moved it, urging Permanent Settlement, 
Agricultural Banks, raising of minimum for Income- 
Tax, and Technical Education. Mr. N. M. Samarth 
pointed to the danger, showing the riots which were 
breaking out, from the desperation of the people. He 
laid stress on the insufficiency of the food-grains in 
the country, the growing poverty of the people, and 
the mistaken policy of the Government. An amend- 
ment was proposed, and the Congress adjourned, but 
it was next da} withdrawn, and the Resolution 
carried. 

The fourth day opened with eleven resolutiqns still 
to dispose of, but the hardened Congressman is 
accustomed to rush his last fences. Mr. Kalicharan 
Bannerji led off with Resolution XIV, asking for 
Teaching Universities in particular, and improvements 
in the Universities in general. He pointed out that 
the Universities afforded no post-graduate facilities 
for teaching or study, and noted that the successes 
of Professor J. C. Bose and Dr. Roy had been won in 
despite of disabilities and discouragements. The Acts 
of Incorporation fettered their Universities, and they 
could not do as they would. Government said the 
matter was not urgent j he prayed the Congress to 
make it so. 

Mr. Shivaram Mahadeva Pranjapi seconded the Re- 
solution very briefly, but made a good point : "What 
is this Congress ? It is a Congress of the Educated. 
Education is the Soul of the Congress," The Re- 
solution was carried. 



240 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Mr. Jogendra Chandra Ghose proposed Resolution 
XV, asking for the Repeal of the Inland Emigration 
Act. He spoke of the miseries of the coolies in 
the Assam Tea Gardens that he had seen, and said that 
he had seen men and women jump off the steamers 
into the Brahmaputra to escape. In 1886, the Chief 
Commissioner of Assam had said "that in re- 
mote and unhealthy tracts .he planters cannot do 
without a Penal Act ". So an Act had been passed 
punishing with imprisonment a man who, after 
registration, refused to go, or who deserted, or 
refused to work. Recruiters enlisted the coolies, 
sometimes kidnapped them, constantly cheated them. 
In the gardens both men and women were beaten. 
The death-rate of coolies under the Act was more 
than twice that of non-Act coolies. There was no 
difficulty in getting labour at fair wages, and the 
wages under the Act were unfairly low. 

Mr. Bepin Chandra Pal seconded, saying the Act 
was not needed except for out-of-the-way and 
unhealthy places, and none had a right to force the 
coolies to these. Mr. Rajani Kanta Sarkar was 
surprised that the British, who had abolished slavery, 
allowed this disgraceful Act on the Statute Book, 
Its provisions were barbarous, and the coolies so 
dreaded them that one man, not long before, had cut 
his throat, as he was being marched in a gang to the 
railway station. The Resolution was .carried. 

Resolution XVI asked that the Executive Councils 
of the Governments of Bombay and Madras might 
have' three members instead of two. Mr* G* 



THE TWELFTH CONGRESS 241 

Parameshvaram Pillai who moved, pointed out that 
a sympathetic G-overnor was often over-ruled by thfc 
two civilian Councillors. If there were three, and 
the third a non-civilian, the Governor and the non- 
civilian could vote against the civilian pair, and the 
Governor's casting vote would decide. The Resolution 
was seconded by Mr. Ali Muhammad Bhimji and 
carried. 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer moved Resolution XVII, 
which protested against the Government policy of 
short settlements of Land Revenue, and asked that 
at least 60 years should separate revisions. The 
Government had promised that Permanent Settlements 
should everywhere be introduced, but the promise 
remained unfulfilled. Mr. J. P. doodridge seconded, 
speaking from his own experience as a Settlement 
Commissioner, and said that the present policy 
involved a breach of faith, and was economically 
indefensible. The Resolution was carried. 

Mr. S. P. Sinha moved the eighteenth Resolution, 
stating that it was desirable that no Chief should be 
deposed without trial before a Public Tribunal, 
satisfactory to the British Government and the Indian 
Chiefs. A Chief had no safeguard against an 
oppressive Resident. He might be deposed without 
trial. He had no appeal to the House of Commons. 
Such depositions caused disquiet and were impolitic. 
Mr, Caine seconded, and said that the only thing lie 
could discover as the reason for the late deposition of 
the Maharaja Rana of Jhallawar was " a petty dispute 
between a proud and sensitive Prince and aft 

A *P v $ 



242 HOW INDIA WROlWfltf FOB KIBBDOM 

exceedingly foolish Resident ? '. He did not know if 
the deposition were justified or not, for the facts were 
concealed. 

Resolut on XIX asked that the Central Provinces 
might have an elected instead of a nominated 
member in. tike Supreme Legislative Council. It was; 
carried. 

Resolution XX expressed the satisfaction of the 
Congress over the delegation of Mr. D. B. Wacha to 
give evidence before the Royal Commission on ex- 
penditure, and was moved by the Hon, Pandit 
Bishambharnath, who called him " our Indian 
Fawcett ". The Resolution was seconded by Mr. 
1. K. Gokhale, who said that he wanted " to "pay 
my own humble tribute of admiration of Mr. Wacha 
for the -splendid work he has been doing all these 
recent years ". He spoke of their admiration " for 
his unflagging energy, for the painstaking character 
of his work, and, above all, for the indomitable 
courage which always characterises him " and for his 
unrivalled grasp of financial questions. The Hon. 
Raja Rampal Singh and Mr. Caine also bore testimony 
to Mr. Waeha's great capacity. 

Mr. W. C. Bannerji, in Resolution XXI, voiced the 
Congress* continued confidence in Mr. Dadabhai 
Naoroji, and hoped that he would be re-elected to 
the House of Commons ; the Resolution was seconded 
and carried. 

Then came the final Resolutions, voting Rs. 60,000 
'to the British Committee, re-appointing Mr. A. 0. Hume 
and Mr. D. 13. Waeha as General and Joint General 



THB TWELFTH CON&RB88 243 

Secretaries, and fixing on Amraoti as the place of 
meeting for the Thirteenth Congress. 

The Congress rose after a warmly proposed and 
seconded vote of thanks, and the presentation of a gold 
watch and chain to the President by his Muhammadan 
admirers, and his speech in reply. 

Thus ended the Twelfth National Congress, 1896. 

RESOLUTIONS 

The Queen-Hmpvess 

J. Kesolved That this Congress desires to place on record Its 
humble congratulations ou Her Gracious Majesty, the Queen- 
Empress, having attained, the sixtieth year of her reign, the longest 
and the most beneficent in the annals of the Empire a reign 
associated with the most important advances in human happiness 
and civilisation. The Congress expresses the hope that Her 
Majesty may long be spared to reign over her people. 

Thanks of Congress 

II. Resolved That this Congress desires to convey to Sir 
William Wedderburn and the other members of the British Com- 
mittee its most grateful thanks for their disinterested services in 
the cause of Indian Political Advancement and accords its hearty 
welcome to Mr. W. S. Caine as the Delegate* of the British Com- 
mittee to this Congress. 

Legal 

III. Resolved That this Congress notices with satisfaction 
the support of public opinion both in England and in India, which 
the question of the separatum of Judicial from Executive functions 
in the administration of justice has received ; and this Congress 
once again appeals to the Government of India .and the Secretary of 
State, to take practical steps for speedily carrying out this much- 
needed reform. In this connection, the Congress desires to record 
its deep .regret at the death of Mr. Mano Mohan Ghose, who "made 
this question, the subject of his special study. 

VII. Resolved That this Congress having regard to the 
opinion of the Jury Commission as to $xe success of the system of 
Tml foy Jtiry, and to the fact that wifo tihe progress of educatiputt 
sufficient number of educated persons is available in all 



44 J1QW INPIA WBQUGHT FOJR 



cowatrr, and concurring with previous Congresses, is of opinion that 
Trial by Jury should be extended to districts and offences to which 
the sySlfem at present does not apply, and that the verdicts should 
be final. 

XVIIL, Resolved That in the opinion of this Congress it is 
desirable that in future no Indian Prince or Chief shall be deposed 
on the ground of mal-administration or misconduct until the fact of 
such maladministration or misconduct shall have been established 
to the satisfaction of a Public Tribunal, which shall command the 
confidence alike of Government and of the Indian Princes and 
OhiejEe. 

Provincial Finance 

IV. Resolved Considering that the Local Governments are 
entrusted with all branches of administration, excepting Army ex- 
penditure, superior supervision and control here and in England, 
and the payment of interest on debt, this Congress is of opinion 
that the allotments made to the Provincial Governments on what is 
called the Provincial Adjustments are inadequate, and that in view 
of the revision of the Quinquennial Provincial Contract, which is to 
tsxke place in 1897, the time has arrived when a further step should 
te taken in the matter of financial decentralisation, by leaving the 
responsibility of the financial administration of the different Provin- 
ces principally to the Local Governments, the Supreme Govern- 
ment receiving from each Local Government only a fixed contri- 
bution levied in accordance with some definite and equitable princi- 
ple, which should "not be liable to any disturbance during the cur- 
rency of the period of contract, so as to secure to Local Govern- 
ments that fiscal certainty, and. jthat advantage arising from the 
normal expansion of the revenues, which are so essential to all real 
progress in the development of the resources and the batihfactory 
administration of the different Provinces. 

Public Service 

V. Resolved That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, again records its deep regret that the labours of the 
Public Service Commission have practically proved void of any 
good result to the people of this country, and repeats its conviction 
that jitf satisfactory solution of the question is possible unless effect 
is given <o the Resolution of the House of Commons of the 2nd 
June, 1693, in favour of holding the competitive examinations for the 
Indian Civil Services, #iz., Civil, Medical, Police, Engineering, 
Tejegrraplu Forest, and Accounts, both in India and in England. 
This Congress would once again respectfully urge on Her Majesty's 
Government that the Resolution of the House of Commons should 
be speed!!/ carried out as an act of justice to the Indian people and 
as tfce only adequate fulfilment of the pledges made to them, 



THE TWELFTH COWGBESS 245 

VI. Resolved That this Congress hereby record* its protest 
against the scheme reorganising: the Educational Service which has 
just received the sanction of the Secretary of State, as being calcu- 
lated to exclude Natives of India, including those who have been 
educated in England, from the superior grade of the Education 
Service to which they have hitherto been admitted; for in the 
words of the Resolution " In future Natives of India who are 
desirous of entering the Education Department will usually be 
appointed in India, and to the Provincial Service." The Congress 
prays that the scheme may be so recast as to afford facilities for 
the admission of Indian graduates to the superior grade of the 
Educational Service. 

X. Resolved (a) That this Congress notices with satisfaction 
that its views in connection with the urgency and the lines of 
reform in regard to the condition of the Civil and Military Medical 
Services of the country have been endorsed in influential Medical 
and Military circles , and in the interests of the public, the Medical 
Science and the profession, as also in the cause of economic adminis- 
tration, this Congress once again affirms ( 1 ) that there should be 
only one Military Medical Service with two branches, one for the 
European u'Vtny and the other for native troops, worked on identical 
lines, and (2) that the Civil Medical Service of the country should 
be reconstituted as a distinct and independent Medical Service, 
wholly detachod from its present Military connection, and recruited 
from the open profession of Medicine in India and elsewhere, with 
due regard to the utilisation of indigenous tuleut, other things being 
equal. 

(6) That the Congress further affirms that the status and 
claims of Civil Assistant Surgoons and Hospital Assistants require 
thorough and open enquiry with a view to the redressing of long- 
standing 1 anomalies and consequent grievances. 

XVI. Resolved That having regard to the wisdom of the 
policy of appointing to the Governorships of Madras and Bombay, 
statesmen from England to the exclusion of the Services in India, 
and in view to the utilisation by those Governors of the power of 
giving 1 when necessary a casting vote allowed them by law, this 
Congress is of opinion that it is desirable, that the Executive 
Governments of those Provinces should be administered by the 
Governors with Councils of three members and not of two 
members aa at present, and that one -of the three Councillors 
must be other than a member of the Indian Civil Service ; and in. 
view to carrying out the object without additional cost, this 
Congress would suggest that the officers commanding the forces 
of those Presidencies be declared members of the respective Councils, 
as the Conimandera-in-Chief of Madras and Bombay were, before 
the Madras and Bombay Armies Act of 1893 wad passed. 



246 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Salt Tax 

VIII. Resolved That this Congress once again places on re- 
cord its sense of ttie great hardship which the present rate of Salt 
Tax. imposes upon the poorest classes of the country, a hardship 
which xenders it incumbent npon the Government to take the 
earliest" opportunity to restore the duty to the level of 1868. 

Soutb Africa 

IX. Resolved Th'at this Congress once again deems it neces- 
sary to record its most solemn protest against the disabilities 
imposed on Indian settlers in South Africa, and tho invidious and 
humiliating distinctions made between them and European settlers, 
an4 appeals to -Her Majesty's Government and the Government of 
India to guard the interests of Indian settlers and to relieve them 
of the disabilities to which they are subjected. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

XI. Resolved That this Congress concurB with its predeces- 
sors in strongly advocating : 



(a) Persistent pressure by the Government ot India on all 
Provincial Administrations to induce them to cany out in its 
integrity the excise policy enunciated in paragraphs 103, 104 and 
105 of the Despatch published in '/%e Gazette of India of March, 
18190, end the introduction of a simple system of effective local 
option. 

Legal 

(b) The introduction into the Code of Cri mi nal Procedure of a 
piOvxirion enabling accused persons in warrant cahos to demand that 
mlBtead of being tried by the Magistrate, they may be committed to 
the Court of Sessions. 

Military 

(c) A modification of the rules under ttu* Arms Act so an to 
make fcjiem equally applicable to all residents in, or visitors to, India 
without distinction of creed, caste or colour ; to ontmie the liberal 
concession of licences wherever wild aninmlB habitually destroy 
human life, cattle or crops ; and to make all hoonceH, granted under 
the revised rules, of life-long tenure, revocable only on proof of 
misuse, and valid throughout the Provincial jurisdiction in which 
they are issued ; 

(d) The establishment of "Military Colleges in India, whereat 
Natives of India, ae defined by Statute, may be educated and trained 
for a military cureer, as Corn missioned or non-ConwuHHiom'd officers 
(according to capacity and qualifications) in tho Indian army $ 




THB TWBUPTH CONGRESS 247 

() The authorising and stimulating of a widespread yatem 
of volunteering, such as obtains in Groat Britain, amongat 
people of India. 



(/) The discontinuance of the grant of Exchange Compensa- 
tion Allowance to the non-domiciled European and Bunmaa 
employees of Government* 

India, Council 

(?) The abolition of the Council of the Secretary of State for 
India. 

Provincial Coimcil and Sigh Court (Punjab) 

(h) The establishment of a High Court of Judicature and * 
Provincial Legislative Council in the Punjab. 

Coercion of the Press 

(i ) The withdrawal of the Government of India Notification 
of 25th June, 1891, in the Foreign Department, gagging tho Press in 
Territories under British administration in Native States, as being 
retrograde, arbitrary and mischievous in its nature and opposed to 
sound statesmanship and to the liberty of the people. 

Poverty, Famine, and Remedies 

XII. ResolvedThat this Congress deplores the out-break 
of famine in a more or less acute form throughout India and holds 
that this and other famines which have occurred in recent years 
are due to the great poverty of the people, brought on by the drain 
of the wealth of the country which has been going on for year* 
together, and by the excessive taxation and over-assessment, 
consequent on a policy of extravagance, followed by the Govern- 
ment both in the Civil and the Military departments, which has so- 
far impoverished the people that at the firjat touch of scarcity they 
are rendered helpless and must perish unless fed "by the State or 
helped by private charity. In the opinion of this Congress the 
true remedy against the recurrence of famine lies in the adoption 
of a policy, which would enforce economy, husband the resources 
of the State, foster the development of indigenous and local arts 
and industries which have practically been extinguished, and 
help forward the introduction of modern, arts and industries. 

In the meantime the Congress would remind the Government 
of its solemn duty "to save human life and mitigate human suffer- 
ing (the provisions of the existing Famine Code being in the 
opinion of the Congress inadequate as regards wages and rations 



248 HOW INDIA WBOUQ-HT FOR FREEDOM 

nd oppressive as regards task work), and would appeal to the 
Government to redeem its pledges by restoring the Famine 
Insurance Fund (keeping a separate account of it) to its original 
footing, and to apply it more largely to its original purpose, ., 
the immediate relief of the famine-stricken people. 

That in view of the fact that private charity in England IB 
ready to flow freely into this country at this awful juncture, and 
considering that large classes of sufferers can only be reached by 
private charity, this Congress desires to enter its most emphatic 
protest against the manner in which the Government of India i 
at present blocking the way, and this Congress humbly ventures 
to express the hope that tho disastrous miHtake committed by 
Lord Lytton's Government in the matter will not be repeated on 
this occasion. 

XJII. Resolved That this Congreug once again would desire 
to calj the attention of the Government to the deplorable condition 
of the poorer classes in 1ml in, full forty millions of whom, accord- 
ing to high official authority, drag out a miHurnhlo oxintowo on the 
verge of starvation even in normal years, and thu Congress would 
recommend the following amongst other mwuuircH for tho auiolioru- 
tiojn of their condition . 

(1) That the Permanent Settlement be extended to those 
parts of the country whore it does not exist at tho present time, 
and restrictions bo put on over-assessments in those parts of India 
where it may not be advisable to extend the P^rmunont Settle- 
ment at the present time, so as to leave tho ryots mimViont to 
maintain themselves. 

(2) That Agricultural Banks ho established rind that greater 
facilities be accorded for obtaining loans under tho Agricultural 
Loans Act. 

(3) That tho minimum income assessable under tho Income- 
tax Act be raised from, five hundred to ono thousand. 

(4) That technical schools bo established and local and 
indigenous manufactures fostered, 

Bduaation 

XIV. Beaclvod That tho time having oome when greater 
facilities are imperatively required for Higher Education and the 
proper development of the Indian intellect than what are at 
present offered by examinations alone, thfc Congress ia of opinion 
that the Ajots of Incorporation of the Univenritiei of Calcutta, 
Madras and Bombay should be amended ao as to provide for the 
introduction of teaching functions and for a wider cope of 
learning, and so OB to suit generally the requirement! of the 
present day. 



THls! TWELFTH CONGRESS 

Migration 

XV. Besolved That having regard to the facility of inter- 
course between all parts of India and Assam, this Congress is of 
opinion that the time has now arrived when the Inland Emigration: 
Act I of 1882, as amended by Act VII of 1893, should be repealed. 

Permanent Settlement 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress enters its emphatic 
protest against the policy of Government, m Provinces where the 
Settlement of Land Revenue is periodical, to reduce the duration 
of the Settlement to shorter periods chant hwd been the case till 
now, and prays that the Settlement should be guaranteed for long 
periods, at least for sixty years. 

Representation 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress puts on record its em- 
phatic protest ai^ainst the retrograde policy of tho Government of 
India; followed last year m nominating' a gentleman for the Central 
Provinces to the Supreme Legislative Council without asking local 
bodies to make recommendations for such nomination, and earnest- 
ly hopes that Government will be pleased to take early steps to 
give to tho Central Provinces the same kind of representation that 
it has already granted to Bengal, Madras, Bombay and the North 
Western Provinces. 

Expenditure Commission 

XX. Resolved That this Congress desires to place on record 
its sense of satisfaction at the delegation by the Bombay Presidency 
Association of Mr. Dinshaw Eduljee Wacha, Joint General Secretary 
of the Congress, to give evidence before the Royal CotnmisMon on 
Expenditure, and the Congress has full confidence that Mr. Wacha 
will give accurate and adequate expression to its views on tho 
questions which form the subject of enquiry 

Parliamentary Representation 

XXI. Resolved That this Congress again^ expresses its full 
and unabated confidence in Mr. Dadafohai Naoroji as the represen- 
tative of the people of India, and hopes that he will be re-elected 
by his old constituency of Central Fin&bury or any otner Liberal 
constituency. 

Congress Ttfork 

XXII. Resolved That a stun <$ $upee> sNsy thousand be 
assigned for the expenses of the HfftMfe Oottonttfca and cost of 



250 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

the Congress Publication, India, and also for the expenses of the 
Joint General Secretary's Office, and that the several circles do 
contribute as arranged, either now, or hereafter in committee, for 
the year 1897. 

Formal 

XXIII. Resolved That this Congress reappoints Mr. A. O. 
Hume to be General Secretary, and Mr. D. E. Wacha to be Joint 
General Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XXIV. Resolved That the Thirteenth Congress do assemble 
on such day after Christmas Day, I 897, as may be later determined 
upon, at Amraoti, Berar. 



CHAPTER XI11 

THE 27th, 28th and 29th of December, 1897, saw the 
Thirteenth National Congress in meeting assembled 
at Amraoti, Berar. 692 delegates had answered to the 
call in -that terrible year of distress. The number 
was smaller than usual, but the officials put every 
possible difficulty in the way of holding the Congress 
partly because of the wild outburst of suspicion and 
hatred which followed the murders of Mr. Rand and 
Lieutenant Ayerst, and partly because of the quaran- 
tine established in the first fear of the plague. Thcie 
was even doubt if the officials would allow the Con- 
gress to be held, but the steadfastness of the Recep- 
tion Committee and the care they took in their 
arrangements finally triumphed. The delegates 
were distributed as follows : 



Berar, C. P. and Secunderabad 
Madras. . 
Bengal ... 

Bombay 

N. W. P. and Oudh .. 
Panjab ... 



593 
38 
33 
17 
10 
1 

692 



252 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR IPSEEDOM 

The Congress was welcomed by Mr. Khaparde, 
Chairman of the Reception Committee, and lie opened 
with a brief account of the saddest year that India 
had known for long : famine had ravaged the land ; 
plague had appeared in a form unknown for centu- 
ries ; a ruinous frontier war had hampered finances ; 
floods, fires, and earthquakes* had added their terrors. 
Government and people were united in their efforts 
to relieve the distress caused by so many natural 
catastrophes, when two " deplorable murders/' commit- 
ted at Poona, roused the distrust of the Government, 
a panic over a supposed widespread conspiracy arose, 
State prosecutions began, and " unexpected deporta- 
tions " with a proposal to amend criminal procedure. 
Under such circumstances they met ; the only bright 
spot in the year was the Jubilee of her who gave 
the Magna Carta of 1858. He called on the Hon. 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji to propose the President 
of the Congress. 

Mr. Bannerji, in a few words, noting the gravity 
of the times owing to the reactionary tendency of the 
Government, and the need for a statesman to guide 
their deliberations, proposed the Hon. Mr. C. vSarika- 
ran Nair, " an honoured and illustrious leader of the 
Congrebs movement " 

Mr. M. V. Joshi seconded, saying that they 
needed that year, especially, hi their President 
unswerving devotion to the Congress, unquestionable 
loyalty, and unblemished personal character. These 
they found in the President proposed. Pandit 
Madan Mohan Malaviva and Mr. C. H. Setalwad 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 253 

supported, and the Resolution was carried with great 
enthusiasm. 

The President opened his speech with a few grace- 
ful words of reference to the Jubilee of tlw Queen- 
Empress, and then passed on to tlie cry of sedition 
.suddenly raised by a section of the Anglo-Indian 
Press against the whole class of educated Indians. He 
pointed out the impossibility of a class brought up on 
the English classics by English professors, .studying 
English history, reading* English books, newspapers, 
journals, not acquiring " English conceptions of 
duty, of rights, of brotherhood ". They knew thut 
class and race divisions, degradation and misery, 
had been cured in England by free institutions, nnd 
they believed that .similar results would follow them 
here. To dem India representative institutions would 
bo to ignore the principles, for which the noblesl 
names in England's histon liml toiled and bled. She 
could nor close the schools, nor prevent her papers 
circulating, wit.li denunciations of tyranny in them. 
Mr. Chamberlain had been holding up to admiration 
Wallace, whose head was stuck up as Unit of a traitor, 
Bruce, guilty of a foul murder, Emmet and other Irish 
leaders, executed for treason by the Knglish (aovern- 
ment. " It, is impossible to argue a man into slavery 
in the Knglisli language." Therefore they wished for 
the continuance of British rule, that India might 
tajke Jner place in the Confederacy of the free English- 
speaking Notions of the world. 

President, ratfeftdly recognising the magnifi- 

*2pt Jt f *** * ^ 

#4$ $w$ $o ifef$?W JluUft by Great Britain and 

* * ^Mijt * K ^" 



254 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

other countries, said they could not shut their eyes to 
the need of turning the energy, which sought to relieve, 
to a removal of the causes of famine. rt At the root of 
these famines is the great poverty of India/' In Madras 
in a favourable season there was no grain for 5 millions 
out of a population of 28 millions. Was that to 
continue ? Permanent Settlement and Retrench- 
ment were two of the necessary reforms. Much of 
the expenditure was due to the idea that the 
English were a superior race, holding India by the 
sword. " To us this idea is hateful, and therefore -we 
insist upon equality before law and Government . . . 
These distinctions . . . cast a slur on our loyalty, 
accentuate race prejudices in a most invidious form, 
and relegate Indians to the position of an inferior race, 
and silently ensure the emasculation of our manhood." 
The Colonies justified their bad treatment by 

our degraded position in our own country.-. . . . Oit 
this race question no concession is possible. No com- 
promise can be accepted so far as it lies in us. We must 
insist on perfect equality. Inequality means race inferior- 
ity, national abasement. Acquisition, therefore, of all 
civil rights conferred on Englishmen, removal of all 
disabilities on Indians as such these must be>our aim. 

The President then referred to the distress and 
anger caused by the plague measures in Poona, the 
forcible intrusion of soldiers into the ladies quarters in 
Hindu and Muhammadan homes, and their entry into 
family temples. Mr. Natu, a leading Poona Sardar, 
had sent formal written complaints to Government, 
appealing to them to interfere. The outrages went 
on, and- the President of the Plague Committee was 



TOtE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 255 

murdered. The Anglo-Indian Press attacked the 
Vernacular Press and the educated Indians, " a gagg- 
ing Act was loudly demanded,, the policy of imparting 
education to the Indians was questioned, the Press in 
England was worked, and the Europeans were thrown 
into a panic ". The result was lamentable. The 
brothers Natu were arrested and kept in prison with- 
out trial, Mr. Tilak and the Editors of two Verna- 
cular papers were prosecuted. Mr. Tilak was tried by 
a judge and a jury of 6 Europeans and 3 Indians, and 
was, of course, convicted by 6 rotes to 8, and was treated 
as an ordinary criminal. Government had not answer- 
ed the question as to the foundation of the complaints 
made. But India was asking it, and posterity would 
ask it. To try to stop progress " may compel under- 
ground passages or its overflow" 

Shall we be content to have India aw. it IN, or shall 
we go on and do all in our power to lift it to a higher 
level ? Years of subjection, nay, we may even say servitude, 
have sapped the strength of the Indian Nation, dwarfed 
its growth, and stripped it of all that was grand and 
noble in it, and if India ip\ ever to occupy a better 
position than jshe fills at the present moment and 
take her proper* place in the scale of Nations, it must be 
entirely due to the zealous efforts of her educated and 
enlightened men. 

The warnings of the speaker as to the results of 
repression were unheeded, and progress was driven 
underground. Mr Tilak was embittered, but not 
terrified, and took his place among the martyrs of 
liberty. The birth of the Extremist party may be 
dated from the plague outrages in Poona, the answer 



256 HOW JNPIA WROUGHT FOE JPRB5BDOM 

to the just appeals by the Natu Sardars for investiga- 
tion by imprisonment without trial since a trial 
would have proved the truth of their complaints 
and the unwise Press prosecutions. 

The Subjects Committee was approved and the 
Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, the regular business began with 
a protest against the frontier policy, and a request 
that, if the Imperial policy required these trans-frontier 
excursions, the British Exchequer should bear most of 
the cost. Mr. D. J3. Wacha moved Resolution I, em- 
bodying these views, and as he said, the subject had 
really been threshed out. They had protested annually 
against the military expenditure incurred by frontier 
wars. The Resolution was seconded by ,Mr. Gr. 
Subramania Iyer and carried. 

Resolution II was closely knit with the first, and 
asked the British Parliament, in view of the distress 
caused by famine and plague, to make a substantial 
contribution to the cost of the War then going on. 
Mr. Baikunthanath Sen, in moving it, urged that 
India was living from hand to mouth, and that the 
famine had dislocated her finances; moreover the 
evidence laid before the Expenditure Commission 
justified the hope that Britain would bear her share. 
Mr. Jaishi Ram seconded, and the Resolution was 
carried with the addition that a petition embodying 
the two resolutions should be sent to Parliament. 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya moved Resolution 
III, which, as he said crystallised the expressions of 
opinion uttered at previous Congresses, on bhe ni 



THE THIRTEENTH CONOKBSS 257 

to vote on Budgets, the reduction of Military and Civil 
Expenditure, and a sharing between Britain and India 
of all oosts incurred in their common interests. India 
had to pay for the annexation of Burma, for foreign 
wars ; let there be direct Indian representation on 
the India Council to vote against these charges. 
Mr. Hirendranath Datta, in seconding, said that some 
good had come out of the Expenditure Commission, 
since its members had become convinced of the 
poverty of India, and this should lead to the 
establishment of an effective control over Indian 
finance. The Resolution was further supported and 
carried. 

A wise innovation was adopted, by the Omnibus 
Resolution, No. IV, being moved from the Chair, as 
having been thoroughly discussed at previous Congress- 
es j for the same reason, Resolution V on the Public 
Service Commission, and Resolution VI, on gagging 
the Press in the Feudatory States, were put and 
carried. The same procedure might well have been 
adopted with Resolution VII on Permanent Settlement, 
which was, however, moved in a very long speech by 
Mr. John Adams, seconded by the Hon. Mr. D. S. 
Qarvel, supported by three other speakers, and 
carried. 

Mr. J. Choudhuri moved Resolution VIII, anothei 
very old stager, the separation of Judicial and 
Executive functions, and Mr." C. H, Setalwad m 
seconding usefully pointed out that both the Hon. 
Mr. Pherozeshah Mehta and Mr. Dutt had for- 
mulated schemes Vhich showed that no additional 

21 ' - t I 



258 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

expenditure need be entailed by carrying out the 
reform. The Resolution was carried, as was 
Resolution IX, moved from the Chair, on the cause 
of famine being only removable by a policy of 
retrenchment and reform. 

With this the Congress adjourned. 

On the third day, the President opened the 
proceedings by putting from the 8 Chair Resolution X, 
expressing thanks to Great Britain, the Colonies, 
the United States and other countries for help given 
to relieve the famine, and also for the services 
rendered in India by English and Indians. 

Gratitude was right and fitting, but the heart 
aches that the India, " the droppings of whose soil 
fed distant Nations" in the 18th century, should at 
the end of the 19th be a beggar asking, at the doors 
of happier Nations, for bread. 

Resolution XI, asking for three members instead 
of two in Executive Councils, and one of them a 
non-official, was moved by the Hon. Mr. N. Subba 
Ran. He pointed to the necessity for placing an 
Indian in each Executive Council, and commented on 
the fact that men like Dewan Bahadur Srinivasa 
Raghava lyengar should have to go to Baroda, and 
Sir T. Madhava Rao successively to Travancore, 
Baroda, and Indore, being shut out of high service in 
British India. 

Mr. N. 0. Kelkar seconded, and the Resolution 
was carried. 

Resolution XII was moved by the Hon. Mr. Suren- 
ctrauath Jftannerji, and dealt with the exercise by 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 259 

Government of the special powers given by the 
Eegulations of 1818, '19 and '27, and urged the 
Government of Bombay either to try or release the 
Sardars Natu, whom they had kept in custody for 
five months. (This terrible power is exercised in 
India still, the old lettres de cachet of Bourbon times, 
and anyone suspected by Government may be, and too 
often is, suddenly swept out of sight, disappears, and 
there is no redress.) Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, as 
was fitting, spoke warmly 

We regard the quartering of the Punitive Police at 
Poona as a mistake. We regard the imprisonment of Mr. 
Tilak and of the Poona Editors as a still greater mistake. 
For Mr. Tilak my heart is full of sympathy. My feelings 
go forth to him in his prison house. A Nation is in 

tears Englishmen have won for themselves the 

Magria Carta^and the Habeas Corpus The principles 
which underlie those concessions are embalmed in their 
glorious constitution. The constitution, I have no hesita- 
tion in saying, is ours by birthright , born British subjects, 
we are entitled to the pnvilegc^of British subjects. Who 
will filch away these rights from us r 1 We are resolved, 
and this Congress will take the pledge, you and I will 
enter into a solemn League and Covenant. Let it go forth 
from this ball, let it impregnate the public mind of India, 
we are resolved, by every constitutional means that may 
be available to us, to assert under the Providence of God 
our rights as British subjects, not the least important of 
which is the inestimable right of personal liberty. 

Brave and true words, but as fruitless in 1897 as in 
1915, and to remain fruitless until they ring from 
one end of India to the other. Now, as ever, is it true, 
that only 

They have rights who dare maintain them. 



260 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT POB FREEDOM 

Rightly did the eloquent speaker say : 

Brother delegates, security of life and property are 
the great foundations upon which rests the vast, the 
stupendous, the colossal fabric of British rule in India. 
What becomes of these inestimable blessings if at any 
moment your, property may be confiscated, and you may 
be arrested, kept in custody for months together, 
without a trial and without a word of explanation ? 
What becomes of the boasted vaunt of the boon 
of personal liberty and personal security under British 
rule under these circumstances ? 

Mr. R. K. R. Cama seconded the Resolution, and 
quoted a remarkable statement of Lord George 
Hamilton : " In India, almost without warning, an 
apparently peaceful population might suddenly 
become as dangerous as criminal lunatics, with but 
one object before them to murder the class alien to 
them." This wicked statement, made in the House of 
Commons by Lord George Hamilton, Secretary of 
State for India, is one more proof of thai profound 
ignorance of India which seems to be the qualification 
lor the Secretaryship. If the shameful slander were 
as true as it is false, even a criminal lunatic has to be 
]jrt>ught to trial, not kept indefinitely in prison, 
untried. Messrs. P. Kesava Pillai, Alfred Nandi, and 
V. K. Kale further supported, and the Resolution 
was unanimously carried. 

Resolution XIII, brought up by Mr. W 0. 
Bannerji, protested against the proposed changes in 
t>he law of sedition, as dealing an irreparable blow to 
liberty of speech and the freedom of the press. He 
y, moved it in an argumentative and powerful 

Speech", showing the unfairness, in matters called 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 261 

seditious, of trying an Indian before an English 
jury, who might not even know the language of 
the accused, or by District Magistrates, officers of the 
Grovernment threatened by the sedition. He thought 
the proposals would be forced into law, and he said : 

"We must go before the British public. "We must 
explain to them how the agents they have sent to govern 
the country on their behalf and in their name are dealing 
with the people, thai is, dealing in a manner wholly 
unworthy of the British name and the British love of 
freedom. And if we can convince them that we are right, 
I have no doubt that the British Nation will rise in their 
wrath, and 'free us from the trammels which Lord Elgin 
and his councillors are forging for us. 

Mr. Mudholkar seconded, in an able speech, point- 
ing to the danger of the loose form of words em- 
ployed, urging that the measure was retrograde aftd 
most mischievous. Pandit B. Narrain Dhar quoted a 
minute recorded by Lord Hobhouse in 1876, in which 
he pointed out that any attempt towards even-handed 
justice was met by the Anglo-Indian press with 
" outcries and menaces, compared to which the com- 
plaints of the native newspapers are gentle murmurs ". 
Similarly, Sir James Fitzjames Stephens, asked 
by certain " Native Associations " how they could 
tell whether they were infringing the law, said : * c Gro 
to the English newspapers ; whatever they say, you 
may say; that anybody should want to be more 
offensive than they, is inconceivable." 

Mr. A, 0. Mozumdar was astonished that the petty 1 
calumnies of newspapers, poisoning against Indiana 
the mind of the Government, had been so successful 



262 HOW INDIA WROUGHT K>R FREEDOM 

as to lead the State itself to charge them with 
sedition. 

Born o'f a people whos'e ancestors often sacrificed their 
own children for the supposed welfare of their Kings, we 
disdain to learn lessons of loyalty- from those whose 
liberties are bathed and consecrated in royal blood. 

After two other speakers had addressed the Con- 
gress, the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. John Adam moved Resolution XIV, against 
the proposed increase of the powers of the Police, 
and analysed at great length the provisions of the 
Criminal Procedure Bill then pending. Three other 
speakers followed and the Resolution was carried. 

After a brief recess, a telegram was sent to 
Mr. Gladstone on his completion of: his 89 bh year, 
and then Resolution XV, thanking the Government 
for giving a Legislative Council to the Panjab, and 
regretting its limitations, was put from the Chair 
and carried. 

Resolution XVI pointed out that legislation for 
Berar was passed by the Executive, and requested it 

, -,, might be passed in the Supreme Legislative Council. 

* ' No. XVII asked for the extension of the scope of the 

Famine Commission to enquire into the causes and 
prevention of periodical " famines. Mr. Ramanjalu 
Naidu moved it, noticing the Madras famines of 
1854, '65, '76, '77-78, '91 and '97. Nothing had feeen 
done to prevent these recurrences. Fourteen times 
as much was spent on railways as on irrigation, while 
if the money invested in railways were used for irri- 
gation, famine would disappear. Professor A. S. Sathe 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 268 

seconded, urging that the root of the recurring 
famines must be found and destroyed. It was the 
result of a century's bungling. Railways helped 
English trade; irrigation helped the ryot. The 
Resolution was carried. 

Resolution XVIII expressing confidence in Mr. 
Naoroji was moved by the Hon. Rai Bahadur 
P. Ananda Charlu, seconded by Mr. Motilal Ghose and 
carried. Resolutions XIX and XX, the usual thanks 
to Sir William Wedderburn and the British Committee 
and the yearly grant, and the re-appointment of 
Mr. A. 0. Hume and Mr. D. B. Wacha were moved 
from the Chair and carried, and Resolution XXI fixed 
the meeting of the next Congress in Madras. 

The final Resolutions, XXII thanking the Reception 
for the success of its singularly difficult work, and 
XXIII the vote of thanks to the Chair, were 
enthusiastically carried, and the President, with a 
few kindly words of recognition, declared the 
Thirteenth National Congress dissolved. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Military 

I. Resolved That this Congress expresses its deep and earnest 
conviction that the present Frontier policy ot the Government of 
India is injurious to the best interests of tho British Empire in 
general, and this country in particular, as it involves frequent 
Military expeditions beyond the present limits of the British Indian 
Empire and causes great loss of valuable lives and public money 
it therefore entreats the British Nation to put a stop to this aggres- 
sive policy and to lay down, that, if such expeditions are found 
necessary, they being for Imperial purposes, the major portion of 
their expenses should be defrayed by the British Exchequer. 

II, ResolvedThat in view of the fact that the calamities of 
famine and plague have dislocated the already seriously embarrass- 
ed finances of this country, and crippled its limited resources, and 



204 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POB FREEDOM 

that the Military operations carried on beyond the North West 
Frontier are for the protection of Imperial interests, this Congress 
prays that the British Parliament will, pending the settlement of 
the principle on which the Military charges are to be apportioned 
between Great Britain and India, be pleased to make a substantial 
contribution to the cost of the present War. 

II. A. 5-esolred That this Congress authorises the President 
to submit a petition to Parliament, embodying the prayer contained 
in Resolutions I and II under his hand on its behalf. 

Expenditure Commission 

III. Besolved That this Congress rejoices that the " Royal 
Commission on Indian Expenditure" was pleased to decide to 
admit the public to its proceedings, and further desires to express 
its grateful acknowledgments for the opportunity afforded by the 
Honourable Commission to representative Indian witnesses, to 
state fully the case on behalf of India. With regard to the three 
divisions of, the reference, the Congress desires most respectfully to 
submit the following prayers for the favourable consideration of 
the Honourable Commission : 

(I) As regards the machinery to control Indian Expenditure it 
is prayed 

(1) that the non-official members of the Viceroy's Council 
may be made more directly representative of the Indian people, 
and that they may have the right to move amendments and divide 
the Council upon the Provisions of the Budget ; (2) That a suffi - 
cieht number of representative Indians of position and experience 
may be nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State on the 
recommendation of the elected members of the Viceroy's and Local 
Legislative Councils , and (3) that each year a Select Committee 
of the House of Commons may be appointed to enquire into, and 
report upon, the financial condition of India ; 

(2) As regards the progress of Expenditure, it is prayed that 
the Military and other unproductive expenditure be reduced, that 
larger amounts be spent in promoting the welfare and progress of 
the people, and that a large saving and more efficient administra- 
tion may be obtained, by the substitution, as far as practicable, of 
Indian for European agency, in the higher grades of the Public 
Service ; and 

(3) As regards apportionment of charges, it is prayed that 
the Imperial Treasury may bear a fair proportion of all expenditure, 
in which the common interests of India and the rest of the Empire 
are involved ; and that especially the expense of the present war 
beyond the frontier may be largely borne by the Imperial Exche- 
quer. Lastly, that it be an instruction to the President to submit a 



THE THIRTEENTH CON GEE SS 265 

copy of this Resolution, under hip own signature to the Chairman 
of the Royal Commission with the least practicable delay. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

IV. Resolved That this Congress concurs with its predeces- 
sors in strongly advocating- (1896: (a) (c) (0) ; (h) omitting 
Provincial Council, which had been granted.) 

And this Congress, concurring with its predecessors records its 
protests (1896 (a) (d) VI, VIII, IX, XIX.) 

And this Congress, also concurring with its predecessors, 
expresses its firm conviction 

(a) (1896 X) That in the interests of. the public, the 
Medical Science, and the Profession, as also in the cause 
of economic administration, (1) there should be only one 
Medical Military Service, with two branches, one for the 
European Army and one for Native Troops, worked on 
identical lines , (2) the Oivil Medical Service of the country 
should be reconstituted as a distinct and independent Medical 
Service, wholly detached from its present Military connection, 
and recruited from the open profession of medicine in India 
and elsewhere, with due regard to the utilisation of indigenous 
talent, other things being equal ; and (3) there should be a 
thorough, open enquiry into the status and claims of Civil Assistant 
(Surgeons and Hospital Assistants with a view to the redressing of 
long-standing anomalies and consequent grievances. 

(b) (1896 XIV). 

(c) (1896 XV). 

(d) (1896 XVIII). 

(e) (1896 VII). 

Public Service 

V. Resolved That this Congress concurring with previous 
Congresses, again records its deep regret that the labours of the 
Public Service Commission have practically proved void of any 
good result to the people of this country, and repeats its conviction 
that no satisfactory solution of the question is possible, unless 
effect is given to the Resolution of the House of Commons of the 
2nd June, 1898, in favour of holding the competitive examinations 
for the Indian Civil Services, via., Civil, Medical, Police, Engineer- 
ing, Telegraph, Forest, and Accounts, both in India and in England. 
This Congress would once again respectfully urge on Her Majesty's 
Government that the Resolution, of the House of Commons should 
be speedily carried out, as an act of Justice to the Indian people, 
and as the only adequate fulfilment of the pledges made to them. 



266 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

XL Resolved That, having regard to the wisdom of the 
policy of appointing to the Governorships of Madras and Bombay, 
statesmen from England, to the exclusion of the Services in India, 
this Congress is of opinion that it is desirable that the Executive 
Government of those Provinces should be administered by the 
Governors with Councils of three Members and not of two Mem- 
bers, as at present, and that one of the three Councillors shoxild be 
other than a member of the Indian Civil Service. 

Coercion 

Press 

VI Resolved That this Cong-re as being of opinion that the 
Government of India Notification of 25th June, 1891 in the Foreign 
Department, gagging the Press in Territories under British ad- 
ministration in Native States, is retrograde, arbitrary, and mischiev- 
ous in its nature, and opposed to sound statesmanship and to the 
liberty of the people, again enters its emphatic protest against the 
same, and urges its cancellation without delay. 

Lettres de Cachet 

XII. Kesolved That this Congress respectfully deprecates 
the exercise by the Government of the extraordinary powers vested 
in them by Bengal Regulation III of 1818, Madras Regulation 11 
of 1819, and Bombay Regulation XXV of 1827 at a time of peaco 
and quiet, and submits that such powers should be exercised only 
under such limitations as will ensure their being pat in force with 
the utmost circumspection and care and tinder a sense of the high- 
est responsibility by the Goveinment. 

(ffl) This Congress therefore urges that none of these Regu- 
lations should be put into force except after notification by the 
Local Government concerned that the circumstances contemplated 
by the preamble of the Regulations exist in its Province or in sorno 
definite area within the Province, arid that it intends, if necessary, 
to exercise the powers vested in it; and further that in no caso 
should such powers extend to keeping- a person arrested under 
them in custody for a period of longer than three months without 
his being brought to trial before a Court of Justice. 

(b) That 'this Congress, while feeling that the Government 
of Bombay must have acted under a sense of responsibility in 
arresting the Sardars Natu under Bombay Regulation XXV of 1827, 
is ydt of opinion, that, five months having now elapsed from snch 
arrest, it is the duty of the Government, in the interests of Justice, 
and also to allay the disquiet and uneasiness which has been created 
m the minds of the people at large by the arrest, to bring them 
the Sardars Natuto trial without delay, or, if the Government 
have no sufficient evidence against thorn to place before a Court of 
Justice, to release them. 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGKESS 267 

Sedition 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress views with alarm and 
anxiety the changes proposed in the existing law of sedition as 
defined in Section 124a, and of circulating false reports as defined 
in Section 505 of the Indian Penal Code, and is of opinion that 
Section 124a of the Indian Penal Code requires amendment, not in 
the direction of greater stringency but in that of greater freedom, 
and if the la\\ of sedition m India is to bo made the same as it is in 
England, the administration of it ought to be safeguarded sub- 
stantially in the same way as it is there, viz , that the trial of 
accused persons must always be by ]ury, at least one halt of -whom 
should be persons of the same nationality as the accused, and that 
their Addict should bo unanimous And this Oongiess strongly 
protests against eases of sodition being made triable by Magistrates 
and not by Courts of Sessions and High Courts exclusively, as 
heretofore, and against the proposal to invest District Magistrates 
with the power of calling upon persons who, m then opinion, dis- 
seminate disaffection, to find sureties of good behaviour for twelve 
months This Congress is further of opinion that the changes in 
the law now proposed, will bo altogothei at variance with the 
pledges given by Sir James Fitz-Jamos Stephen when passing 
Section 124a of tho Indian Penal Code through the Council, and 
Mill deal an irreparable blow to hbcrU of speech and freedom of 
the ProsH, thus retarding the pi ogress of the country and creating 
tenor instead of confidence m the minds of the peopje. 

That a copy of this Resolution be submitted to the Legislative 
Council by the President. 

Cn minal Procedui e 

XIV. Resolved That this Congress desires to record its pro- 
test against the Criminal Procedure Bill of J 897 now pending be- 
fore tho Imperial Legislative Council, as being a retrogade and 
reactionary measure, which will add to the already large powers^of 
the Police, invest Magistrates with a discretionary authority which 
they do not now possess, and curtail the powers of the High Courts 
all to the extreme prejudice of accused persons. 

Permanent Settlement 

VII. ResolvedThat this Congress enters its emphatic protest 
against the policy of the Government in Provinces where the 
settlement of land revenue is periodical in reducing the duration of 
the Settlement while enhancing its amount, and expresses its firm 
conviction that, in the interests pf the country it is absolutely 
necessary that the land revenue, in suofy Provinces should be 
permanently settled, 



268 HOW INDIA WROUGHT 3POR FREEDOM 

Legal 

YJII. Eesolved That this Congress notices with satisfaction 
the. support of public opinion both in England and in India which 
the question of the separation of Judicial and Executive functions 
i$ the administration of justice has received; and this Congress 
once again appeals to the Government of India and the Secretary 
of State to take practical steps for carrying out' the much needed 
reform. 

Famine 

IX. Eesolved That this Congress is glad to note that the 
Government of India has appointed a Famine Commission and 
hopes that the Commission will institute a searching enquiry into 
the matter. At the same time the Congress once again desires to 
repeat its conviction that famines are due to the great poverty of 
the people, brought on by the drain of the wealth of the country 
which has been going on for years together, and by the excessive 
taxation and over-assessment consequent on a policy of extravagance, 
followed by the Government both in the Civil and Military Depart- 
ments, which have so far impoverished the people that, at the first 
touch of scarcity, they are rendered helpless and must perish, unless 
fed by the State, or helped by private charity. In the opinion of 
this Congress the true remedy against the recurrence of famine lies 
in the adoption of a policy which would enforce economy, husband 
the resources of the State, foster the development of indigenous 
and local arts <and industries, which have practically been extin- 
guished, and help forward the introduction of modern arts and 
industries. 

XVII. Eesolved That this Congress prays that the scope of 
the Famine Commission appointed by the Government of India be 
extended, so as to include an enquiry into the causes of periodical 
famines and the remedies for the prevention of the same. 

X. Eesolved That this Congress expresses its heart-felt 
gratitude to the British public and to the peoples of the British 
Colonies, the United States of America and other foreign countries 
for the generous aid afforded by them to the starving millions of 
this country, during the late dreadful visitation of famine, and also 
wishes to place on record its high appreciation of the services which 
many men, and women English and Indian residing in this 
country rendered, and the pecuniary help they gave fojsthe relief 
of those afflicted by thai calamity. 

And that it be an instruction to the various Congress"- Commit* 
tees to raise a sum of a thousand pounds, to be sent to 'the Lord 
Mayor of London on behalf of the Congress, in order that he might 
be pleased to put some memorial in some conspicuous part of 
London expressing the gratitude of the people of India for the help 
rendered them during the time of the last famine. 



THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS 269 

legislative Council (Pan jab) 

XV. Resolved That this Congress, while thanking the 
Government for granting the boon of a Legislative Council to the 
Panjab, places on record its regret that they have not extended -to 
the Councillors the rights of interpellation, and to the people the 
right of recommending Councillors for nomination, such as are 
emjoyed by the Councillors and people in the other Provinces. 

Berar Legislation 

XVI Resolved That the Province of Berar, though not a 
part of British India, is administered by the Governor-Greneral-in- 
Council in the same way as any portion of British India, but the 
important work of legislating for the Province is performed by the 
Executive instead of by the Legislative Council, resulting often in 
unsuitable and inconvenient legislation. This Congress therefore 
humbly prays that so long as Berar is administered by the Governor- 
General-m-Council all laws and orders having the force of law, 
intended for Berar, should bo enacted by the Supreme Legislative 
Council, in the same way as those for British India proper. 

Parliamentary Representation 

XVIII. Resolved That this Congress again expresses its full 
and unabated confidence in Mr. Dadabhoi Naoroji as the represent- 
ative of the people of India, and hopes that he will be re-elected by 
his old Constituency of Central Fmsbury or any other Liberal 
Constituency. 

Thanks of Congress and Congress Work 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress desires to convey to Sir 
Willam Wedderburn and the other members of the British Commit- 
tee its most grateful thanks for thoir disinterested services in the 
cause of Indian political advancement. 

And that a sum of Rs. 00,000 be assigned for the expenses <?f 
the British Committee and cost of Congress publication, India, 
and also for the expenses of the Joint General Secretary's Office, 
and that the several circles do contribute as arranged, either now or 
hereafter in Committee, for the year 1808. 

Formal 

XX. Resolved That this Congress re-appoints Mr. A. 0. 
Hume, O.B,, to bq General Secretary and Mr. I). E, Wacha to be 
Joint General Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XXI. Resolved That the Fourteenth Indian National Con- 
gress do assemble on such day after Christmas Day, 1898, as may 
later be determined upon, at Madras. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE Fourteenth Session of the National Congress 
was held in Madras, on December 29th, 30th and 
81st, 1898. The clouds were gathering on the 
political horizon, coercion was showing its hideous 
face, ensuring the growth of secret conspiracy, and 
alienating from the Government, which confessed its 
weakness by employing it, all that was best and no- 
blest in the land. The famine and the plague had 
exercised a depressing influence in the country, and 
the dislike shown to the vivifying influence of English 
education had increased. The number of delegates 
fell to 614, distributed as follows : 

Madras .. . ... . 519 

Berar, C. P. and Hyderabad . .. ]S 

Bombay ... .. 27 

JSf. W/P. 11 

Bengal and Assam . . ... ... ... 38 

Panjab . ... ... ... ... 1 

614 



The Congress met on December 29th, and was wel- 
comed by the Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
the Hon. Mr. N. Subbarau Pantulu, who, after a few 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 271 

words referring to the loss of Mr. Gladstone, the 
Maharaja of Darbhanga and Sardar Dayal Singh 
two towers of strength to the Congress dwelt on the 
value of the Congress as an interpreter of the Indian 
mind to the British Government and to England. 
He complained of the attitude to the Indians of the 
officials, who saw conspiracy where there was none, 
who itarrowed personal liberty in times of peace, 
brought in laws agUinst sedition, and made distinctions 
between the British-born and the Indian subjects of 
the Queen-Empress. He pointed out that the func- 
tion of the Services was not to shape the policy of 
the Stajte, but only to carry it out when declared, and 
that their inroads on Government should be checked. 

The Hon. Bai Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu, C.I.E., 
proposed Mr. Ananda Mohan Bose as President, 
Mr. K N. Mudholkar seconded, Mr. John Adam and 
Mr. Jaishi Ram supported, and the election was 
carried by acclamation. 

The President opened his speech with a very 
beautiful tribute to Mr. Gladstone, who had passed 
away during the year, and then said a few words on 
the arrival of the new Viceroy, Lord Curzou, who had 
landed at Bombay on that day, expressing a hope 
not destined to be realised that when he left thfc 
country, he might carry with him some of the love 
that followed Mr. Gladstone on leaving the world. He 
then turned to the unfortunate tendency which was 
showing itself, which would become disastrous if not 
checked. However slow progress towards freedom was 
in this country, it had at Ig&st be|x almost continuous. 



272 HOW INDIA WEOUGHT FOE FBBBDOM 

Twenty years before, they had a brief reaction, in the 
Vernacular Press Act of Lord Lytton,. but it was 
quickly withdrawn j now they had had two years of 
re-action, a reversal of the wise and beneficent policy 
of the past. In the Educational Service, Indians had 
been admitted to the highest grades on exactly the 
same terms as Englishmen; about twenty years ago, 
their pay was reduced, but the highest grades were 
still open to them. In 1896, the year of the Diamond 
Jubilee, they were excluded from some of these 
appointments for the first time, their status lowered, 
and their pay further reduced. In this same year, 
the Engineering College of Eoorkee was closed to 
Asiatics of pure descent, whose domicile was in one of 
the three Presidencies. 

It is quaint to notice in this that Asiatics of impure 
descent were not excluded ! To give privileges to 
illegitimacy is peculiar to the Government of India. 

The next great wrong was the imprisonment of the 
brothers Natu, who had been lying for 18 months 
in prison without trial. England pointed at Russia 
with scorn for similar deeds, and everyone felt his 
personal liberty insecure where such measures were 
allowed. Again, there was the new law of sedition, 
and the changes in the Criminal Procedure Code, 
which put public speakers and editors of newspapers 
on a level with rogues and vagabonds, liable to be 
called on to furnish security for good behaviour, 
and allowed a District Magistrate, the head of the 
police, to try cases of sedition. Many other retro- 
grade measures had been passed, among them the 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 273 

Calcutta Municipal Bill, which proposed to take away 
almost all power from a Corporation which had used 
its powers with marked success, thus striking a severe 
blow at Local Self-Government. The President then 
criticised the Frontier policy of the Government, 
crippling by its cost every internal reform. What 
was to be the future policy of the Government back- 
ward or forward ? 

Are we to inarch backwards into the methods of 
despotism, to the weapons of coercion, to the policy of 
distrust :* or we are to march onwards in the path which 
was traced out by those noble Englishmen who have been 
the founders, the consohdators, the saviours of the Empire, 
the jiath which leads to advancing and not to receding 
freedom, to greater trust in the people, to rights enlarged 
and not to concessions withdrawn j' 

Alas ! the first alternative has been chosen, despite 
the one item of tho Council Reforms, with much of 
their value juggled out of them by the policy of 
distrust. 

In a letter received l>y him while in England, the 
President said, from a gentleman who had taken no 
part in politics, the following occurred : " Are you a 
friend to British Kule ? try your best to induce the 
authorities to withdraw the suicidal policy of Govern- 
ment. If you are an enemy, well, my advice is keep 
quiet and let things take their course." Mr. E. C. 
Dutt had lately said that he could hardly remember 
any time " when the confidence of the people of India 
in the justice and fair play of English rulers was 
so shaken, as it has been within the last two years ". 
-The President eloquently urged on the British to 
give up coercion, and to 
22 



274 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

find the path of safety, of honour, of mutual advan- 
tage, and .the truest and most abiding glory, in going 
forwards in fearless confidence, trusting the people, 
extending the hounds of freedom, not forging new fetters 
hut gradually removing those that exist, not taking away 
hut adding to the rights of the people, helping on the 
cause of India's regeneration with the passionate longing 
and the loving ardour that come from the consciousness 
of a duty and a solemn responsibility from on high. 
The educated classes of India are the friends and not the 
foes of England, her natural and necessary allies in the 
great work that lies before her. 

The President further touched on various reforms, 
and suggested the direct representation of India in 
Parliament; urged that the Congress should work 
continuously throughout the year, and choose special 
items to press each year. He concluded with a noble 
peroration ou IC God and the Motherland," and sat 
down amidst enthusiastic applause. 

The Subjects Committee was then approved and 
the Congress adjourned. 

On fche second day, December 30th, the first three 
Resolutions, expressing grief for the deaths of 
Mr. Gladstone, the Maharaja of Darbhanga and Sardar 
Dayal Singh were moved from the Chair and passed 
by the audience standing up in solemn silence. 

The Hon. Mr. C. Jambulingam Mudaliar moved 
Besolntion IV, a protest on the law of sedition which 
had been passed in the Supreme Legislative Council 
against the stubborn opposition of the nonrofficial 
members and an unprecedented agitation in the 
country. He traced the history of laws against sedi- 
tion, and the introduction of the words " hatred and 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS , 275 

contempt," which included all criticism of Govern- 
ment, since criticism implied that the action criticised 
was against sound reason or common sense ; also 
Indian Native subjects, not Eurasian or Anglo-Indian, 
might be punished on return home for words spoken 
abroad. The effect of this and of the "good 
behaviour " clauses was that an Empire which had 
been consolidated " by confidence and goodwill has 
been converted into a Government of suspicion and 
distrust. , . . A permanent bitterness of feeling has 
taken root over the land, over its whole length and 
breadth." He concluded with a hope that the new 
Viceroy would repeal " the iniquitous legislation of his 
predecessor". Mr. Tarapadu Bannerji seconded, 
and the Resolution was supported by Pandit K. P. 
Kavyabisharad and Mr. T. Venkatasubba Iyer, and 
carried. 

Resolution V welcomed Lord Cirrzon and expressed 
a hope that he would govern according to the best 
traditions of British rule ; it was moved by the Hon. 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, who, referring to speeches 
delivered in England by the new Viceroy, said that 
these speeches inspired a hope that Lord Curzon's 
name might be linked with those of Bentinck, Canning 
and Ripon. Such was the friendly feeling which Lord 
Curzon changed into bitter hatred. The Resolution 
was seconded by Ifcwab Syed Muhammad Bahadur, 
supported by the Hon. Rai Bahadur P.- Ananda 
Charlu and the Hon. Mr. D. S. Garud, and carried. 

Resolution VI, on -Permanent Settlement, was 
moved by Mr. G. Venkataratjaam, who showed how 



276 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

the promises of Government as regards the land had 
been treated as waste paper, and pointed out that 
the ryotwari tenure had been so changed as to have 
lost its valuable characteristics. Mr. M. R. Bodas 
seconded, and dealt with the retrograde land policy 
in Bombay, shown by the legislation. The Khots 
were being forced to give up their villages, because 
the assessments they were compelled to pay to the 
Government were far higher than the rents they 
received from their tenants. A Khot who received 
Rs. 700 for a village had to pay Rs. 2,000, and so 
the Khots, gave up the villages and the Government 
attached them. By legislation the Government were 
confiscating private property enjoyed for long, and 
under sanads from Musalman Emperors. The 
Resolution was carried. 

Resolution VII dealt with the Frontier policy of 
the- Government and was moved in a spirited speech 
by Mr. G. Subramama Jyer, who condemned " tins 
mischievous and dangerous Frontier policy ... a 
policy prompted by that spirit of aggression abroad 
and repression at home which has prevailed for some 
time ". All improvements at home were starved for 
want of the funds wasted in foolish aggression. Jf 
the wars were made for Imperial purposes then let 
Britain pay the cost, and leave Indian money to be 
spent on Indian needs. Mr. Charu Chandra Ghose 
seconded, quoting English opinion, civil and military, 
against the forward policy, and asking the Government 
to return to the policy of Lord Lawrence and Lord 
Ripon, and find a scientific frontier in the hearts of a 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 277 

loyal and contented people. The Evolution was 
carried. 

Mr. W. A. Chambers, in moving Resolution VIII, 
against the establishment of Secret Press Committees, 
said that, as an Englishman, he could not understand 
such an institution f being established in any country 
administered by his countrymen. He gave as an 
example an article published in the Bombay Pre- 
sidency, which had drawn down on the Editor a 
letter from his Magistrate ; the article and letter 
were sent to Sir William Wedderburn, and came 
into his own hands. He took them to the Editor 
of a large London paper, who characterised the 
article as innocent, arid the letter as " monstrous ". 
He said to the Editor : " This is the sort of 
thing that is taking place, not in Russia, not in 
Germany, but in a country for whose Government 
you and I are responsible." In his own paper, he 
had always been reacly to correct any mistake he had 
unwittingly made, and all Indian Editors would do 
the same if treated with courtesy and candour. Mr. 
N. 0. Kelkar seconded, and asked for the indignant 
vote of the Congress against " the hateful institution 
of the Press Committees, which are only a thinly 
veiled Press censorship, and as such a distinct dis- 
grace to British Rule in India ". They were part of 
the re-actionary policy adopted by the Government, 
the natural sequel of the amendments to the criminal 
law. The Resolution was^ carried. 

Resolution IX continued the' protest against re- 
action, this time with regard to Local Self-Government, 



278 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEBOM 

by the introduction of the Calcutta Municipal Bill 
and the Bombay City Improvement Trust. Mr. G. S. 
Khaparde moved it, remarking that Lord Ripon 
inaugurated a policy of Local Self-Government, 
but the executive officers spoi^d it in carrying 
it out. To Calcutta they gave a " Master-Servant/' 
in the shape of an appointed Chairman who 
controlled everything, and to Bombay a " Ser- 
vant-Master," a Municipal Commissioner who acted 
as a pai'd Secretary but did not take his orders from 
his empbyersj thus, he declined on one occasion 
to produce the records of the Municipality for the 
inspection of the Municipality ! Mr. Khaparde made 
a thorough and witty exposure of the devices of the 
officials to make Self-Government a sham. Mr. J. 
Choudhuri seconded, remarking that the fault of the 
Calcutta Corporation was that they did too much and 
wore out their official chairman. The Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor complained " that they were over-zealous, they did 
their duties with a great amount of self-sacrifice and 
zeal, and that the Commissioner could not keep pace 
with them". Mr. B. S. Sahasrabuddhe supported, 
and noted that in Poona the number of nominated 
members had been increased, and the candidates 
rejected by the people had been nominated by the 
6-overnment. The Resolution was carried. 

Resolution IX, in favour of the separation of Exe- 
cutive and Judicial functions, was put from the Chair 
and carried. 

Resolution X, for the reorganisation of the Civil 
and Military Medical Service, so closely associated 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 279 

with the name of Dr. Bahadurji, was moved by 
Dr. Nilratan Sirkar, seconded by Dr. T. M. Nair, and 
carried, with a rider expressing grief at the loss 
sustained by the Congress and the country in the 
untimely death of Dr. K. N. Bahadurji. 

Mr. Gc. Parameshvaram Pillai moved Resolution 
XII, protesting against the disabilities inflicted on 
Indians in South Africa, showing how they were 
becoming greater as time went on. In 1894, they 
were deprived of the franchise in Natal, the disabili- 
ties -of Indians in their own country being carried 
over to Natal. In 1897, the law compelled them 
" to choose between perpetual bondage and an odious 
poll-tax". Mr. Gandhi had begun his agitation 
none knew then how far it would go and three 
additional disabling Acts had been passed, in which 
Indians were not named, the Colonists being ashamed 
openly to take so unfair a course, but the Prime 
Minister of Natal, Mr. Harry Escombe, was not 
ashamed to say that " no Government dreamt of 
applying the law to Europeans. . . . The object, 
however, was to deal with Asiatics. Some people 
said they liked an honest straightforward course. 
When a ship was heading against a wind she 
had to tack, and by-and-bye she reached her 
goal. When a man met difficulties he fought against 
them, and, if he could not knock them over, he went 
round them, instead of breaking his head against a 
brick wall.*' The Transvaal Republic was restricting 
them to "locations," and these were assigned to 
them outside the towns, where refuse was shot,, and 



280 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

they had "to reside in these places amongst 
dung-heaps". In some Colonies they might not 
walk on footpaths, nor travel in 1st or 2nd class 
railway carriages, nor possess native gold, nor 
be out after 9 p. m., nor travel without passes. The 
Viceroy, Lord Elgin, consented to the cruel Natal 
law, which 11 years before, had been declared 
to be *'a gribvous wrong," to which the Govern* 
ment of India would never consent. The 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Joseph 
Chamberlain, had promised help, but had never given 
it. The Secretary of State for India, Lord George 
Hamilton had "characterised us as a nation of 
savages," so no help could be looked for from him. 

I think it is a standing disgrace .... a shame and a 
scandal that we, Her Majesty's beloved subjects, who are 
competent enough to compete with her English subjects 
in Great ^Britain and enter the House of Commons, should 
be treated as an inferior order of beings, fit only to be 
hewers of wood and drawers of water to the domineering 
white population in tho Colonies. 

The Resolution was seconded by Mr. R. D. 
Nagarhar, supported by Mr. Ramesan and carried. 
The Congress then adjourned. 

The third day, December 31st, began with the 
reading of a telegram of thanks from Lord Curzon to 
the Congress " for their cordial message of welcome ". 
It is pathetic to read of Lord Curzon expressing the 
hope that, when he left India, some one present at his 
arrival might be able " to testify that during my 
I have doae something, if it evtn be but little, 
this land which, aext to my own country, is 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 281 

nearest to my heart ". Who then imagined that in 
1905, Mr, G-okhale, as President of the Congress, 
would declare that Lord Curzon's rule had been 
the worst India had suffered under since that of 
Aurungzeb ? 

After the reading of other telegrams, Resolution X 
was moved by Mr. D. E. Wacha, on what may be called 
his own subject, the Indian Currency question. He 
said that few realised how much each person was 
affected by alterations in the currency, for the 
subject was highly technical and difficult of apprehen- 
sion. The Amended Coinage Act of 1893, closing 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, passed in half 
an hour by the Simla Legislature, without any re- 
presentative of India being summoned, was ibhe 
starting point of a wrong course. It was the Home 
(Foreign) Charges that were the disease, not the 
currency. Then came attempts to fix exchange value 
and to prop it up by the Gold Bill. Frontier policy, 
famine and plague exhausted the cash balances. 
Mr. Wacha analysed the financial conditions, and 
showed that unwise policy, not currency, was the root 
of Indian distress. Mr. G. Subramania Iyer seconded, 
pointing out that Government looked only to ex- 
change, Anglo-Indian merchants only to trade ; none 
considered the people. Taxes were levied in silver, and 
the ryot would have to sell 60 per cent more of his 
produce to gain the inflated value of the rupee. He 
did not regard the great flow of English capital into 
the country as an advantage, for it increased the 
" drain " j Indian capital should be invested here, 



282 HOW INDIA WBOTTGHT FOR PEEBDOM 

and then the gain would be real. The Eesolution 
was carried. 

Resolution XIV, on the composition of the Executive 
Councils of Bombay and Madras, was again brought 
up ; Mr. Y. Krishnaswami Iyer proposed, Professor 
Paranjpe seconded it, and it was carried. 

In Resolution XV the demand for the repeal of the 
three objectionable Eegulations of 1818, '19 and '27 
was once more urged they still flourish ! this time 
by Mr. P. R. Sundara Iyer. There was nothing new 
to be said about it by him, or by Mr. John Adam 
the seconder, or by.Rai Nalinaksha Basu Bahadur, the 
supporter, and it was once more passed. Then the 
President put Resolutions XVI and XVII, on Simulta- 
neous Examinations and the Press. Gagging Act 
respectively, and they were carried. Mr. R/. N. 
Mudholkar proposed Resolution XVIII, in favour of 
Technical Education, 4 it was seconded by Mr. M. 
Baikunthanath Sen, supported by four other speakers 
and carried. 

The Hon. Mr. ' Ratnasabhapati Pillai moved 
Resolution XIX, on the Constitution and working of 
the Congress, asking the Standing Committee to form 
Provincial CoHnmittees, and appointing a Committee 
to consider the draft Constitution circulated by 
the Reception Committee of Madras, and submit a 
definite scheme to the next Congress, to be the first 
subject of discussion. The Hon. Mr. Surendranath 
Bannerji seconded, Mr, Ashvini Kuinara Ihitfc and 
Mr. M. V. Joshi supported, and the Resolution was 
carried. 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 283 

Resolution XX, the Omnibus, had passengers (a) to 
(g) despite those put from the Chair ; it was moved by 
Mr. Grubb, seconded by Mr. John Adam, supported by 
Messrs. Habibulla Sahab, and A. 0. Parthasaradhi 
Naidu, ap,d carried, Eesolution XXI, thanking the 
G-overument for granting a Legislative Council for the 
Panjab and regretting that its powers were smaller 
than those of other Provinces, and Resolution XXII, 
on Legislation for Berar, were put from the Chair. 

Then Mr. V. C. Desikachariar moved Resolution 
XXIII, asking that plague expenditure should come 
out of Government and not out of local funds ; it was 
seconded by Mr. G. B. Phansalkar, and carried. 
Resolution XXIY, renewing the expression of con- 
fidence in Mr. Dadabhai -Naoroji, was moved, seconded 
and carried. The President put from the Chair 
Resolution XXV, the annual vote of thanks to Sir 
William Wedderburn and the British Committee, and 
the funds for the latter, and also Resolution XXVI, 
reappointing Messrs. A. 0. Hume and D. E. Wacha 
as General and Joint General Secretaries. Resolution 
XXVII accepted the invitation of Lucknow for the 
next Session of the Congress, and Resolution XXVIII 
moved by Mr. Bhupendranath Basu, thanked the 
Reception Committee and the Volunteers. 

The last Resolution, No. XXIX, conveying a vote 
of thanks to the President, was moved by Mr. G. 
Subramania .Iyer and unanimously passed. The 
President acknowledged it, in an eloquent and 
touching speech, and the Fourteenth National 
Congress was dissolved, . . 



284 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

RESOLUTIONS 
The Grief of Congress 

Eioart Gladstone 



I. Rosolved That this Congress records its profound regret 
at the irreparable loss that the British Empire and the civilised 
world at large have sustained by the death of Mr. W. E. Gladstone, 
the greatest statesman of modern times, and a warm and genuine 
friend of humanity, and desires to express its sense of gratitude for 
the sympathy which he uniformly evinced towards the efforts of the 
Indian people in securing a more liberal and progressive Govern- 
ment in India ; and that a copy of the foregoing resolution be for- 
warded to his son, Mr. Herbert Gladstone, 

Maharaja of Darbhaviga 

II. Resolved That this Congress deeply mourns the great 
loss the country has suffered by the sad and untimely death of the 
late Maharaja of Darbhanga, Sir Lakshmessur Singh Bahadur, 
G.C.I E. The Congress places on record its high appreciation Qf 
Ms ready and enlightened public spirit and his liberal and catholic 
benefactions, and desires to give expression to its feeling of grati- 
tude for the generous and unfailing support which the Congress 
movement received at his hands ; and that a copy of the foregoing 
resolution be forwarded to Maharaja Rameshwar Singh, the 
brother of the deceased Maharaja. 

Dayal Singh 

111 Resolved That this Congress expresses its profound grief 
foi the great loss which the people of the country m general and 
those of the Panjub in particular have sustained by the death of the 
late Sardar Dayal Singh of Lahore, and places on record its high 
appreciation of the public spirit and the liberal support he gave in 
furtherance ot tho progiosmve movements which tended to ame- 
liorate the condition of the Natives of India. 

[See also (c) of Res. XL] 

Coercion 

Criminal Procedure 

IV. Resolved That this Congress regrets, that, in despite of its 
protest at its last sitting and the protest of many public bodies and 
eminent men, English and Indian, the amendments proposed in the 
Indian Penal Code, and the Criminal Procedure Code, which are 
calculated to unduly enlarge the powers of the Police and of the 
Maiyibtraey, to fetter the freedom of the Press and to restrict liberty 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 285 

of speech, have been carried through the Imperial Legislative 
Council, and urges their repeal. 

Press 

VIII, Resolved That this Congress is strongly of opinion that 
the establishment of Secret Press Committees in certain parts of 
India is highly objectionable and inconsistent with the spirit of 
British administration. 

XVII. Resolved That the Government of India Notification 
of 25th June, 1891, in the Foreign Department, gagging the Press 
in territories under British administration in Native States, is 
retrograde, arbitrary and mischievous in its nature, and opposed to 
sound ntatesmajiship and to the liberty of the poeple, and ought to 
be cancelled without delay. 

Lettres de Cctchet 

XV. Eesolved That this Congress respectfully urges upon 
the Government the necessity of repealing Bengal Regulation III 
of 1818, Madras Regulation II of 1819, and Bombay Regulation 
XXV of 1827, inasmuch as the principle and provisions thereof 
are contrary to the traditions and sense of justice of the Govern- 
ment of Her Most Gracious Majesty, and indeed of all civilised 
Governments, and inasmuch as they ore a standing menace to the 
liberty of the subject. 

Lord Curzon 

V. Resolved That this Congress accords a respectful 
welcome to Lord Curzon, notes with gratitude His Lordship's words 
of sympathy for the people of India, and trusts the policy of 
progress and confidence in the people which haw characterised the 
best traditions of Britinh rule in this country will be followed 
during his Lordship's tenure of office in India, and authorises the 
President to wire the foregoing resolution to His Lordship at 
Bombay. 

Permanent Settlement 

VL Resolved That this Congress regrets extremely that the 
Government of India have failed not only to carry out the pledges 
(given by the Secretary of State in his despatches of 1862 and 1865) 
for Permanent Settlement in the Provinces in which it does not exist, 
but also to give effect to the policy of granting the modified fixity 
of tenure and immunity from enhancement laid down in 1882 and 
1884 by the Government of India, and this Congress hereby 
entreats the Government to grant a modified fixity of tenure and 
immunity from enhancement of land-tax for a sufficiently long 
period of not less than sixty years, o as to secure to land-holders 
the full benefit of their own improvements. 



2S6 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Military 

VII. Resolved That this Congress expresses its deep and 
earnest conviction that the Frontier policy pursued for some years 
past by the Government of India is injurious to its best interests, 
inasmuch as it involves this country in frequent military expedi- 
tions beyond its natural limits and the practical starvation of the 
civil administration ; and that, as long as the policy is not radically 
reversed, and a return made to the older and the only safe policy 
of keeping within the statutory limits of the country, all 
declarations, no matter however confidently made, about the cessa- 
tion of frontier troubles and the friendly attitude of frontier tribes, 
are entitled to little weight, as evidenced by the occurrences of the 
last few weeks in the Swat Valley which necessitated the holding 
in readiness of a considerable body of troops imposing- fresh burdens 
on the Exchequer; and that of all the expenditure which these 
military expeditions may involve, an adequate, share should be 
borne by the British Exchequer. 

Local Self-Government 

IX. Resolved That this Congress expresses its deep sense of 
disapproval of the reactionary policy of Government with regard 
to Local Self-Government recently inaugurated by the introduction 
of the Calcutta Municipal Bill into the Bengal Legislative Council, 
the creation of the Bombay City Improvement Trust without 
adequate popular representation, and its action in other directions. 

Le^al 

X. Resolved That this Congress notices with satisfaction the 
support of public 'opinion both in England and in India, which the 
question of the separation of Judicial from Executive functions in 
the administration of justice has received ; and thi Congress once 
again 'appeals to the Government of India and the Secretary of 
State to take practical steps for speedily carrying out this much- 
needed reform, 

Public Service 

XI. Resolved (a) That this Congress is of opinion that the 
present constitution of the Higher Civil Medical Service is anomalous, 
indefensible in principle, injurious in ita working, and unnecessarily 
costly 5 that the time has arrived when, in the interests of the pub- 
lic, medical, education and the advancement of the medical service 
and scientific work in the country, as also in the cause of economic 
administration, the Civil Medical Service of India should be 
reconstructed on the basis of such Service in other civilised 
countries, wholly detached from and independent of, the Military 
Service. 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGRESS 287 

(&) That whilst this Congress view* with satisfaction the 
action of the Imperial Government in throwing open 19 Civil Sur- 
geoncies to be filled up by promotion from the ranks of Civil Assist- 
ant Surgeons, it deplores nevertheless the unsatisfactory position 
and prospects of members of the Subordinate Civil Medical Service 
(Civil Assistant Surgeons and Civil Hospital Assistants) compared 
with the members of similar standing in other departments of the 
Public Service, and prays that Government will grant an open 
inquiry into the present constitution of the Subordinate Civil 
Medical department by a mixed commission of official and non- 
official members. 

(c) That in this connection the Congress desires to place on 
record its sense of loss the Congress and the country have sustained 
by the untimely death of the late Dr. K. N. Bahadurji, of Bombay, 
the last years of whose life were devoted to the promotion of the 
reform of the Medical Services in this country. 

XIV. Resolved That, having regard to the wisdom of the policy 
of appointing to the Governorships of Madras and Bombay statesmen 
from England to the exclusion of the Services in India, this Congress 
is of opinion that it is desirable that the Executive Governments of 
those Provinces should be administered by Governors with Councils 
of three and not of two members, as at present, and that one of the 
three Councillors should be a Native of India. 

XVI. Resolved That this Congress again records its deep 
regret that the labours of the Public Service Commission have 
practically proved void of any good result to the people of this 
country, and urges the desirability of holding the competitive 
examinations for the Indian Civil Services, viz., Civil, Medical, 
Police, Engineering, Telegraph, Forest and Accounts, both in India 
and in England, in accordance with the Resolution of the House of 
Commons of the 2nd June, 1893. This Congress further points out 
that in regard to the employment of Indians in the higher ranks of 
the Postal, Salt, and Abkari and Forest Services, the recommend- 
ations of the Public Service Commission have not been adequately 
carried out, and prays that in all ranks of the said Services more 
educated Indians should be employed. 

South Africa 

XII. Resolved That this Congress deplores the invidious and 
humiliating distinctions made between Indian and European Sett- 
lers in South Africa, a prominent instance of which is afforded by 
the recent decision of the Transvaal High Court restricting Indians 
to " locations," and appeals to Her Majesty's Government and the 
Government of India to guard the interests, of Indian settlers, and 
to relieve them of the disabilities imposed .on them. 



288 HOW INDIA WROUGHT I-OE FREEDOM 



XIII. Resolved (a) That, having regard to the fact that 
the principal cause of the loss by exchange is the steady growth in 
the demands on India for expenditure in England, this Congress is 
of opinion that any artificial device for meeting that loss either by 
changing the currency at a heavy cost or contracting the internal 
currency must add to the pressure of India's monetary resources 
and to her trading disadvantage. 

(,b) That the only real relief lies in carrying out practically 
the principle, affirmed by competent authorities, of England bearing 
an equitable share of that expenditure. 

(c) That the Congress regrets that, save Mr. Romesh 
Chandra Butt and Mr. Merwanji Rastamji, competent and qualified 
Indian representatives have not yet been invited as "witnesses to 
represent the Indian view of matters on the subject which now 
engages the attention of the Currency Committee of which Sir 
Henry Fowler is the President. 

(d) That the President be authorised to request Sir William 
Wedderburn, Chairman of the British Congress Committee, to com- 
municate this Resolution to Sir Henry Fowler, Chairman of the 
Currency Committee in London. 

Education 

XVIII. Resolved That this Congress places on record its deep 
conviction that the system of inchmeal education now in vogue is in- 
adequate and xansatisfactory, and prays that, having regard to t he 
poverty of the people and the decline of indigenous industries, the 
Government will introduce a more elaborate and efficient sclirim> of 
technical instruction, and set apart more funds for a bettor and 
more successful working of the same. 

Congress Work 

XIX Resolved (</) That all the Standing Congress Commit- 
tees be requested to form Central Committees in their respective 
Provinces, for the appointment of agenta and adoption of other 
measures, for furthering tho objects of the Congress, such Central 
Committees submitting annually at the meeting of the Congress a 
report of the work carried out in their Provinces during the year. 

(6) That the Standing Congress Committees at Madras, 
Bombay, Nagpur, Amraoti, Calcutta, Allahabad and Lahore be 
requested to take measures to give early effect to this Resolution. 

(c) And further that a Committee consisting of the 
following gentlemen, exclusive of the President and ex-Presidents 
now in India, who shall be ejt officio members, be appointed to 



THE FOURTEENTH CONGHHBSS 289 

consider the draft constitution circulated by the Reception 
Committee of Madras and submit a definite scheme to the next 
Congress, and that this do form the first subject of discussion at 
ihe next meeting of the Congress : 

(1) Mr. Aswini Kumara Dutt, Bengal. 

(2) Mr. D. E. Waoha, Bombay. 
() Mr. Jaishi Bam, Panjab. 

(4) Mr. Ganga Frasad Varma, Ondh. 

f 5) Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, North- West Provinces. 

(6) Mr. Baghunath Pandurang Karandikar of Satara. 

(7) Mr. Bapu Bao Dada, Central Provinces. 
(fi) Mr. G. Subramania Iyer, Madras. 

(9) Mr. B. N. Mudholkar, Berar, to act as Secretary to the' 
Committee. 

Confirmation of Previous ResqlutioB* 

XX. Resolved (I) That this Congress concurs with previous 

Congresses in strongly advocating [1897 (a) (0)]. 

That this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses 
records its protes,t . [1897 () (b) (d)]. 



And that this Congress, concurring, etc. [1897 (6) (e) (d) (e) as 
(a) (6) (c) (d) and (e)] That this Congress is of opinion that it is 
desirable in the interests of the people of this country that the 
Criminal Procedure Code should be so amended as to confer upon 
the accused persons, who are Natives of India, the right of claiming, 
in trials by Jury, before the High Court and in trials with the aid 
of assessors, that not less than half the number of the Jury, before 
the High Court, and in trials with the aid of assessors, that not less 
than half the number of the Jury or of the assessors shall be Natives 
of India. 

(/) That the action of the Forest Department, under the rules 
framed by the Different Provincial Governments, prejudicially 
affects the inhabitants of the rural parts of the country by subject- 
ing them to the annoyance and oppression of Forest subordinates in 
various ways, which have led to much discontent throughout the 
country : that though th<* objects of forest conservancy, as announced 
in the Resolution of 1 894, are declared to be, not to secure the largest 
revenue, but to conserve the forests in the interest chiefly of the 
agricultural classes and of their cattle, ihe existing set of rules 
subordinates the latter consideration to the former, and an amend* 
tnent of the rales with a view to correct this mischief is, in Sie 
opinion of the Congress, urgently called for. 

(0) That the minimum income assessable under the Income** 
Tax Act, be raised from five hundred to one thousand. 

23 



$90 HOW INDIA. WKOffGttT *OB TBEEDOM 

Igilftthr Council (Panjab) 

XXX. Resolved That this Congress, while thanking the 
Government (as in Resolution XV, 1897.) 

Berar Legislation 

XXII. ResolvedThat the Province of Berar, though not a 
part of British India, (as in Resolution XYl f 1897.) 

Plague Expenditure 

XXHL Resolved That ike adoption of measures against the 
plagUB being a matter of imperial concern and recognised as such, 
this Congress is of opinion that * the expenditure incurred in 
connection thereof should be borne by the Government and not 
charged to the funds of the local bodies. 

Parliamentary Representation 

XXIV. Resolved That this Congress again expresses its 
full and unabated confidence in Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji as the 
representative of the people of India, and hopes that he will be re- 
elected by his old Constituency of Central Finsbury or any other 
Liberal Constituency 

Thanks of Congress and Congress Work 

XXV. Resolved -That this Congress desires to convey to Sir 
William. Wedderbnrn and the other members of the British 
Committee its most grateful thanks for their disinterested services 
in the cause of Indian political advancement. 

And that a sum of Rs. 60,000 be assigned for the expenses of 
che British Committee and the cost of the Congress publication 
India, and also for the expenses of the Joint General Secretary's 
Office, and that the several circles do contribute, as arranged, either 
now or hereafter in Committee, for the year 1899. 

Formal 

XXVI. Resolved That this Congress re-app6iats Mr. A. O. 
Hume, 0. $., to be General Secretary, and Mr. D. E. Waoha to be 

, Joint General Secretary for the ensuing year, 

XXVIL Resolved That the Fifteenth Indian National Con- 
gress do assemble, at Lucknow, on such day after Christmas Day 
in 1899. as mar be later determined upon. 



CHAPTER XV 

IN the ebb and flow of Anglo-Indian feeling against 
the National Congress, efforts to embarrass it were at 
first made in Lucknow, but these were put an end to 
by the wise and liberal action of the Lieutenant- 
Governor, Sir Antony MacDonnell, who in this matter 
showed a liberality which he has since, unhappily, 
left behind. A very good feature was the presence 
of no less than 300 Muhammadan delegates from 
Lticknow alone. The Pandal, erected in the Shahmina 
ground, accommodated some 4,000 persons, and was 
fully crowded when the Congress met. The President 
elect, Mr. Romesh Chandra Dutt, had a splendid 
reception on his arrival on the evening before the 
date fixed for the Congress, and on the 27th of 
December, 1899, 740 delegates assembled in the 
Pandal. They were distributed as follows : 

N. W. P. and Oudh 603 

Bengal and Assam ... .. ... ... 57 

Panjab ./ 26 

Bombay and Sindh .. , .,36 

Berar, C. P. and Secunderabad 6 

Madras ... ... ... ... ... 12 

"740 



292 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE PREEDOM 

The Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
Mr. Bansi Lai Singh, welcomed the delegates, and 
then handed his written speech to Pandit Bishan 
Narayan Dhar to read, being himself in feeble health. 
After thanking the Lieutenant-Governor for his 
help, he deprecated the attitude of the officials towards 
educated Indians, and the re-actionary policy of the 
Government. u Tou are foreigners in the country," 
he said to the hostile officials. " Tou do not and, 
from your exclusive way,, cannot know the mind of 
the people, and the people do not know your~mind." 

But you have, by your -educational policy, which has 
immortalised the names of Bentinck andMacaulay, created 
a considerable class of men, filled with your ideas and 
aspirations, conversant with your manners and customs, 
attached to your rale by every tie of duty and interest, 
who are desirous of acting as interpreters between you 
and the people placed under your care, f and, in order to 
carry out this object, adopt those methods of constitu- 
tional agitation which you yourselves have taught them. 

After touching on the question of Congress 
organisation, the Chairman called on the assembly 
to elect their President. 

The Hon. Pandit Bishambarnath proposed, Nawab 
Bagar Ali Khan seconded, Mr. Wacha and others 
supported the election of Mr, Bomesh Chandra Butt, 
C.I.E., as President, and he took the Chair amid 
great acclamations. 

The President began by delivering a message from 

Mr. A. M. Bose, the last President, and reading a 

from Mr. W. S. Caine, in which he said of the 

n people : " My belief in their future as a great 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGBESS 293 

Self-Governing portion of the British Empire, and my 
conviction of their natural capacity for Self-Govern- 
ment deepens and strengthens every year." After 
referring to the passing away of Dr. Eomesh Chandra 
Mitra, he touched on " the creed of the Congress," 
and then noted that he was in London at the Queen's 
Jubilee and saw the procession of the representatives 
of the British Empire, including India, and he heard 
it remarked that, while every Self-Governing Colony 
was prosperous and happy, India was suffering from 
famine, and " doubts Were expressed if British Eule 
in India had been altogether a blessing for the poor 
cultivators and labourers of India ". He then con- 
demned the Sedition Law of 1898, and urged that 
there was no better way of creating sedition than by 
suppressing free discussion, newspapers and meetings. 
Educated India, while loyal to the British rule, 
sought " a large measure of Self -Government " and a 
*' position among the modern Nations of the earth ". 
He grieved over the withdrawal of Self-Government 
from Calcutta by the Municipality Act, passed in the 
first year of Lord Curzon's administration ; lie believed 
the Viceroy had good intentions, but he did not 
know the Indian side of the question. Turning to 
the famine then prevailing, lie urged that the cause of 
famine was not increase of population Germany and 
England increased faster nor was it the fault of the 
peasant, the most frugal and provident cultivator on 
the face of the earth ; if he borrowed at high interest, 
it was because he had nothing to eat ; the cause of 
famine was the heavy assessment, and the destruction 



294 HOW INDIA WROUGHT J*OR PEESDOM 

of village industries by free competition with English 
machinery. One-sixth of th gross produce of the 
land was its proper rent, shown by the experience of 
thousands of years. Famines would cease were this 
the assessment. The President passed rapidly over 
other causes of poverty, the Military and Civil Services, 
etc, the Indians being virtually foreigners in their 
own country, so far as control over its administration 
was concerned, and then he dealt with administration 
problems. The country which had organised village 
Self-Government and carried it on for 3,000 years 
was now virtually ruled through the police, " the 
hated link " between the District officers, and the 
people* He pointed out the deficiencies in Munici- 
palities,, District Boards, Provincial Legislative and 
Executive Councils, and finally urged that no country 
could be well governed if the hands of its people were 
fcied up. To prevent distress and disasters it was 
necessary to concede Self-Government, for that only 
could consolid te British Rule in India. 

The President closed his speech by announcing the 
release of the Natu brothers, and called for the 
names of the members of the Subjects Committee. 
The list was handed in and confirmed, and the 
Congress rose for the day. 

The second day's business began with the presenta- 
tion by Mr. Mudholkar of the Report of the Com- 
mittee appointed by the previous Congress to con- 
sider the .draft constitution and to submit a definite 
scheme. Mr. Mudholkar said that the only new 
thing was the creation of a Central Body to control 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS ,295, 

and carry on Congress work during the year. The 
discussion on the Report was adjourned to the next 
day, to give the delegates time for consideration. 

Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar then moved Re- 
solution I f the separation of Executive and Judicial 
Functions, a subject worn threadbare, but, necessari- 
ly, brought up for the fifteenth time. Mr. Agashe 
seconded, Mr. 8. Sinha, Munshi Nasir-ud-din Ahmed, 
Pandit Sham Narayana,. Mr. A. C. Parthaaarathi 
Naidu, ancl Mr. Abdul Rahim all supported it. Wood- 
less to add that the Resolution was carried. 

Rai Sahab Lala Murlidhar introduced Resolution II, 
on the Panjab Land Alienation Bill, and urged 
that to forbid the proprietor to sell his land was to 
worsen his position, as he would not be able to lk>r- 
row in order to cultivate it. Lala Kannaihia said 
that the land had always belonged to the people ; the 
King had a right to a share in the produce but not 
to the land, and the revenue was a tax, not a rent.' 
Mr. Phansalhar supported the Act reduced the 
value of land to its proprietor as did Nawab 
Hashmat Husaiii, and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution III, asking 'that Britain would contri- 
bute to the cost of maintaining the large British 
forces in India, was moved by Miss Garland, a 
delegate sent by the British Committee. -She urged, 
that the forces in India were unnecessarily large, so- 
far as India was concerned, and that if so many 
troops were kept here because India was a convenient- 
military base for Imperial purposes, then England 
should bear part of the <X)st, and the money saved in 



296 HOW JNBIA WBOUGH1? FOB FREEDOM 

India could be used for Indian reforms. She then 
spoke on Behalf of the British Committee on the 
general situation. 

The HOD, Mr. Baikunthanath Sen seconded, point- 
ing out that as 10,000 men had been removed from 
India for foreign service, it was evident that they 
had more men than were needed. Messrs. Patvardhan, 
and Hari Ram Panday, and Pandit Gyaueshvara 
Shastri supported, and the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. D. B. Wacha moved Resolution IV, against 
the introduction of a gold standard into India. He 
said that the question of currency reform had been 
discussed thrice before in the Congress. Lord 
Curzon thought that gold would flow into India from 
all gold-producing countries, so that every ryot in the 
country would become prosperous, and the fifty 
millions who go without one full meal a day would 
be happy. The root of India's poverty was the 
yearly drain of from 30 to 40 millions which should 
remain and fructify in the country. If more foreign 
exploiters flowed in, the profits would go abroad. 
Only indigenous wealth was fruitful. The silver 
yalue of the rupee had been depreciated while its 
nominal value was enhanced. Silver had sold at a 
rupee per tola, but now only at 10 or 11 annas, so 
silver trinkets, in which the more prosperous stored 
their savings, had diminished in saleable value. 

Mr. Ramaswanii seconded, Mr. Sitaram Seth sup- 
ported,, and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution Y, on the separation of the Military 
and Civil Medical Services, was briefly moved by 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS 297 

Dr. Nilratan Sarkar, seconded by Dr. T. M. Nair 
and carried, whereupon the Congress adjourned. 

On the opening of the third day, the President 
announced that the consideration of the Constitution 
would be taken up on the morrow, and he called on 
Mr. S. V. Bhate to move Resolution VI, which 
declared that the principle embodied in the Foreign 
Telegraphic Press Messages Bill was opposed to the 
policy followed by the British Government as to the 
unrestricted dissemination of useful knowledge and 
information. Mr. Bhate said that the measure had 
been proposed ten years before, but was pigeon-holed, 
and its emergence now was due to the change m the 
feeling of Government towards Indians. It was 
intended to prevent news cabled to this country being 
printed by the vernacular Press. Haji Riaz-ud-din 
Ahmad said that the Bill was brought in at the 
instance of a few Anglo-Indian newspapers, and 
prevented newspapers reprinting Renter's press cables 
for 24 hours after their publication in papers which 
subscribed for them. The Resolution was carried. 

Resolution VII, disapproving the re-actionary 
policy of the Calcutta Municipality Act, was appro- 
priately proposed by Mr. Surendranath Bannerji. He 
was obliged to say that the hope of the previous Con- 
gress, that Lord Curzon would reverse " the policy of 
repression and reaction which is now in the ascendant 
in the Councils of the Empire," had not been realised. 
The Viceroy had lately made a noble speech : 

We cannot bring ourselves- to believe that a ruler so 
sympathetic in his utterances, so generous, so large-hearted 



298 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FEEEDOM 

in his views, so keenly appreciative of the situation, will 
countenance a policy opposed to the best traditions of 
British rule, repugnant to all that is highest, noblest and 

truest in British statesmanship Read that speech, 

contrast that speech with the policy. The speech, how 
noble, how generous, ho.w sympathetic ; the policy, how 
narrow, how illiberal, how un-English. 

Mr. Baimerji then went on to speak words as true 
to-day as they were true then, words of wise warning . 

Sir, who are the men who are bitterly disloyal the 
men who say ditto to every measure of Government, who 
in season and out of season sing the praise of Govern- 
ment, who suffer and suffer in the silence of bitterness of 
unknown and unknowable sorrow, or those who, like 
myself, give expression, frank expression, to our grievan- 
ces, raise the danger signal, and call the attention of 
Government and press for remedy ? Sir, in these days 
I am perfectly sure the greatest bulwark of all the 
Governments, be they indigenous or be they foreign, 
is the contentment, the gratitude and the affection of 
the people. How is the affection of the people to be won 
except by the removal of grievances, and how are the 
people to remove their grievances except by the adoption 
of constitutional means or the adoption of revolutionary 
measures ? We are the friends of Reform because we are 
the enemies of Revolution. We have made our choice ; 
let our enemies make theirs. Do they wish to belong to 
our camp, or do they wish to belong to the camp of 
revolutionists ? There is no intermediary step between 
Reform and Revolution. For you must enlist yourselves 
under the banner of Reform, or you must take your place 
behind the standard of Revolt and Revolution. 

True loyalty to the Empirfe ow> as the,ir, consists 
in open speech on dangerous grievances, for Govern- 
ments, flattered into error by -^sycophants who 
secretly hate them the more Bitterly for their 
awn degradation in the flattery sleep until .the 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS 299 

accumulation of hatred rises in furious anger and 
awakes them, too late. In frank and open speech no 
danger lurks. Surendranath Babu analysed the Act, 
and showed how the civic rights of Calcutta had been 
destroyed. The gulf between rulers and ruled was 
widening. 

There is reaction in their policy, reaction in opinion, 
reaction along the entire line, reaction is the order of the 

day They would fain undo the past. They would 

fain roll back the tide of progress which has set in with 
such irresistible force. Shall we let them, shall we per- 
mit them, to prove false to the noblest traditions of their 
own race V 

Mr. Nazir-ud-din Kamiir-ud-dm seconded the Re- 
solution, and it was carried. 

Resolution VIII protested against the prohibition"* 
imposed on managers and teachers in aided Institu- 
tions, forbidding them from taking part in political 
movements or attending political meetings without the 
consent of the Director of Public Instruction. It was 
moved by Mr. Kalicharan Bannerji, seconded by 
Dr, T. M. Nair, supported by three other speakers, 
and carried. 

Mr. Gr. C. Mitra moved Resolution JX, on the well- 
worn subject of Local Option. 'Mr. A. C. Partha- 
sarathi Naidu seconded, and it was supported by Miss 
Garland. Pandit Ratannath, and Mr. Ram Prasad, and 
carried, closing the work of the third day. 

On the fourth day, the President put from the 
Chair the Rules of the Congress 
follows, forming Resolution X : 

t 



300 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

( 1 ) The object of the Indian National Congress shall be to 
promote by constitutional means the interests and the well-being 
of the people of the Indian Empire 

(2) It shall ordinarily meet once a year at such time and in 
such place as shall have been resolved on by the last preceding 
Congress. Provided that the Indian Congress Committee, as here- 
inafter provided for, may, in case of necessity, change the place or 
time of the Congress, provided also that in case of emergency the 
Indian Congress Committee may convene an extraordinary session 
of the Congress at such time and place as may be determined 
by them. 

(3) It shall consist of delegates elected by political associa- 
tions or other bodies, and by public meetings. 

(4) Its affairs shall be managed by a Committee, styled the 
Indian Congress Committee, consisting of 45 members elected by 
the Congress, 40 of whom shall be elected upon the recommenda- 
tions of the different Provincial Congress Committees, and, in the 
absence of such Committees, by the delegates of the respective 
Provinces in Congress assembled, in the manner hereinbelow hud 
down, that is to sa\ 

For Bengal including Assam .. H 

For Bombay including Smd ... 8 

For Madras including Secundcrabad . . 8 

For N. Western Provinces including Oudh ... 6 

For Punjab ... ... 4 

For Uerar . ..... 3 

For Central Provinces ... 3 

The term of office of the members of the Committee shall be 
the period intervening between two ordinary meetings of the 
Congress. 

(6) The Indian Congress Committee shall meet at least 
three times a year, once immediately after the Congress, once 
during the year between the months of June and October, as may be 
determined upon by the Committee, and once immediately before 
the Congress, at such place as the Committee may find convenient. 

(6) The Indian Congress Committee shall have an Honorary 
Secretary and a paid Assistant Secretary, with suitable office staff, 
for which a sum of Us. 5,000 shall be granted annually, one half of 
which shall be provided by the Eeception Committee of the place 
where the last Congress is held, and the other half by the .Reception 
Committee of the place where the next succeeding Congress is to 
be held.. 

The Secretary to the Indian National Congress shall be the 
Honorary Secretary of the Committee. 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS 301 

(7) Provincial Congress Committees shall be organised at 
the capitals of the different Presidencies and Provinces of India for 
the purpose of carrying on the work of political education, on lines 
of general appreciation of British rule and of constitutional 
action for the removal of its defects, throughout the year by 
organising Standing Congress Committees, holding Provincial 
Conferences, and by such other moans as they may deem proper, 
in consultation with the Indian Congress Committee, for 
furthering the objects of the Congress. They shall be respon- 
sible agents of the Indian Congress Committee for thoir respective 
Provinces, and shall submit annual reports of their work to 
thfit Committee. 

(S) The nomination of the President, the drafting of 
Resolutions and all other business in connection with the Congress, 
ahaU be done by the Indian Congress Committee. It shall also, 
subject to the approval of the Congress, frame rules for the 
election of delegates, the election of speakers, and the conduct of 
the proceedings of the Congress. 

(9) Rules and Bye-laws shall be framed by the Provincial 
Congress Committees for the election of members, the conduct of 
their own proceedings, and other matters appertaining to their 
business. All such rules and bye-laws shall be subject to the 
approval of the Indian Congress Committee. 

(10) A Committee, styled the British Congress Committee, 
shall be maintained in England, which shall represent there the 
interests of the Indian National Congress. The amount requisite 
for the expenses of the said Committee shall be determined and 
voted by the Congress, and the amount so voted shall be raised by 
the Indian Congress Committee in such manner as may be 
determined upon by that body from time to time. 

(11) The Indian Congress Committee shall take such steps 
as they may deem tit to raise a permanent fund for carrying on the 
work of the Indian National Congress ; and such fund shall be 
invested in the name of 7 trustees, one from each Province in 
India, to be appointed by the Congress. 

The 45 members of the Committee were then chosen. 

Resolution XI, thanking Sir William Wedderburn 
and the British Committee, and Resolution XII, 
asking, as often before, that the Executive Councils 
of Madras and Bombay should consist of three 
members instead of two, one of the three to be an 
Indian, were also put from the Chair and carried. 



302 HOW INDIA. WROUGHT FOB TBBBDOM 

Resolution XIII, moved by Mr. Mudholkar, urged, 
as remedies for famine, curtailment of expenditure, 
development of industries, and the lessening of land 
assessment. He gave the figures of Mr. Dadabhai 
Naoroji, and Sir W, Hunter on poverty ; he showed 
that the public debt 'had increased in 60 years from 
26 to nearly 270 crores of rupees. Pandit Madan 
Mohan Malaviya followed, pleading the cause of 
the peasant, and urging that " Government ought to 
foster native industries and native arts ". After Haji 
Shaik Hussain had spoken in Urdu,, Mr. Chintamani 
said that that they were firmly convinced that 
the costly, extravagant and unnatural system of 
administration was the root cause of the recur- 
ring famines. The poverty of the people was 
beyond challenge; less than half a million per- 
sons were assessed to income-tax in 1897, although 
every one was assessed who had an annual income of 
Es. 500 (33. 6s). Mr. 8. S. Dev supported, and the 
Resolution was carried. 

Munshi Muhammad Sujjad Hussain drove the 
Omnibus this year, and before it was seconded by 
Mr. Yatindranath Ohoudhuri, the President read a 
telegram of thanks to the Congress from the Natu 
brothers for the sympathy shown to them. Mr. S. K. 
Nair, Syed Ali U,sat, and Mr. Krishna Badev Varma 
supported, and the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. Eamachandra Pillai moved, and Mr. Mahesh- 
vara Prasad seconded our familiar friend of gagging 
the Press in Indian States as Resolution XV, and 
Resolution XYI pressed the necessity for Technical 



THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESS 303 

Education and thanked Mr. Tata for his splendid 
gift. 

Besolutions XVII, Panjab Legislative Council 
restrictions; XVIII, Berar Administration; XIX, 
plague expenditure ; XX, confidence m Mr. Dadabhai 
Kaoroji ; XXI, re-election of Mr. A. 0. Hume and 
Mr. D. B. Wacha as General and Joint General 
Secretaries, were all put from the Chair. 

Resolution XXII appointed an Agency in England 
to co-operate with the British Committee to dis- 
seminate information on Indian subjects, a work that 
has not yet been done effectively. It was carried, 
and Bs. 3,000 subscribed. 

Bai Sahab Lala Murlidhar then invited the Con- 
gress to meet in Lahore the following year. . Pandit 
Bishan Narayana Dhar moved the vote of thanks to 
the President, who responded in a few graceful 
words. 

With these, the Fifteenth National Congress dis- 
solved. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Legal 

I. Rfeaolved That this Congress notices with satisfaction the 
support of public opinion, both in England and in India, which the 
question of the separation of the Judicial from the Executive 
functions in the administration of justice has received ; and this 
Congress, while thanking Lord Hobhouse, Sir Richard Garth, Sir 
Richard/ Couch, Sir Charles Sergeant, Sir William Markby, Sir 
John Budd Phear, Sir John Scott, Sir Roland K, Wilson, 
Mr. Herbert J. Reynolds, and Sir William Wedderburn for presenting 
a petition to the Secretary of State in Council to effect the much- 
needed separation, earnestly Jbopes that the Government of India 
will give their earliest attention $o the petition which has been 
forwarded to them, and will takfe ^practical steps for cajrrjfng put 
this much-needed reform. 



304 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FBEEDOM 

Land Tenure 

II. Besolved (a) That 'this Congress regrets the introduc- 
tion into the Supreme Legislative Council of a Bill to amend the 
Law relating to agricultural land in the Pan jab, with a view to 
restrict alienation of land as proposed in the Bill by sale or 
mortgage, which is calculated (1 to decrease the credit of the 
agriculturists and landholders ; (2) to make them more resouroelegs 
on. account of their inability to meet the ever increasing State 
demands upon their land , and this Congress is of opinion that the 
provision to give retrospective effect to the Bill is inequitable and 
unfair. 

(b) That this Congress recommends that real relief be afford- 
ed to the cultivating classes in tile following way : that where the 
Government is the rent-receiver, the rule proposed in 1882, 
prohibiting any advancement except on the ground of rise in 
prices, be enforced, and that where private landlords are the rent- 
receivers, some provision to prohibit undue enhancement of rent be 
made. 

(c) This Congress further resolves that a Committee con- 
sisting of the President, Mr. Jaishi Earn, Mr. K. Gupta, Mr. Wacha, 
Munshi Madbo Lai, Mr. Mudholkar and Mr. Ikbal Shankar be 
appointed and empowered to submit a representation* to the 
Government, pointing out the unsuitable nature of many of the 
provisions of the Bill. 

Military 

III. Resolved That whereas it is considered safe and pru. 
dent to withdraw large bodies of British troops for service outside the 
statutory limits of India, this Congress is of opinion that the time 
has come when the Indian tax-payer should be granted some relief 
out ^ of the British Exchequer towards the cost of maintaining in 
India so large a force of European soldiers. This Congress sees no 
objection to the location of British troops in India as a reserve force 
for the whole of the British Empire, but is of opinion that the time 
has come for the transfer of the cost of 20,000 British troops from 
the Indian to the British Exchequer. 

Monetary 

. IT. Resolved (a) That having regard to the fact that the 
principal cause of loss by Exchange is the steady growth of the 
demand on the Indian Exchequer for expenditure in England, this 
Congress regrets the introduction of a gold standard in India on 
the recommendation of the Currency Committee for the purpose 'of 
prevenSng the loss by exchange, and is of opinion that the new 
measure is calculated to increase the gold obligations of India. 



THE FIFTEENTH COKGEK8S 80S 

(b) That this Congress is further of opinion that the 
decision accepted by the Government will in effect add to the 
indebtedness of the poorer classes in India, depreciate the value of 
their savings in the shape of silver ornaments, and virtually add to 
their rent and taxes. 

(c) That this Congress is further of opinion that fchft 
decision accepted by the Government is likely to be prejudicial to 
the indigenous manufactures of the country. 

Public Sanrloea 

V. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that the 
union of the Military and Civil Medical Services ia extravagant, 
inconvenient, and prejudicial to the interests of the Government afl 
well as of-Hhe people, and strongly urges the necessity of the 
separation of the two Services, by the creation of a distinct Civil 
Medical Department, recruited by open, simultaneous competition 
in England and India. 

XII. Resolved That having regard to the policy of appointing 
to the Governorships of Madras and Bombay statesmen from 
England to the exclusion of thj Services in India, this Congress is 
of opinion that it is desirable that those Provinces should lie 
administered with the help of Councils of three and not tiyo 
members as at present, and that one of the three councillors should* 
be a Native of India. 

Be-aotion 

VI. Resolved That it is the opinion of this Congress that the 
principle embodied in the Foreign Telegraphic Press Messages Bill, 
now pending before the Supreme Legislative Council, is opposed 
to the policy followed by the British Government in India as to the 
unrestricted dissemination of useful knowledge and information, 
and that no adequate necessity is shown to exist for the passing of 
the proposed measure in India. 

Til. Resolved That this Congress expresses its disapproval 
of the reactionary policy, subversive of local Self-Government, 
evidenced by the passing of the Calcutta Municipal Act, and by die 
introduction into the Legislative Council of Bombay of a similar 
measure, wh'ich will have the effect of seriously jeopardising the 
principles of Local Self -Government. 

VIII. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion thai the 
rules prohibiting managers and teachers of aided institutions from 
taking part in political movements or attending political meetings 
without the consent of the Director of Public Instruction, or othet 
authorities, are likely to interfere with the practical and effectual 
exercise of the rights of British subjects, to withdraw able and 
influential men from the cause of education, and to restrict private 
24 



306 HOW 'INDIA WKOUGHT FOB 



nterprise sto4 organisation fer the spread of education in this 
oounfay, And this Congress hopes that the Madras and Bombay 
Governments will take steps to remove from: the educational roles 
laid the grant-in-aid code the previsions t$ $he effect described 
above. 

Local Option 

IX.. Resolved That this Congress ia of opinion that stringent 
measures should he taken by the Government jn granting licences 
to retail liquor shops, and that no sueh shops should be established 
anywhere in India without taking the sense of the inhabitants of 
the place. 

Congress Constitution 

3s Resolved That this Congress adopts the following rules 
regarding the Constitution of the Congress (See pp. 800, 301.) 

MEMBERS OF THE INDIAK CONGRESS COMMITTEE 
Appointed by the Congress under the above Resolution. 

jlEMBEBS: 

Mr. W. C. Bannerji. . 

The Hon. Surendianath Bannerjf. 

The Hon. F. Ananda Charlu*. 

The Hon. P. M. Mehta. 

Mr. Mudholkar. 



Mr. A.. M. Bose. 

Mr. Kalicharan Banneiji. 

Mr. Bhupendra Nath Bose. 

The Hon Baikunthanath Sen 

Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar. 

Mr. J. Ghosal. 

Mr. Aswini Kumar Dutt. 

Mr. Dipnarain Sinha. 

JT. W. P. & OUDH 

The Hon. Pandit Bishambharnath. 

Babu Ganga Prasad Yarma. 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. 

Mr. A. Nundy. 

Mr. Bishan Narayan Dhar. 

Mr. Hafiz Abdc. Uaiini. 



THE FIFTEENTH CCXNGBESS 307 

BOMBAY 

Mr. D. E. Wacha. 

The Hon. G. Ohandravarkar. 

Mr. W A. Chambers. 

Mr R M Kayani 

Mr. Daji Abaji Khare. 

Mr. Chinian H. Setahvacl. 

Mr E. P. Karandikar. 

Mr. Tahilram Khem Chand. 

PANJAB 

Lala Kami i a Lai. 
Sirdar Jheiula Singh. 
Lala Harkishan Lai. 
Mr. Jaishi Ram. 

CENTRAL PROVINCES. 

Mr. Bapurao Dada. 
Mr. Bhaguath Piasad. 
Mr H V. Kelkur 



BEKAR 



Mr. Deorao Vinayak. 
Mr. MV Joshi 
Mr G. S. Khaparde 

MADRAS 

The Hon. C Yijiarughavachari. 

The Hon (J. Jambuhngam Mudahar. 

Tlie Hon. G Wnkutaiatnam. 

Mr. C Sankardn Nair. 

Mr. P Bungia Naidu 

Mr P. Kaiuuhundra Pillai. 

Mr. G Subramaum Iyer. 

Mr. V. Byru Nambior. 

Congress Work 

XI. Resolved That this Congress recognises tlw valuable 
services of fcho British Oomunttee in the en use of the people of 
India, and expresses its unabated confidence iu Sir William 
Wedderburn and tho other meinbers of the Committee. 

And the sum of Rs. 54,000 be assigned for the expenses <rf 
the British Committee and the cost of the Congress publication. 
India. 



308 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

XXII. Resolved That an agency be appointed in England, for 
the purpose of organising in concert with the British Congress 
Committee, public meetings for the dissemination of information 
on Indian matters, and that funds be raised for the purpose. 

Famine 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress while gratefully recog- 
nising the endeavours made by the Indian and "Provincial Govern- 
ments to save human life and relieve distress at the present famine, 
urges the adoption of the true remedy : to improve the condition of 
the cultivating classes and prevent the occurrence of famine, this 
Congress recommends the curtailment of public expenditure, the 
development of local and indigenous industries and the moderating 
of land assessment. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

XIV. Kesolved (I) That this Congress concurs with previous 
Congresses in strongly advocating [(1897 (b) (e) and 



(II) That this Congress concurring with previous Congresses 
records its protest [(1897 (a) and (6)]. 

(e) Against the retrograde policy of the Government of 
India in nominating a gentleman for the Central Provinces to 
the Supreme Council without asking local bodies to mpke 
recommendations for such nomination, entertaining the earnest 
hope that the Government will be pleased to take early stepfe to 
give to the Central Provinces the same kind of representation that 
it has already granted to Bengal, Madras, Bombay and the North 
Western Provinces. 

(d) Against the labour laws of Assam, viz., the Inland 
Emigration Act I of 1882, as amended by Act YII of 1893. 

(III) This Congress concurring with previous Congresses, ex- 
presses its conviction 

(a) That having regard to the opinion of the Jury Com- 
mission as to the success of the system of trial by jury, and also the 
fact that with the progress of education a sufficient number of 
educated persons is available in all parts of the country, the system 
of trial by jury should be extended to the districts and offences, to 
which at present it does not apply. 

(b) That this Congress is of opinion that it is desirable in 
ihe -interests of the people of this country that the Criminal 
Procedure Code should be so amended as to confer upon accused 
persons, who are Natives of India, the right of claiming, in trials by 
jury before the High Court, and jn trials with the aid of assessors, 
that not less than half the number of the jurors or of the assessors 
shall be Natives of India. 



THE MFTEENTH CONGBESS 309 

(c) That the action of the Forest Department under the rules 
drained by the different Provincial Governments, prejudicially 
affects the inhabitants of the rural part of the country by subjecting 
them to the annoyance and oppression of Forest subordinates in 
various ways*; and these rules should be amended in the interests 
of the people. 

(fZ) Thnt the minimum income assessable under the Income- 
Tax Act, be raised from five hundred to one thousand rupees. 

(e) That no satisfactory solution of the question of the 
employment of Natives of India in the Indian Civil Service is 
possible, unless effect is given to the resolution of the House of 
Commons of Juno, 1893, in favour of holding the competitive 
Examinations for the Indian Civil Service simultaneously in India 
and England 

Coercion 

XV. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that the 
Government of India Notification of 25th June, 1891, in the Foreign 
Department, gagging the Press in Territories under British adminis- 
tration in Native Stntes is retrograde, arbitrary and mischievous in 
its nature, and opposed to sound statesmanship and to the liberty of 
the people and ought to be cancelled. 

Education 

XVI. Pesolved That this Congress places on record its 
conviction tlwit the sj-stom of Technical Education now in vogue is 
inadequate and unsatisfactory, and prays that, having legard to the 
poverty of tho people and fcho decline of indigenous industries, the 
Government will introduce a more elaborate and efficient scheme 
of technical instruction, nnd set apart more funds for the successful 
working of the wune. And this Congress desires to express its 
grateful appreciation of the patriotic and munificent gift of 
Mr. Tata for the pi omotion of the higher scientific education and 
research. 

Legislative Council (Panjab) 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress while thanking the 
Government for granting the boon of a Legislative Council to the 
Panjab, places on record its regret that they have not extended to 
tho Councillors the right of interpellation, and to the people the 
right of recommending. Councillors for nomination, such as are 
enjoyed by the Councillors and the people in the other Provinces. 

Berar Legislation 

XVIII. ResolvedThat this Congress is of opinion that so 
long as Berar is administered by the Gove mor-General-in-Council, 



310 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

all laws and orders having the force of laws intended for Berar 
should be enacted by the Supreme Legislative Council, in the same 
way as those for British India proper. 

Plague Expenditure 

XIX. Resolved That the adoption of measures against the 
plague being an Imperial concern and recognised as such, this 
Congress is of opinion that the expenditure incurred in connection 
therewith should be borfie by the Government and not charged to 
the funds of the local bodies. 

Parliamentary Representation 

XX. Resojved That this Congress expresses its unabated 
confidence in Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji as the representative of the 
people of India, and hopes that he will be re-elected by his 
old constituency of Central Fiusbury or any other Liberal 
Constituency. 

Formal 

XXI. Resolved That this Congress re-appoints Mr. A 0. 
Hume, C.B , to be General Secretary, and Mr. D. E. Wacha to be 
Joint General Secretary for the ensuing year 

The Congress accepted the invitation to Lahore for its 
16th Session. 



CHAPTER XVI 

To the far north had the Congress travelled for its 
Sixteenth Session, and it met at Lahore on December 
27th, 28th' and 29th, 1900, in the first year of the 
twentieth century. It met in the Bradlaugh Hall, 
the Hall btiilt in loving memory of a great English- 
man and a great servant of India. 567 delegates 
had answered to the call, a goodly number for the 
long journey into the chill of the Panjab in midwinter. 
But if Panjab winters are cold, Panjab hearts are 
warm. The delegates were grouped as follows : 

Bengal and Assam , ..38 

BT. W. P. and Oudh .. .. .39 

Panjab . 421 

Bombay (28) and Sindh (29) . ... 57 

C. P. and Secnnderabad ... . . ... 3 

Madras... ... . ... . . ... 9 



567 



Kai Bahadur Kali Prasanna Boy was the Chairman 
of the Reception Committee, and welcomed the 
delegates warmly, but alluded with grief to the 
passing away of Sardar Dayal Singh tjie year beforej 
and of Mr. Jaishi Ram, " the light and life of the 



312 SOW 1KDU WROUGHT TOB KBEEDOW 

Congress cause in *Ms Province " He rightly claimed 
the Congress as ' r the only true interpreter between the 
ralftrs and the ruled,", and it was necessary that it 
should reach England, and teach the British .people 
the greatness of their responsibility in taking the 
Government of 300 millions of people. Hindus had 
no need to agitate under their own rulers, nor under 
the Muhammadans, who selected their most trusted 
counsellors from among Hindus ; " But the times have 
changed, and the alien Government now ruling over 
us has entirely different ideas and constitutions. The 
English Government, though democratic at home, is 
imperialistic a'nd bureaucratic here. So agitation is 
ihe rule. If we wish to live upon two meals a day 
we must conform our ways to theirs, and carry on ar 
agitation with untiring and persistent zeal." 

The Hon. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji proposed as 
President the Hon. Mr. N. G. Chandravarkar, " one 
ol the Judges of Her Majesty's High Court of 
Bombay " The proposal was seconded by Lala Hans 
Baj, supported by Moulvi Muhurram Ali Chisti, 
the Hon. Mr. C- Yijiaraghavachariar, and Mr. Bansi 
Lai, and -carried unanimously. 

Thfi President, after a few words of thanks, turned 
to the consideration of the condition of the country, 
Baring the year the country had been suffering a 
terrible famine, justifying the repeated warnings of 
the Congress of the increasing poverty of the masses ; 
ihe Viceroy had said that "the weakness and 
incapacity for .resistance of the people took the Local 
by surprise," but it was the outcome of 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 313 

the long poverty. The necessary changes were not 
made, the revenue collections remained rigid, the 
agrarian problem was not faced. Tjie Panjab Land 
Alienation Act, just passed, tied the ryot to the soil, 
but did not enable him to live and flourish on it. 
Both agriculture and industry needed to be helped 
to improve, and to this should be added economy in 
administration. The Congress should help the 
Government with facts, information and practical 
suggestions, so as to enable it to pursue a large and 
liberal policy. 

The Subjects Committee was then approved, and 
the Congress adjourned. 

On the 28th December, Mr. R. N. Mudholkar 
moved Resolution I on tljte Congress Constitution, 
making slight changes in "the number of members in 
the Indian Congress Committee assigned to each 
Province j the Resolution was seconded by Mr. V. R. 
Nambier and carried. 

Mr. G-. Subramania Iyer moved Resolution II, 
asking for an- enquiry into the economic condition of 
India, with a view to discover and adopt remedies for 
the oft-recurring famines. Labourers left India for other 
countries, and developed the prosperity of other lands 
by their industry, bufc they were cruelly ill-used there. 
Millions of people had died of famine, and millions 
more were left permanently deteriorated. The causes 
of such famines should be examined, and remedies 
adopted, 

Mr. R. N. Mudholkar seconded, and gave statistics 
on the poverty of the j>eojple, and showed hoV the 



314 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FEEEDOH 

enhancement of the land revenue pressed on the 
peasantry, yet nothing was done. At least some effort 
should be made to grapple with the question, after 
obtaining information. Mr. B. G. Tilal? said that 
some blamed the ryot for his poverty, but the ryot 
was much the same as be had long been. But if you 
took away the produce of the land and did not give 
it back to the land in some form more material than 
prestige and advice, the country must grow poorer 
and pporer. That was the Congress view. Moulvi 
Muhurram Ali Chisti supported in a vigorous speech, 
and Mr. Joseph Benjamin followed, reporting what he 
knew of the famine-stricken districts in Gujerat, and 
of the efforts to collect the revenue against the advice 
of the Commissioner and the Collector, who had stated 
that the people could not pay. Mr. Chura Mani, from 
Hissar, a famine-stricken district in the Panjab, 
gave testimony that the people borrowed from the 
money-lenders to pay the Government tax. The 
Resolution was carried. 

Resolution III, on throwing open tlie higher grades 
of the Army to Indians, and asking for Military 
Colleges, was moved by Sardar Man Singh, who 
pointed to the loyalty, the bravery, the devotion 
shown by Indian soldiers, fighting her Majesty's 
battles in Tirah, in Burma, "at present they are 
shedding their blood in China, for the service of the 
Empire ". Lord Roberts had said that the Panjabi 
soldiers were as good as the British. 

These words were spoken -in 1900. We, are re- 
peating them -in 1915. la O^her Wars sirice 1900 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 315 

Indians have shed their blood. They have never 
failed England in her need. And still they are kept 
out of the commissioned ranks, and still we are told : 
"Trust in the gratitude of England." 

Sardar G-urcharan Singh followed, on- the same old 
lines young men of martial races, offered the rank 
of a Jamadar. He recalled the march of the Sikhs, wlio 
marched 580 miles in 22 days under the burning sun 
of June to the rescue of the hard pressed British at 
Delhi and arrived, Sir Henry Barnard said, " in 
perfect order and ready for immediate service," a 
march to which he believed " there is no parallel on 
record ". The resolution was supported by Sardar 
Rajendra Singh, Mr. Karandikar, Mr. Krishna Baldeo 
Marina, and Hafisi Abdul Rahim, and carried. 

Mr. S. Sinha moved Resolution IV, on the .separa- 
tion of Judicial and Executive functions, and made 
a very able speech, reviewing the whole history of the 
controversy, and concluding by saying that the Govern- 
ment must rest on the affection of the people, and 
that that could " only be secured by conferring upon 
them the boon of justice, not the justice which we 
enjoy to-day, half milk and half water, adulterated 
justice, but real and righteous British Justice " 

The Resolution was seconded by Mr. Chail Behari 
Lai, supported by Bakshi Ram Lubhaya, Messrs. A 
Ohoudhuri, 0. Y. Chintamani, Kali Prasanna Kavya- 
bisharad, and carried. 

Resolution V condemned the practical exclusion of 
Indians from several of the Public Services,, and was 
moved by the, Hon. Mr. Surendranatli Bannerji in a, 



316 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POR FREEDOM 

long and eloquent speech. He contrasted the policy 
of the English Rulers with the policy of the 
Roman Empire of old, and the policy of the great 
Akbar. 

In the case of Akbar, the grandsons of those who had 
fought against his grandfather became the captains of his 
army, the .Governors of his provinces, the confidential 
advisers of their Sovereign. It was a policy of trust and 
confidence, a policy which was sanctified by the immediate 
successors of the great Mughal. I am sorry that in the 
case of the English Rulers of India it is no longer a policy 
of trust and confidence but a policy largely leavened by 
mistrust and suspicion. Our fathers* as soon as their in- 
tellects were stimulated and their self-respect enhanced 
by the education which they received at the hands of 
Englishmen, commenced an agitation against their exclu- 
sion from these high offices. Therefore this question 
comes to us in the light of a heritage. In carrying 
on this agitation, we are performing an act 'of filial piety, 
rendering obeisance to the adored memory of our sires,_ 
for what memories in Bengal are more loved or respected" 
than those of Kristodas Pal and Ram Gopal Ghose, or 
what name excites greater reverence in Bombay than that 
of Dadabliai Naoroji ? 

The speaker gave figures of the proportion of 
Indians in the higher appointments in the Services in 
Bengal. In the Forest there were 24 high appoint- 
ments, 2 of which were held by Indians; in the Opium 
77, Indians 8; the Customs 83, Indians 2; Preventive 
Branch of Customs 157, Indians 0; in 100 apprentices 
to this, 1 Eurasian ; in the Survey, Indians ; Super- 
intendents of Gaols, Indians ; in the Telegraphs 29 
appointment, Indians 4 ; in the Police 102, Indians 
5 ; Calcutta Police 10, Indians 1 ; and all this in face 
of the Proclamation of 1858. 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 317 

Mr. G-. Subramania Iyer seconded, and said that 
the statements made might be repeated of Madras. 
The Resolution was supported by Pandit Rambbaj 
Datta of Lahore, and carried. 

Resolution VI, moved fey Lala Dwarkadas, re- 
gretted the suspension of the right of electing Fellows 
by the graduates of Calcutta University, and the non- 
carrying out of the provisions of the Act constituting 
the Panjab University. Mr. Hem Chandra Rai 
seconded for Calcutta, Mr. Bepin Behari Bose for 
Allahabad, and Mr. Rustam Cama for Bombay. The 
carrying of the Resolution closed the second day's 
work. 

The third day opened with a statement by the 
President that at the Subjects Committee it was 
decided to postpone the discussion of the Panjab Land 
Alienation Act so as to watch its working for a year, 
since the Hindu and Muhammadan delegates dis- 
agreed on it. 

The seventh Resolution, thanking Lord Curzon for 
his famine policy, his regulation as to issuing shoot- 
ing passes to soldiers, and his proceedings in 
the Rangoon and O'Grara cases, was moved by 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, who guarded himself from 
being supposed to approve the Viceroy's policy 
outside the points named in the Resolution. He 
warmly blamed that policy with regard to Local 
Self -Government, Education, and Land Legislation. 
But in .checking outrages On Indians by Europeans 
and in famine relief, he had done well. Mr. Rustani 
Cama seconded, and the Resolution was carried. 

25 



318 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FBEEDOM 

Resolution VIII on Technical Education, IX on 
Berar Legislation, X the Omnibus, and XI on a 
promised annual contribution from the British 
exchequer to India, were put from the Chair and' 
carried. 

Resolution Xll, on giving half a day at each Con- 
gress to the discussion of educational and industrial 
problems, was moved by Lain Lajpat Rai in Urdu, and 
the speech was unfortunately not reported. Mr. Duni 
Chand seconded, lading stress on the need for 
practical work, and the Resolution was carried, 

Mr. 1). K. Wacha shortly moved Resolution XIII, 
appointing n deputation to wait on the Viceroy, to 
submit to him a memorial drawing his attention to 
the Resolutions of the Congress regarding the need of 
separating Judicial arid Executive functions, ' of 
dealing with the problem of Indian poverty, and of 
enquiring into the growing impoverishment of tlw 
peasantry. Munshi Murlidhar seconded, and' 
Moulvi Muhurram Ali Chisti supported with equal 
brevity. The Resolution was carried. 

Lala Har Bhagavan Das moved and Mr. Taraknalh 
Mitra seconded, Resolution XIV, that tho Pan jab be 
constituted into a Regulation Province. It was 
carried. 

Kumar M. N. Choudhuri moved Resolution XV, 
asking for legislation against liquor, urging that 
the placing of cheap liquor within the reach of 
the poor caused immense evils. Drunkenness which 
had been a heinous crime had become a pleasant vice, 
inseparably linked with western civilisation, and 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 319 

Keshab Chandra Sen had complained that the British 
Government had brought Shakspere and Milton to them 
but also brandy bottles. The Excise Commission of 
1883 showed the great increase of drunkenness among 
the labouring class, whose simplicity, innocence and 
industrious habits were fading away with the increase. 
Lala Beni Prasad seconded, and the Resolution was 
carried. 

Resolution XVI, congratulating Mr. Came on his 
election to Parliament, and Resolution XVJI assigning 
Rs. 30,000 to the British Committee and India were 
put from the Chair and carried. 

Resolution XVIII condemned the new Rules restrict- 
ing the admission of Indians to Cooper's Hill College 
and Roorki, and was moved by Mr. J. Choudhuri, who 
pointed out that Cooper's Hill College was built with 
Indian money, but only two Indians, a year might 
enter it. Indians went to England at a great cost of 
social sacrifice and money, and were told : " Intel- 
lectually you may be our equals ; still, so far as the 
appropriation of the fishes ancl loaves of your country 
go, you are not." The Roorki regulation also placed 
special restrictions on Indians. " The policy pursued 
by Government with regard to the Cooper's Hill and 
Roorki appointments is both unjust to us as a 
Nation, and unworthy of a Government which 
professes to administer the country in our inter- 
ests." Mr, A. 0. Parthasarathi Naidu seconded, and 
Mr. S. M> Paranjpe supported ; he urged that, after 
all, Indian \buildings were not so bad, before Cooper's 
Hill existed; they Jasted for many hundreds of 



320 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FfcBEDOM 

years. " We Indians and black men can do " these 
tilings. 

Our humble aspirations are for preparing our roads 
and building our bridges, so that Indian bridges and 
Indian roads may be prepared and built by Indians. We 
never aspire to go to Southampton and prepare the roadte 
for Southampton. We do not aspire to build bridges 
over the Thames. If we do not wish to go to England to 
perform, these things, naturally the question may be 
asked, whether Indians may not be allowed to construct 
their own roads and their own bridges. 

A modest request enough, after all. The Resolu- 
tion was put and carried. 

Resolution XIX, thanking Sir William Wedderburn, 
Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji and Mr. A. 0. Hume for 
fcheir great services, was put from the Chair and 
carried amid loud cheers. Resolution XX, on South 
Africa, was also put from the Chair and carried. 

Mr, Thakur Das moved Resolution XXI, asking 
that qualified Indians might be placed on the 
Committee to consider the proposal to establish 
Agricultural Banks ; the Resolution was seconded, 
by Pandit Gryaneshvara Shasfcri, and carried, the 
latter gentleman remarking, in his two-minutes speech, 
that it was a " hprse-race to-day " Certainly phe 
work went fast 

Resolution 'XXII, lamenting the loss of Bakshi 
Jaishi Ram, was put from the Chair and carried 
unanimously. 

Then Pandit Maaan Mohan Malaviya moved 
Resolution XIII, on Permanent Settlement; he said 
that in the midst of much to admire and to be grateful 



THE SIXTEENTH COINJKESS 321 

for in British Rule, the note of distress and poverty 
was sounding louder and louder. From living and 
moving among the people, they knew how they 
existed under the present system. " He criticised the 
answer of the Viceroy to the Madras Mahajana 
Sabha, pointing out its unfairness in ignoring all the 
suggestions for remedying poverty made by the 
Congress. Bengal had escaped famine by its Perman- 
ent Settlement, and other Provinces should be given 
similar relief. 

Mr. Y. R. Narabier seconded the Resolution, and 
it was carried. 

Mr. Bhupendranath Basu moved Resolution XXIV, 
criticising the Indian Mines Bill, making a speech 
full of Sound wisdom. Some objected to political 
agitation and urged them to turn rather towards 
industrial development. " They say : Dissolve } our 
Congresses and Conferences; shut up your news- 
papers ; and, like dumb beings work out your destiny ; 
devote your whole energy to the consideration of 
industrial questions." But, said Bhupendranath Babu, 
industries were doomed without political freedom : 

Where is tlie country in the world, I ask yon 
assembled delegates and visitors, which would put counter- 
vailing duties upon its own produce, in order that foreign 
producers may be put on terms of equality ? I ask you, 
where is the country that will put a duty upon an article 
of consumption like sugar, in order that foreign producers 
and merchants might be benefited P I ask you, again, 
where is the country that will introduce and undertake 
factory legislation in order to suppress and repress 
factories, and make their work difficult r Therefore those 
who pin tl^eir faith upon iiadas^rv alone must beware. 



322 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

These arguments are as cogent now as then. Politi- 
cal freedom is the condition of industrial success. 
The proposed legislation took no notice of the 
Indian habit of families all working together ; 
ignored the fact that there were no labour disputes, 
no complaints from either employers or employed. 
The legislation would ruin a flourishing industry, and 
the miners asked to be saved from it. Mr. J. Ghosal 
formally seconded the Resolution, and it was carried. 

The President then put from the Chair Resolu- 
tion XXV, re-appointing Mr. A. 0. Hume and 
Mr. D. B. Wacha to their offices, constituting the 
Indian Congress Committee, and the Industrial and 
Educational Committees for 1901, and it was carried. 
Mr. Bhupendranath Basu invited the Congress to 
meet in Calcutta in 1901, and, with the President's 
concluding speech, the Sixteenth National Congress 
dissolved, and sent its members forth into the new 
century's work, the century which shall see their 
labours crowned with success. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Congress Constitution 

J, ^Resolved That Rule 4 of the Constitution of the Congress 
Committee be amended as follows 

" Its affairs shall be managed by a Committee styled the Indian 
Congress Committee consisting of, besides the er-officio members 
referred to below* 45 Members elected by the Congress, 40 of whqin 
shall be elected ' upon the recommendations of the different Provin- 
*ial Congress Committees, and, in the absence of such Committees, 
\yy the delegates of the respective Provinces in Congress assembled, 
in tlicj manner hereinbelow laid down, that is to say 

For Bengal including Assam . ..7 

Bombay im-liuling- Simlh ... ,. 7 

Madras ... ... ... ... 7 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 323 

For N. W. P. including Oudh ... ... 7 

Panjab ... ... ... ... 6 

Borar .. *.. ... ... 3 

Central Provinces .. ... ... 3 

" The e.-C'0$cio members shall be the President of the Congress 
nnd President-eloct from the clay of his nomination, the Ex-Presi- 
dents of the Congress, the Secretary and Assistant Secretary of 
the Congress, tho Chairman of the Reception Committee, the 
Secretary of the Reception Committee, to be nominated by the 
Reception Committee. 

" The term of office of the Members of the Committee shall 
be the period intervening between two ordinary meetings of the 
Congress " 

Famine Enquiry 

IT. Resolved That having regard to the oft-recurring 
famines in India, and tho manifestly doci easing po\\er of resistance 
on the part of its population in the face of a single failure of 
harvest, loading as it frequently does to human suffering, loss of 
life, destruction of Ine-stwk, disoigamsntion of rural operations 
and interference with the legitimate \\ 01 k of the administrative 
machinery, tho Congress hereby earnestly purys that the Govern- 
ment of India may be pleased to institute at an earl} date a full 
and independent enquiry into the economic condition of the people 
of India with a view to the ascertainment and adoption of practic- 
able remedies. 

Military 

III. Resolved That tuning regard to the devoted and loyal 
services rendered by Indian soldiers in the ^eivice of the Empire, 
tho Congress again urges on the Government 

(<r) Tho desirability, of throning open to them the higher 
grades of the Military Service ; and 

(I) Tho establishment of Military Colleges in India, at 
which Natives of India, as de-lined by Statute, may be educated and 
trained for a military career, as Commissioned or Non-Commission- 
ed Officers, according to capacity and qualifications, in the Indian 
A rmy . 

Separation of Judicial and Executive Functions 

TV. Resolved That this Congress notices with satisfaction 
the support of public opinion, both in England and in India, which 
the question of the separation of the Judicial from the Executive 
functions in tHeadmuiiprmtion of justice hns received ; and this Con- 

s,^lulo thanking Lord llobhouse, Sir Ihchard Garth, Sir Richard 



324 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FKBBDOM 

Couch, Sir Charles Sergeant, Sir William Markby, Sir John Budd- 
Phear, Sir John Scott, Sir Roland K. Wilson, Mr. Herbert J. Reynolds 
and Sir William Wedderburn for presenting a petition to the 
Secretary of State in Council to effect the much-needed separation, 
earnestly hopes that the Government of India will give their 
earliest attention to the petition which has been forwarded to 
them, and will take practical steps for speedily carrying out this 
much -.needed reform. 

Public Service 

V. Resolved That the Congress regrets the practical exclu- 
sion of natives of India from the higher appointments in the Police, 
the Public Works, the State Railways, the Opium, the Customs, the 
Telegraph, the Survey and other Departments, and prays that full 
justice be done to the claims of the people of India in regard to 
these appointments. 

XVIII. ResolvedThat, in the opinion of the Congress, the 
new rules restricting the number of Indians eligible to qualify 
themselves for employment in the Engineering Branch of the 
Indian Public Works Department, through the Cooper's Hill College, 
to a maximum of two only in a year, should be withdrawn as a 
matter of bare justice to the people of this country, and that the 
said ,College should be made available equally for the use of all 
subjects of Her Majesty , and the Congress is further of opinion 
that the invidious distinction made between Indians and Anglo- 
Indians as regards the guaranteed appointments in connection 
with the College at Roorki should be withdrawn and that these 
appointments should be made available to all Her Majesty's Indian 
Subjects in all parts of the country. 

Election of University- Fellows 

VI. Resolved That this Congress regrets the suspension of 
the privileges accorded to the graduates of a certain standing of 
the Calcutta University to return Fellows to the University, and 
the fact that effect is not given to the provisions of the Act con- 
stituting the Panjab University with regard to the election of 
Fellows by the Senate, and is of opinion that it is desirable, in the 
interests of sound education, to confer the privilege of electing 
Fellows upon the graduates of Indian Universities where it does 
not exist, and of extending it where it docs exist. 

Thanks of Congress 

VII. Resolved That this Congress desires to record its 
gratitude to H E. the Viceroy for the benevolence of his famine 
policy, and for his firm resolve to uphold the interests of order and 
justice, as evidenced in the regulations recently issued regarding 
the grant of shooting passes to soldiers and his proceedings in 
connection with the Rangoon and O'Gara cases. 



THE SIXTEENTH OONGBESS 325 

XI. ResolvedThat this Congress, while expressing its 
grateful acknowledgments for the annual contribution of 
257,000 promised to be made from the British to the Indian 
Exchequer in accordance with the recommendations of the majority 
of the Royal Commission on Indian Expenditure, respectfully 
desires to point out that for doing adequate justice to the claims 
of India so far as admitted by that Commission it is necessary 
that she should be granted the arrears payable on this account for 
the past many years, and prays that the British Parliament will be 
pleased to make this grant. 

XIX. Resolved -That this Congress begs to record its high and 
grateful appreciation of the services rendered to this country and 
the Congress movement by Su William Wedderburn, Mr. Dadabhai 
Naoroji, and Mr. A 0. Hume, and to express its regret at the retire- 
ment of Sir William Wedderburn from Parliament, where he render- 
ed great and valuable services to this country, and hopes that he 
may soon return to Parliament to renew his labour of love for the 
people of India. 

Education 

VIII Resolved That this Congress places on record its 
conviction that the system of Technical Education now in vogue is 
inadequate and unsatisfactory, and prays that, haying regard to 
the poverty of the people and the decline of indigenous industries, 
the Government will introduce a more elaborate and efficient 
schomo of technical instruction, and set apart more funds fora 
successful \\ orking of the same. And this Congress desires to 
express its grateful appreciation of the patriotic and munificent 
gift of Mr Tata for the promotion of higher scientific education 
and research. 

Berar Legislation 

IX. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that so long 
as Berar is administered by the Governor-General in, Council, all 
tews and orders having the force of law, intended for Berar, should 
be enacted by tho Supreme Legislative Council in the same way as 
those for British India proper. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

X, Resolved (I) That this Congress concurs with previous 
Congresses in strongly advocating : [1897, (fc) (<Z) () (</)]. 

That this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses, 
records its protest : [1897, (a) and (b) 5 1899, (c) and (<?)]. 

This Congress, concurring with previous Congresses, expresses 
its conviction : [1899, (a) to ()]. 



326 HOW INDIA WEOUGHT FOB FEEEDOM 

Education and Industry 

XII. Besolved That the Congress hereby approves of the 
suggestion presented by the Indian Congress Committee for the 
consideration of this Session that at least half a day at each aumml 
Session of the Congress be devoted to the consideration and dis- 
cussion of the Industrial and Educational problems of the country. 
Further resolved that annually two Committees be appointed by 
the Congress, one for Educational and one for Industrial subjects, to 
consider and suggest means for the Education and Industrial 
improvement of the country and to assist therein, aud that to each 
Committee a Secretary be annually appointed. These Committees 
shall divide themselves into Provincial Committees with power to 
add to their number. 

Deputation to the Viceroy 

XIII. Eesolved That the following Memorial be submitted 
to His Excellency the 1 Viceroy in Council by a deputation con- 
sisting of the following gentlemen : 

Hon. P.M. Mehta. 
Hon. W, C. Banner|i. 
Hon Ananda Charlu. 
Hon. Surendrauath Banner ji. 
Hon Muushi Madho Lai 
Mr. R. N. Mudholkar. 
Mr R. M. Sayani. 
Mr. Harkishan Lai. 

YOUB EXCELLENCY, 

We, on behalf of the delegates a&bembled at the. 16th Session 
of the Indian National Congress at Lahore in December last, have 
the honour to submit most respectfully for the consideration of 
Your Excellency in Council the accompanying Resolutions passed 
by that assembly, and specially the following questions which 
have long been before the country, and -which, in the opinion of 
the Congress, now await a speedy solution of a practical and 
beneficent character. 

1. The question of the extreme desirability of separating 
Judicial from Executive functions has now been so well recognised, 
and there exists such a strong consensus of opinion 011 the subject, 
official and non-official, that your Memorialists are earnestly of 

.hope that the Government will be pleased at an early date to 
introduce this popular reform in the administration of the 
country. 

2. The increasing poverty of the peasantry in the greater 
part of the country, and their consequent inability to maintain 
themselves without State and private benevolence ab the very 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGEESS 327 

outset of scarcity or famine, is another pressing problem. Your 
Memorialists are fully aware of the fact that the serious attention 
of the Government has been engaged on it, and they trust that 
some efficacious remedy will be soon found which, may greatly 
contribute to mitigate that severe poverty, and enable the peasantry 
to better resist the strain which years of bad harvests or scarcity 
may entail on them. 

3. That in view of the condition to which- the recent 
famines have reduced the ryots, the Government will be so good as 
to cause an exhaustive enquiry to be instituted into their growing 
impoverishment by meaus of an independent Commission. 

Panjab 

XIV. Resolved That the Congress respectfully urges upon 
the Government that in its opinion the time has come when the 
Panjnb should bo constituted into a Regulation Province. 

Itiquop Legislation 

XV Resolved That this Congress views with grave alarm 
and deep regret the rapid increase in the consumption of intoxicants, 
specially liquor, in the country, and the Congress is ot opinion 
that the cheap supply of liquor, etc., is alone responsible for this. 
The Congress, therefore, feivently appeals to the Government of 
India to pass measures like the Maine Liquoi Law of America, and 
mtroYluoe Bills, like Sir Wilfrid Lawson's Permissive Bill or the 
Local Option Act, and impose an additional tax upon intoxicants 
not intended to bo used as medicine. The Congress records its 
iirm conviction that if the Government do not take these practical 
steps immediately, the moial, inattuial and physical deterioration 
ot those classes, among whom liquor, etc., have obtained a firm 
hold, would be inevitable , and as intoxicants have already affected 
the groat labouring class, the benevolent intention of the Govern- 
ment to help the growth of the Indian Arts and Industries would 
boar no fruit. The Congress gives groat importance to this ques- 
tion, which, it strongly believes, is intimately connected with ^the 
material progress of the country, and emphatically"protests against 
the cheap supply of liquor, etc. 

Congratulations of Congresq 

XVJ. ResolvedThat this Congress offers its sincere and 
hearty congratulations to Mr, W. S. Caine on his election tfl 
Parliament, and expresses itd confidence in him as a trustee! 
friend of the people of India and a promoter of thei* heal 
interests. 

Congress Work 

XVII. ResolvedThat a sum of Rs. 30,000 be assigned for 
the expenses of the British Committee and the cost of the 
publication of India. 



328 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Soutb Africa 

XX. Resolved That this Congress once more draws the 
attention of the Indian Government as well as of the Secretary of 
State for India to the grievances of the British Indians in Soxith 
Africa, and earnestly hopes that in view of the re-arrangement of 
the boundaries in that Continent and the incorporation of the late 
Boer Republics into the British Dominions, the disabilities under 
which the Indian settlers laboured in those Republics, and as to 
which Her Majesty's Government owing to their independence in 
internal matters felt powerless to obtain redress, will now no longer 
exist, and that the serious inconvenience caused to the settlers in 
Natal, atmong others by the Immigration Restrictions and the 
Dealer's Licences Acts of that Colony, which are manifestly 
inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the British 
Constitution as also the Proclamation of 1858, will be materially 
mitigated, if not entirely removed. 

Indians on Committee 

XXI Resolved That the Congross begs to suggest to 
the Government of India that qualified Indian members, 
representing the different Provinces, may be nominated to the 
Committee, recently formed, in connection \uth the proposal of 
starting Agricultural Banks in India. 

Sorrow of Congress 

XXII. Resolved That this Congress desires to put on record 
its deep sense of the loss sustained by the death of Bakshi Jaishi 
Ram, who was one of the staunch supporters of the Congress for 
many a year and rendered valuable services to it in connection 
with his own Province. 

Permanent Settlement 

XXIII. Resolved That while thanking the Government of 
India for its intention to investigate the question of the incidence 
and pressure of the land assessment as affecting the well-being and 
resources of the agricultural population, the Congress respectfully 
urges upon the (Government the desirability of including within the 
scope of the contemplated investigation the question of periodical 
settlement of assessments and the necessity repeatedly pointed 
out by the Congress of making it permanent. This Congress 
further prays that the Government of India may be pleased to 
publish the opinions invited from Local Governments and 
Administrations, on the subject referred to in para 4 of the 
Resolution of the Government of India (Revenue and Agricultural 
Department) published in The Gazette of India dated 22nd December, 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 320 

1900, and allow the public an opportunity to make their repre- 
sentations thereon before the Government deoidea whether further 
investigation is necessary or not in the terms of the said 
Resolution. 

Indian Mines 

XXIV. Resolved That the Congress respectfully submits 
that the provisions of the Indian Mines Bill, so far as they impose 
restrictions on the employment of labour, be omitted, and that the 
penal provisions thereof may not be put in force for a period of 
5 years', and that, in the meantime, mining schools be opened in 
suitable centres, where young men may qualify themselves for 
employment under the Act. 

Formal 

XXV. Resolved (o) That this Congress appoints Mr. -A. 0. 
Hume, C.B., the General Secretary, and Mr. D. B. Wacha, the Joint 
General Secretary, for the ensuing year. 

(b) That the following gentlemen do constitute the Indian 
Congress Committee for 1901 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS 

1. The Hon W. 0. Bannerji (1885). 

2. The Hon. Dadabhai Naoro]i (1886). 

The Hon. Budrudin Tyabji (1887). 

(Now Judge, Bombay High Court). (Dead) (1888) 

3. Sir William Wedderburn (1889) 

4. The Hon Pherozeshah Mehta (1890). 

5. The Hon. Ananda Charlu (1891). 

The Hon W. C. Bannerji (1892). (Second time). 
The Hon Dadabhai Naoroji (1893). (Second time). 

6. Alfred Webb Esq. (1894). 

7. The Hon. Surendranath Bannerji (1896). 

8. The Hon. R. M. Sayani (1896). 

9. The Hon. C. Sankaran Nair (1897). 
10. The Hon. A. M. Bose (1898) 

11 R. C. Dutt, Esq. (1899). 

The Hon IS. G. Chandravarkar (1900). (Now Judge, 

Bombay High Court). 
12. D. E, Waoha, Esq., General Secretary. 
13.- Alfred Nundy Esq., Assistant Secretary. 

14. Chairman of the Reception Committee, .Calcutta. 

15. Secretary of the Reception Committee,, Calcutta. 

16. President-elect of the Congress for 1901. 

26 



330 HOW INDIA WROUGHT K>R FREEDOM. 

GENERAL LIST BOMBAY- 

Mr. J. Ghosal. Mr Rustam K. R. Caiua 

Pandit Bishambarnath. Mr. Daji Abaji Khare 

Mr. R. N. Mudholkar. Mr. C H. Setahvad. 

Hon. Vijiaraghava<ihari. Hoii. Professor G K. G-okliale. 

Mr. W A. Chambers. Mr. Bal Ghingadhar Tilak. 

Mr B P. Karandikar. 

BK.NCGAL : M*'- Tahil Ram Khem Chand. 

Hou. Baikunthanath Sen. 

Mr. Saligram Singh. BEBAR : 

Mr. Ambtkacharan Mozumdar. jj r> jj y j os t n< 

Mr Motilal Ghose. jjr' Deorao Vmayak 

Rai Yatindranath Choudhuri. Mr> Q. g Khaparde. 

Mr Bhupendranath Basu 

Mr Pnthwis Chandra Boy 0imAt PEOVIXOM 

N W. P. & OUDH 

Mr Buparoodwada 

Hon. Munshi Madho Lnl. Mr Krishna Rao Varna n 

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Mr Raoji Gobmd. 
Mr Bishan Narayan Dhar. 
Munshi Ganga Prasad Varma. PUNJAB : 
Mr. S Smha. 

Pandit Prithwinath. Rai Bahadur Babu Kali Prasanna 

Hafiz Abdul Raliim Rai, Pleader, Chief Court 

Lala Harkishan Lai. Bamster- 
MADRAS at-Law. 

Mr P. Rungiya Naidu. Bai Sal ^ ab Sukh D y al Picador, 

Mr G.Subnwnamalyer. Chiet Court 

Hon Nawab Syed Muhammad Lala Lajpat Rai, Pleader, Chief 

Bahadur Court. 

Mr. P. Ramchandra Pillai Lala Dharam Das Suri, Pleader, 

Mr. V. Ryru Nambier. " Chief Court. 

Mr. P. Kesava Fillai. Lala Kanhaya Lai, Pleader, 

Mr. G. Sriuavasa Rao. ' Chief Court. 

(c) That the following gentlemen do form the Industrial 
Committee, with Mr. Harkishan Lai as Secretary, for 1901. 

BENGAL : Mr. AJchoy Kumar Maitra 

Mr. Gaganendranath Tagore. 

Hon. Baikunthanath Sen , Mr Mohmi Mohan Chakravarti. 

Kumar Manmathanath Rai Mr. Akhoy Kumar Majumdar. 

Choudhuri. Mr KaliPrasannaKavyabisarad. 

Mr. Pulin Bihari Sarkar. Mr. Lalit Chandra Sen. 

Mr. Radharaman Kar. Mr. Pramada Gobinda Choud- 

Mr J. Choudhuri. huri. 

Mr. Bhupendranath Basu. Mr. Tarapada Bannerji. 



THE SIXTEENTH CONGRESS 



331 



PANJAB : 

Mr. Harkishan Lai 
Mr. Lajpat Kai. 
Mr. Balak Rain. 
Mr Dwarka Das. 
Mr. Kushi Rani. 
Mr. Duni Chanel 
Mr. Lai Ghand 
Mr. Prabhu Dyal. 



BOMBAY 

Profossor Gajar 
Mr. J N. Tata. 
Mr U. K Waohn 

N.W. P. &OLMJH 

Mr. Banni Lai Sim?h 
Mr Ganga Prasad Vurnm. 
Mr S Sinhu. 
Mr. K. I'. Basak 



(</) That the following 1 gentlemen do foini the Educational 
Committee, with Mr. Harkishan Lai as Secretary, for H)01 



Mr. Bepin Bihari Bose. 
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. 

CENTRAL PROVINCES: 
Mr. Rao]i Gobiud. 



MADRAS 

Mr. 0. Sauknran Nair 

Mr. G Subramama Iyer 

Mr P Kesava Pillai. 

Mr K P Achj uta Meuon. 

Mr T. Rangachaii 

Hun. P. Ratnasabhapati Pillai. 

Hon. V Venkataralnam 



BKKVR 
Mr D V 
Mi R N. Mudholkar 
Mr Deorao Vniayak 
Mi Ganchh 



Hon. A. M Bose 

Hon SuiTiidnumth Bannerji. 

I)r Nihatan Sircar 

Mr. Horamba Chandra Maitra. 

Mr Aswini Kumar Uutt. 

Mr Peary Lai Ghosh 

Mr. Raghunath T)as. 

Mi. Pnthwis Chandra iloy. 

Mr. Krishna Kumar Mitra. 

Mr Hyamacharan Roy. 



PAN JAB 

Mr, Harkishim Lai. 
Mr. Lajpat JEtai. 
Mr. Balak Rara. 
Mr, Ishwar Das, 
Mr. Lai Chand. 
Mr. ShadilLal. 



BOMBA\ 

Hon Professor G K Gokhale 
Mr ChnminUl H Hotalwad 
Mr Ruatam K R C'ama. 
Mr B G Tilak 

N. W. P. & Ouim 

Mr A.-Nundy. 

Mr. Madfln Mohan Malaviya. 

Mr Bishari Narayan Dhar. 

Mr. G L Maitra. 

Mr. Gauga Prasad Varrua 

Mr. Ramananda Chatterji. 

Mr. Bepin Bihari Boso. 

Mr. K. P Basak 

Pandit Hari Ram Pande. 

Pandit Tej Bahadur Sapru. 

CBNTRAI. PROVINCES: 
Mr. S. B. Gfokhale. 



332 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 



MADRAS: Mr. V. 0. Dusikachariur. 

Hon. Bai Bahadur P. Ananda Mr> S< ^^turmmga lyengar. 

Charlu, O.I.B 

Hon. 0. Vijiaraghavachari. BERAR 

Hon. Bai Bahadur 0. Jambu- ]\j r< ^j y j oa hi 

S n l? m ^S lda J. 1 ? r ' Mr" R/N/Mudholkar. 

Mr. V. Byru Natnbier. Mr . G . g. Khaparde, 

Mr. 0. Karunakara Menon. Mr . D> y. Bhagawat. 



CHAPTER XVII 

CALCUTTA, welcomed the Seventeenth National 
Congress in a great Pavilion erected in Beadon 
Square, lent for the occasion by the Calcutta Corpora- 
tion. The whole square offered a brilliant scene, the 
Industrial Exhibition having its own separate Pavilion, 
and both being gay with flags. The Congress 
Pavilion was beautifully decorated with coloured 
foliage plants and palms, and was lighted by electricity. 
898 delegates were present, distributed as follows 

Bengal 580 

N. W. P. and Oudh 89 

Pan jab 30 

C. P., Berar and Secunderabad 44 

Bombay (43) and Sindh (8) bl 

Madras 102 

896 



After the President-elect's procession had made its 
slow way through the crowd, a song, " Hindustan/' 
composed by Sarola Devi Grhosal ,was sung by a choir 
of 58 m$u &nd ;boys, the yearly 4QO volunteers" joining 



334 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Maharaja Bahadur Jagadindranath Rai Bahadur 
of Natore, the Chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee, welcomed the delegates in a graceful 
speech, saying that he had only ventured to accept 
the honour offered to him " because it has been the 
one great ambition of my life to join the ranks of 
those who think, those who feel, and those who work 
for their country ". He spoke with deep feeling of 
the Passing of the Great Queen, whose words were 
the Magna Oarta of India : "That message so full of 
sympathy for an alien subject race, so noble and 
liberal in its spirit, so magnificently just in its policy, 
would alone have won the eternal gratitude and 
unflinching loyalty of her Indian subjects." The 
National Congress, the embodiment of India's hopes 
and aspirations, born in her reign, would for ever 
link the name of Victoria with the destiny of India. 
Her Majesty's successor had " won the hearts of his 
Indian subjects by his charming personality " might 
his reign be a continuation of his great mother's. The 
Speaker then alluded to the plague having come to 
Calcutta, but the authorities asked them to take it 
philosophically, instead of harrying them with the 
fads of science, isolation, segregation and inocula- 
tion, and the advice "falls in with our humour". 
The officials were uncharitable to them, and that kept 
away title-hunters, but most of the men of rank 
and wealth supported them. After announcing 
that they had opened an Industrial Exhibition in 
connection with the Congress, the first, but, he 
hoped, a permanent feature in future, he called on 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 335 

Mr. W. 0. Bannerji to propose the President He 
proposed Mr. D. E. Wacha, " the life and soul of this 
movement," and called on the Congress to elect 
him with acclamation. Rai Bahadur P. Ananda 
Charlu seconded, Mr. E. N. Mudholkar supported the 
Resolution, and it was carried with loud applause. 

Mr. Dinshaw Edulji Wacha began his address with 
a touching and heartfelt tribute to Mr. Justice Ranade, 
who had suddenly passed away on January 1 7th, 
1901, leaving behind him a noble and spotless 
memory. 

He then spoke gratefully of the late Queen-Empress, 
sadly of the assassination of President McKinley, 
and grieved over the death of Sir Sheshadri, the 
great Dewan of Mysore., who proved " that states- 
manship is not a monopoly which is confined to one 
race and one country alone ". The President, after 
an allusion to the new King-Emperor, who on his 
visit to India had won the hearts of Princes and 
people, turned to the subject of the famine, 
reviewing its effect, the aid given, the policy of 
the Bombay Government, the way in which funds 
were spent,, and ought to be spent, in relief. He 
pointed out that the peasants who were relieved in 
famine time were the very same people who paid 47 
crores a year in taxation, and it was not much to give 
them back some of ifc in the 'time of the periodical 
famines. He dealt with the causes of famine, and 
quoted authorities, including Lord Salisbury, in favour 
of lightening the drain on the cultivator. There 
ought to be full enquiry into the causes of the present 



336 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

agrarian condition, for recent legislation was dis- 
astrous. Irrigation Works were essential, and they 
should be preferred to railways, which were not an 
" unmixed blessing ". Irrigation increased agricul- 
tural wealth, while railways only distributed it. Agri- 
cultural Banks were at last recognised as useful, and 
here he advocated the system adopted in Egypt. The 
export of grain prevented a sufficient storage in the 
country. Adverting to the condition of the masses, 
and the average rate of agricultural wealth per head 
of the population, the President complained that 
Government shrank from publishing details which 
could be examined; the Duke of Argyll had said that 
" of chronic poverty and of permanent reduction to the 
lowest level of subsistence, such as prevail only 
too widely among the vast population of rural 
India, we have no example in the western world ". 
Improvement was impossible " so long as absentee- 
ism, which is the principal feature of British rule, 
exists"; the annual extraction of 30 to 40 croresfrom 
the country without any hope of return was the 
greatest obstacle to Indian prosperity. 

The fact is India is not free to choose its own 
administrative agency. Were it free, is there the 
slightest doubt that the entire administrative agency 
would be indigenous, living and spending their monies in 
the country ? India, I repeat, is not free, and, therefore, 
it has no choice in the matter. The governing authorities 
in the first place have most strangely willed that almost 
all the higher poets shall be held by men who live a 
while here, and then retire to their own country. Even 
another great modern Asiatic power, Russia, is not known 
to import wholesale Russian agency to carry on the 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 337 

work of administration in the distant provinces of Central 
Asia! But we are told that the European agency 
is extremely limited. It counts no more than 17,300 
persons. True. But contrast the annual expenditure of 
16 crores incurred on their account with the, 2f crores 
earned by Indians. Did England sit quiet while the 
Plantagenets were filling all the high offices from France 
to the great disadvantage of the English themselves P 
Was not England pauperised when the Papacy was 
rampant and abstracted millions from it annually, as 
history has recorded ? Would England refrain front 
complaining, supposing that the position of India and 
England wan to-day reversed ? 

India was poor, and was " ruled at a cost unheard 
of in any part of the civilised world " 

The President then turned to finance and analysed, 
with masterly skill, the taxation and expenditure of 
the -country, in which Indians had no voice. There 
must be industrial development, although improve- 
ment would be. slow since the root of poverty lay in 
political causes. " ' Insane Imperialism/ to use 
Mr. Morley's phrase, with its mischievous policy of 
retrogression and repression is in the ascendant for 
the moment. But this policy of political insanity, I am 
firmly of conviction, must sooner or later give way to 
the former policy of sound liberalism, modified in 
conformity with the inarch of time and the irresist- 
ible logic of events. . . . Indians have never been slow 
to recognise the benefits of British rule. But it 
would be unreasonable to ask them to sing eternally 
its praises and transform themselves into its un- 
qualified panegyrists. No doubt we have a good 
Government, but it is not unmixed with many an 
evil. The desire is that the 9vil may be purged 



838 HOW ItfDlA WROUGHT FOB FKJ8KD01ML 

away, and that in the course of time we may have a 
better Government." 

The Subjects Committee was approved, when the 
prolonged cheerw had ceased, and 1 he Congress rose 
for the day. 

On the second day, the lirst Resolution was put in 
three sections from the Chair, expressing grief for 
the death of the Queen-Jilmpi'ess, tendering homage 
to the new Sovereign, and lamenting Uie IOSN of the 
Hon, Mr. Justice llaimde. 

Alter two letters had been read, Mr. W. C. "Banrierji 
movtil "Resolution JJ, on the maintenance oC the 
British Committee, and guaranteeing a circulation of 
4,000 copies of India. He made a vigorous speech in 
support of the Congress, and was followed by the 
Hon. Mr. P. M. Mehta, unfortunately uureported, tlio 
text riot having bueii iieeived back. Rsu jjahodnr 

o* 

P. Ananda Charln, Pandit Madau Mohan Mjilaviya, 
and Moulvi M. All Cliisti supported, tul tlio Kcsolu 
tion was oarried. 

Tt is interesting to notice that the speakers all 
defended the Congress from being IfSS vnthuHhistically 
supported than before. The complaints made now 
were. made then, when the Congress is now supposed 
to have befjn at its best. All movements include 
croakers, who belittle Uie present in -comparison with 
the past. The main reason for this perennial 
depreciation is the fact that they are themselves older 
and less energetic, and do not realise that the 
youngers now supply the enthusiasm they have 
lost. 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 839 

Mr. Mudholkar moved Resolution III, on hid I an 
poverty. All now agreed that the masses were sinking 
more deeply into the quagmire of poverty, and the 
census of 1901 showed that in five Provinces the 
population had actually decreased from the number 
peached in 1891. A million people died in the fam- 
ine in excess of the ordinary mortality, in spite of all 
the efforts of Government, and if the people were not 
in abject poverty such a result could not have accrued. 
The Commission of 1&74 found that it was the revenue 
policy of the Government that was mainly respon- 
sible for the degradation of the ryots. In Berar there 
was a general enhancement of 30 per cent. In the C. P. 
from 100 to 200 per cent. Where 80 per cent of 
cultivable land had been brought under cultivation, 
there should be a Permanent Settlement on the lines 
laid down by Lord Ripon in 1882. 

Mr. G. Venkataratnam seconded, and dealt with 
Madras. In 1862 the Madras Government declared 
that "there can be no question that one fundamental 
principle of the ryotwari system is that the Govern- 
ment demand on the land is fixed for ever ". Various 
promises were made and hopes held out in 1865, 1867, 
1868, but the 1862 policy was formally negatived by 
the Secretary of State in 1883. Things were going 
steadily from bad to worse. 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer took up the sad story, and 
gave more figures, remarking that the reason that the 
ryots could live at all was the "tropical climate where 
life can linger on the scantiest of subsistence. But 
is the Wfe's function of the Indian ryot to 



340 HOW INDIA WROUGHT K)R PEEEDOM 

and die merely like a brute ? Is he not a ' human 
being, endowed with reason, sentiment, and latent 
capacity ' ? " The peasant had sunk to a lower and 
a lower standard of living. There were 

nearly 200 millions of people living a life of chronic 
starvation and of the most abject ignorance, grim and 
silent in their suffering, without zest in life, without 
comfort or enjoyment, without hope of ambition, living 
because they were born into the world, and dying because 
life could no longer be kept in the body. 

Mr. B,. Pal Choudhuri supported, dealing with 
Agricultural Banks, and Mr. Guha followed in 
Bengali, the Resolution being then put and carried. 

Dr. Gour proposed, the Hon. Mr. Srinivasa Rao 
seconded, Messrs. Ambikacharan Mozumdar and 
Kali Prasanna Kavyabisarad supported the hardy 
annual of the separation of Judicial and Executive 
functions, to which we cannot afford more space. 

Mr. Kabcharan Bannerji moved Resolution V, 
asking that eminent Indian lawyers should be added 
to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council for 
Indian Appeals. The " law of the Courts " was not 
always iu accord with the " law of the people," and 
long establised rules were set aside. Mr. P. S. 
Sivaswami Iyer seconded it, as an extension of the 
principle already applied in the High Courts. The 
Resolution was carried. 

Mr. Gandhi moved Resolution VI, on South Africa, 
as " a petitioner on behalf of the hundred thousand 
British Indians in South Africa " He told the now 
familiar tale of Indian grievances, and the Resolution, 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 341 

seconded by Mr. A. Pillai, was carried, and the 
Congress adjourned. 

Oil the third day, Mr. S. Sinha moved the seventh 
Eesolution, urging various matters of Police Reform, 
and he dwelt on the admittance of Indians to examin- 
ation for the Police Service, the recruitment of In- 
spectors and Sub-Inspectors, and asked for a larger 
number of Indians in the higher grades. Mr. V. R. 
Nambier seconded, laying stress on the need for 
education in the lower grades, and the employment of 
Indians who understood their own countrymen in the 
higher. Five other speakers supported, and the 
Resolution was carried. 

Resolution V1I1 returned to the famine, which 
brooded over all hearts, and was moved l>y Mr. (}. 
Subramania Iyer. He dwelt this time on the nneil 
for industrial independence, and pointed to the rapid 
industrial improvement in Japan since J8b'S. How 
could India adjust her industrial condition sis Japan 
has adjusted hers to new needs ? India must either 
go forward or perish. He made practical suggestions 
for founding technical institutions and foreign 
scholarships, and a careful survey of indigenous in- 
dustries. 

Mr. K. M. Samarth seconded, and Mr. K. K. 
Ramaswami Aiyar supported, giving histories of past 
famines and analysing the causes of famine ; the Reso- 
lution was further supported by Messrs. Jaduuath 
Majumdar and Joseph Benjamin, and carried. 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji moved Resolution IX, 
demanding the wider employment of Indians in tlie 
27 



342 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

Public Services. It was seconded by Mr. Abdul 
Kasim, and carried. 

Mr. Dixit moved Resolution X, on the cost of British 
troops in India, in a brief speech, and Mr. C. Y. 
Ghintamani seconded with equal brevity. The resolu- 
tion was supported by Mr. Smedley in a discursive and 
breezy speech, which he concluded by saying that he 
believed in Home Rule for Ireland and Home Eule 
for India. He appealed to the young men to be 
determined, and ask for Home Eule for India. 

These resolutions seem to me to be making so small a 
demand, that they will be glad to allow you these little 
things to keep you off from Home Eule. My last 
word is: "Go in for Home Eule for India," and the 
blessing of God rest upon your efforts. 

\\ r e are taking Mr. Smedley *s advice in 1915. 

Dr. Sarat K. Mullick moved Resolution XI, 
approving of the formation of a Cadet Corps for 
Indian Princes as a step to the establishment of 
Military Colleges. Moulvi M. Ali Chisti seconded, 
Mr. K. B. Varma supported, and the Resolution -was 
carried. 

Resolution XII dealt with Education, and was 
m&ved by Mr, V. R. Pandit, who condemned the small 
expenditure on Education by the Government. 
Mfrt B. G. Tilak seconded, urging that Education 
Sbttuld be made thorough. Mr. A. Choudhuri and 
Mr. Mahesvara Prasad seconded, and it was carried. 

The thirteenth Resolution urged the raising of 
coolies' wages in Assam and the abolition of the 
yenal legislation affecting them. It was moved by 



THK SEVENTEENTH OONGBBSS 348 

Mr. Jogendra Chandra Grhose, who, himself an 
employer of coolie labour, protested against the cruel 
treatment of the AHSJIIH coohoH, who died in hundreds, 
while in three y&ara he had only lost two of his 
labourers in tho iSunderbans, one from cholera and 
out* i arritd oF by a tiger. He pleaded for justice, 
so that the rnl of England might last : " I say this 
out of my fjreMt love for you Englishmen lest yo 
forgot, lest ye forget," 

Mr. B<pi>> Chcii'dva Pal second rd, urgirg the repeal 
of the iVii-j,! l.uboiu- lisiw, and couibinul ion to dv-^nd 
i\w cMohv- Mr. built Mohan <iho^'>l having 
s.ijipwi'tt'il, <'n' Ui'S'iljjtK.n wiis carried. 

'J'Jhi nn'f'ii>VL {Cfieva.pct'8 wt'ip again broitt* lit vp in 
Ui'fiolutKin \ ! V, iu(iM| 1>\ Mr. M. N Lfcii-m rji, 
.seconded b\ !h. Nilratari Saikar, and c.tr/U'd. rim 
fitt,t*enth IfoaoluLion urged tho needs of agrieult^TV 
a.ud vt f ,f r ')ry briefly moved, seconded, and sup- 
ported b\ MPM^P. Yn-tnidraiiath Choudljuri, Cama, 
N. K. Kamaswami Aiyar, Moulvi Khoja Mtihannnad 
N(,H)i', !)r. Sureahvara Mukerji, and carried. 

Resolutions on the Economic Question in India 
(No. XVI), on Currency Legislation (No. XVII), were 
capr-iad, but were too complex to be effectively dealt 
with in the last rush of the Congress. Resolution 
XVIIJ asked for the establishment of a Mining 
College, and Resolution XIX, the Omnibus, was put 
from the Chair. Resolution XX re-appointed Mr. A. 0. 
Hume and Mr. B. E. Wacua, aod Resolution XXI 
accepted the inTirttiojiMlk^ H0& Mr. P.M. Mehta 

to the Bombay Presidency, 

i f , , 



344) HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Then came the votes of thanks to the Reception 
Committee and the President, and the President's 
reply, bringing to a close the Seventeenth National 
Congress. 

RESOLUTIONS 

The Death of the Queen-Empress 

L Resolved (a) That lliis Congress desires to express its 
profound sorrow at the death of Her Majesty, Queen-Empress 
Victoria, and its sense of the irreparable losa which the Empire haw 
sustained thereby. This Congress recalls with gratitude Her lato 
Majesty's deep personal sympathy with the people of India, as 
evidenced by her gracious Proclamation and by various other 
measures and personal acts, conceived in the same spirit of anxious 
Solicitude for the welfare of the people of India. 

(&) That this Congress tenders its respectful homage to His 
Gracious Majesty King Edward VII, and under His Majesty's bene- 
ficent reign hopefully looks forward to the strengthening of i'roe 
institutions, the expansion of popular rights, and the gradual but 
complete redemption of the promises cow tamed m Her late Majesty's 
Proclamation. 

(c) That this Congress desires to place on record its deup 
sense of regret at the great loss that the country has sustained by 
the untimely death of the Hon. Mr. Justice Ranade. 

Work of the Congress 

II. Resolved (a) That the Congress is of opinion that it is 
essential for the success of its work, that there should bo a Com- 
mittee in London, acting in concert with it, and a weekly journal 
published in London, propagating its views, und this Congress 
resolves that its British Committee as at present constituted, and the 
journal India as published by- it, be maintained and continued, and 
the cost be raised in accordance with the following scheme 

(6)* That a circulation of 4,000 copies of India be secured by 
allocating 1,500 copies to Bengal, 700 copies to Madras, 200 copies 
to the N. W. Provinces, 50 copies to Oudh, 100 copies to the Pan jab, 
450 copies to Berar and the Central Provinces, and ] ,000 copies to 
Bombay, the mte of yearly subscription being Its. 8. 

(c) That the following gentlemen be appointed Secretaries 
for the Circles against whicfi their names appear, and be held 
responsible for the sums due for the copies of India assigned to their 
respective Circles : and the money be paid in advance in two half- 
yearly instalments. 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 345 

BENGAL : BERAR & THE CENTRAL 

PROVINCES : 

Mr. Surendranath Bunnerji. -, _. ,. 

Mr. Bhupondrannth Basil Mr - R - N ' Mudholknr. 

Mr. Baikuntluuiat.h Sen. __ .._ _ _ 

N. W. PROVINCES AND OUDH : 

BOMBAY . Pandit M. M. Malaviya. 

, T ,, Ti ,, ,, , . Mr. Gnnga Prasad Varina 

2 OIU M J u> M ; n< Mr - s- 

Mr. I) B. Wachu M A 

Hon. Mr. G. K (Jokhale. Mfi A> 

n, C \WNPOKK ' 

MimtAh 

, r * c. Mi Piithwmath Pandit, 

lion Mr Srinnasa Rao. 

Mi. Vijiarnffha\a< linn PUNJAB 

Mr. V Kyru Nainbioi 

Mr (} Subiamain.i lyci Lain Harkishan Lai 

(</) That ruth a M'\\ tn meet the bulance reqmied to dofiay 
the evpeiise^ of Iinlut and the Hntish Connuittce a special dolopatmn 
fee of Rs 10 be paid by eaeh delegate in addition to the usual fee 
now paid by him, \\ith effect from 1U02. 

Poverty and Remedies therefor 

11J IteHolved () That, the (/onf?re.ss unco again desires to 
call the attention ol t'ie (Jtuerninent to the deplorable condition of 
tho poorest fluHHL's in India, full lorty uiillioiiR of \\hoin, iii'eniding 
to high official authority, drag out a nnsoiable existence, on the 
verge of starvation even in normal years, and this CongrosH rocoin- 
tueixlH the follovMtig aini>ngut other measuros foi tho amelioration 
of their condition - - 

(2) That the Permanent Settlement be extended to those 
partu of the countrj \\hdreitdooHnotexiHt, that restrictions be 
put on ovcnMiHHe.H8inon.tN in those parts of India vhoro it may not 
be advisable to extend the Permanent Settlement at the present 
timo, HO us to leaves tho ryots sufficient to maintain themselves 
on, and that thorn* Settlements of land revenue bo guaranteed for 
longnr periods than is the e-ase at present. 

(3) That Agricultural Banks be eRtablialied and greater 
facilities bo accorded for obtaining loans undor the Agricultural 
Loans Act. 

(4) That steps be taken to improve the Agriculture of the 
country and in connection with this, this Congress exhortfi all 
landed proprietors in the country to pay greater attention to the 
agricultural needs of the country and adopt such measures as are 
in their power to meet them. 



346 HOW INDIA WROUGHT *OR FREEDOM 

(5) That the minimum income assessable under the Income- 
Tftx Act be raised from Ha. 600 to Rs. 1,000. 

(6) That the drain of the wealth of the country be stopped, at 
least in part, by the wider employment of the children of the soil 
in the Public Services. 

VIII. Resolved That this Congress deplores the recurrence 
of famine in a more or less acute form throughout India in recent 
years, and records its deliberate conviction that famines in India 
are mainly due (1) to the great poverty of the people brought on 
by the decline of all indigenous arts and industries and the drain 
of the wealth of the country which has gone on for years , and (2) 
to excessive- taxation and over-assessment of land, consoqnmit on a 
policy of extravagance followed by the Government both m the 
civil and military departments, which has so far impoverished the 
people that at the firwt touch of scarcity thoy are rendered helpless 
and must perish unless fed by the State or helped by private 
charity. In the opinion of this Congress the true- *omody against 
the recurrence of famine lies in the adoption of a policy which 
would enforce economy, husband the resources of the State, nnprovo 
the agriculture of the country, foster the revival and development 
of indigenous arts and manufactures, and help forward the intro- 
duction of new industries. 

(b) That this Congress rejoices that a " Famine Union " 
has been formed in London with a branch in Liverpool, consisting 
of distinguished men from all parties, and this Congress desires to 
place on record its deep gratitude to the members of the Union for 
their sympathy with the famine-stricken sufferers in India, and the 
earnest and eminently practical way in which they have set them- 
selves to the task. 

Legal 

IV. Resolved That the Congress once again records jts 
deliberate opinion that the separation of Judicial and Executive 
functions is necessary in the interests of righteous and efficient 
administration of justice ; the Congress is supported in thiu opinion 
by high and distinguished authorities, intimately familiar with the 
administration of criminal justice in India, such as Lord Hobhouse, 
Sir Richard Garth, Sir William Markby, Sir James Jardine, 
Mr. Reynolds and others This Congress understands that the 
question is now under the consideration of the Government of 
India , and having regard to the soundness of the principle involved, 
the unanimity of public sentiment on the subject, and above all to 
the numerous instances of failure of justice resulting from the 
combination of Judicial and Executive functions, this Congress 
appeals to the Government of India to introduce this much-needed 
reform, which has been too long delayed partly through the fear of 
loaa of prestige and the weakening of the executive Government, 



THIS SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 347 

but chiefly on the score of expense, which it is believed will not 
be heavy and which in any case ought not to bo an insurmountable 
difficulty. 

V. ttosolvod That thin Congress" is strongly of opinion that 
the Judicial Ooinmiltco of the Privy Council ahojilcl bo strength- 
ened HO far us appeals from India nro concerned and this Congress 
respectfully venturofl to suggest that Indian lawyorn of eminence 
Rhould bo appointed an Lor da of the Judicial Committee to partici- 
pate in the determination of appeals from India 

South Africa 

VI. Resolved-- That thin Congress sympathises \\ith the 
BritiHh Indian settlers in South Africa in their struggle for exis- 
tence, and lespeetfnlly draws the attention of II is Excellency the 
Viceroy to the Auli Indian legislation there, and tiusts that while, 
the question of the status of Hntish Indians in the Transuial and 
the Orange Hnei Colonies is still under the consideration of the 
Ht. Hon. (lie Secret aiv of State lor the Colonies, His Excellency will 
be graciously pleased to secure foi the settlers a just and cquitahlo 
adjustment thereof 

Public ServJce 

Vll ResolvedThat this Congress notices with satisfaction 
that the question of Police Reform is now undei the consideration 
of the Government and that it IH one of the tv\olvoqueBtions which 
His Kxollency the Viceioy proposes to deal with during the term of 
his Vieeroyalty. The C/ongiess repeats its conviction that no 
satisfactory reform could be effected unless the Police voro re-organ- 
ised on the following lines 

(1) That the higher ranks of the Police should be recruited 
more largely than at present from among educated Natives of India as 
by statute donned, who, being conversant with the language and 
habits, thoughts, and life of their subordinates, would be in a posi- 
tion to exercise a more effective control over their subordinates 
than is exercised at present. 

(2) That the pay and prospects of the subordinate ranks of 
the Police should be substantially improved so as to render the 
Service more attractive to the educated community. This Congress 
is of opinion that the wider employment of educated Indians in the 
subordinate ranks of the Police upon higher pay and with bettor 
prospects can alone contribute to the efficiency and integrity of the 
Police. 

(8) That the competitive examination held in England for the 
recruitment of the provincial branches of foe Police Service, should 
be thrown open to native* of India, instead of being confined to 
candidates of British birth, 



348 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

IX. Eesolved That the Congress once again records its deep 
regret that the labours of the Public Service Commission have not 
produced the results which were anticipated, and thin Congress 
repeats its conviction that no satisfactory solution of the question is 
possible unless effect is given to the Resolution of the House of Com- 
mons of the 2nd of June, 1893, in favour of holding the examinations 
for the^ Indian Civil Service simultaneously in England and India. 

That, in this connection, this Congress desires to express its 
profound disappointment at the policy of the Government in respoct 
of the wider employment of Natives of India in the higher offices of 
the Minor Civil Services, such as the Police, the Customs, the 
Telegraph, the Forest, the Survey, the Opium, as involving their 
practical exclusion from these offices, and as being opposed to the 
terms of the Queen's Proclamation and the recommendations of the 
Public Service Commission , and this Congress prays that the 
Government will be pleased to take early steps to remedy the 
injustice done to the claims of the people ot this country. 

XIV. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that in 
the interests of the public, the medical service, and the profession, 
as well as in the cause of economical administration, it is necessary 
(I) that there should be only one Military Medical Service with 
two branches one for the European Army and the other for the 
Native Troops worked nn identical lines; and (2) that the Civil 
Medical Service of the county should be reconstituted as a distinct 
and independent Medical Service wholly detached from its present 
military connection and recruited from the profession of medicine 
in India and elsewhere, due regard being had to the utilisation of 
indigenous talent. 

That this Congress further affirms that the status and claims 
of Civil Assistant Surgeons and Hospital Assistants require a 
thorough and open enquiry with a view to redressing long-standing 
anomalies and consequent grievances. 

Military 

X. Resolved That inasmuch as large bodies of British troops 
have, with perfect safety and without imperilling the peace of the 
country, been withdrawn for service outside the statutory limits of 
British India, this Congress is of opinion that the Indian tax-payer 
should be granted some relief out of the British Exchequer towards 
the cost of maintaining in India the present strength of the European 
Army : the claims of financial justice to India demand the trans- 
fer of the cost of a portion of British troops from the Indian to the 
British Exchequer. 

XI. Resolved That this Congress desires to express its appro* 
ciation. of the action of the Government in forming a Cadet Corps 
consisting of the representatives of Indian Princes and Noblemen, 



THE SEVENTEENTH CONGRESS 849 

and regards it as the first instalment of a policy which will culmi- 
nate in the establishment of Military Colleges (as recommended by 
the Duke of Connaught) at which Natives of India may be educated 
and trained for a military career, as commissioned arid non-commis- 
sioned officers in the Indian Army 

Hduoation 

XII. Resolved That this Congress notices with great satis, 
faction that the subject of Education in all its divisions is receiving 
tho earnest and careful attention of His Excellency the Viceroy, 
and this Congress trusts that in constituting tho proposed Education 
Commission, His Excellency will bo pleased to give adequate 
representation to Indian interests by appointing a sufficient number 
of Indian gentlemen to be members of the Commission. 

Assam Labour 

XIII RoHol v'od -Thatlus Congress w lule thanking the Govern- 
ment of India for its benevolent intentions, regrets that immediate 
effect has not been given to the proposal made by tho Government it- 
self to enhance the coolies' wiiges in Assam, although such a course 
was strongly insisted upon by the Chief Commissioner, and was im- 
porutiveh demanded by the plainest considerations of justice to the 
coolies ; and this Congress is further of opinion that the time has 
come \\hen the Government should redeem its pledge to do away 
with all penal legislation for labour in Assam. 

Agriculture 

XV. Resolved-- (a) That in view of tho fact that it is agri- 
culture alone that enables the vast masses of people in tho various 
provinces of India to maintain theniHohes, and in viow of the 
excessive cost of Hritish rule, this Congress is of opinion that the 
Government should be pleased to bestow its first and undivided 
attention upon the department of agriculture, and adopt all those 
measures for its improvement and development which have made 
America, Russia, Holland, Belgium and several other countries so 
successful in that direction. 

(ft) That this Congress begs to draw the special attention 
of the Government to tho recommendations of Dr. Voelsker, who 
was sent out to India in 1889 to enquire into tho condition of 
Indian agriculture, and prays that early effect may be given to tho 
same. 

(c) That this Congress further prays that the Government 
would be pleased to establish a large number of experimental 
farms all over the country, as well as scholarships t6 enable 
Indian students to proceed to foreign countries for the purpose of 
learning the methods of improving and developing agricultural 
resources which are in vogue in those countries. 



350 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Committee on Industries 

XVI. Resolved (a) That the following gentleman do form a 
Committee to report to fcho Congress next year whether it is 
desirable to adopt the following resolutions with or without 
amendments and alterations : 

Mr. B. G. Tiluk. Mr. Ranode. 

Mr. Madan Mohan Malaviya Mr. Ganga Prasad Varma. 

Mr. Bhupendi-anath Basu. Mr. Umar Buksh 

Mr. J Choudhuri. Mr Harkishan Lai. 

Mr. B. Puthafc. 

(6) That in the opinion of thin Congress much of tho 
state of economic depression of the country is owing to 
want of knowledge of the methods of production and distribution 
which prevail in foreign countries, and that it behoves our 
countrymen to adopt means to bring advanced knowledge and 
exact information within the roach of the people. 

(c) That one of the most important economic questions 
that require solution at our hands is the organisation of Capital 
and Credit in villages, towns, provinces, and the country This 
Congress invites the attention of its countrymen to make sustained 
and extensive efforts to organise capital and remove one of the 
many difficulties in the way of improvement of our economic 
conditions. 

Finance 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress reaffirms its protest 
against the Currency Legislation of 1898, in which was artificially 
enhanced the value of the rupee by over 30 per cent, which 
indirectly enhances all taxation to that extent, and which, whilst 
giving the Government large surpluses from year to year owing 
to this heavy indirect taxation and that too in times of unexampled 
distress brought about by famines -affects most detrimentally the 
wealth-producing institutions of the country.^, .v&s,, agriculture, 
plantation, and manufacture That it is further of opinion that 
the above-mentioned legislation has alarmingly diminished the 
power of the peasantry to withstand the attacks of natural calamities, 
and that the moat deplorable consequences may be anticipated to 
follow from it in course of time. 

Mining Industry 

XVIII. Resolved That this Congress notices with satisfac- 
the rapid progress of the mining industry of India, and in 

tion of the fact that the mineral resources of this coun- 
^t and the facilities for acquiring a thorough knowledge 
igineering in this country -are almost nothing, and to 



THE SEVENTEENTH CON9KESS 351 

viow of the fact that the tendency of recent legislation on mining, 
namely Act VH of 1901, is, that all Indian mines must be kept 
under the supervision of mining experts, this Congress is of opinion 
that a Government College of Mining Engineering be established 
in some suitable place in Italia after the model of the Royal School 
of Mines of England, and the Mining Colleges of Japan and the 
Continent. 

XIX. Resolved (I) That this Congress concurs with previ- 
ous Congresses in strongly advocating 

(a) The raising of tho mini mum income assessable under 
the Tncome-Tax from Ra 600 to Ra. 1,000 [1000 (a) to (rf) ]. 

(II) That this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses* 
records ita protest [1900, () and (b) J 

(III) That this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses 
expresses its opinion 

(a) That the BjHte-m of Technical Education now in vogue 
is inadequate" and luisatiHi'nctory, and prays, that having /regard 
to the poverty of tho puoplo, tho decline of indigenous industries 
and the uocoHHity of revn ing them, as also of introducing new 
industries, the (J-ovprnmtMit ill be pleased to introduce a more 
elaborate an.l olHcient schemo ot technical instruction and set 
nptvrt mow funds for its successful working [1900, (rc) and. (ft) ]. 

((f) Tlitit tho action of the Foiest Department under the 
rules framed 1 13 the different. Provincial drovcrnments prejudicially 
affects the mhn'ntanls of the rutal j-irts of the conntiy by subject- 
ing them to Un annoyance and oppiession of Forest subordinates 
in various \\avs ami that it w necustiary that these rules should 
be amended so as to remedy the grievances of the people in the 
matter. 

Formal 

XX. Resolved -That this Congress re-appoints Mi A.O. Hume, 
C.B., to be (Jtmeral Secretary, and Mr D. E. Wacha to be Joint- 
General Secretary, for the ensuing year 

XXI, "Resolved That the Eighteenth Indian National Congress 
do assemble after Christmas, 1903, on such day and place in the 
Bombay Presidency as may be later determined upon. 






, < - ^ wto 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE National Congress, meeting at Ahmedabad, in 
the Bombay Presidency, on December 23rd, 24th and 
26th, 1902, began its work on an earlier date than 
ever before, in consequence of the Coronation Darbar 
of the King-Emperor, Edward VII, held on January 
Jst, 1903, in the Imperial City of Delhi. For the 
second time an Industrial Conference was held in 
connection with the Congress, and it was opened on 
December 15th by H. H. the (j-aekwar of Baroda, 
always devoted to the welfare of India. There were 
471 delegates present, of whom no less than 287 
came from the Ahmedabad Circle. They were dis- 
tributed as follows : 

Bombay and Sindh ... ... . . .. 418 

Madras .. .. 12 

Berar, C. P. and Hyderabad 16 

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (former- 

ly K W. P. and Oudh) 5 

Bengal 20 

Panjab , 

471 

The Chairman of the Reception Committee, Dewan 
Bahadur Ambalal Desai, welcomed the Congress 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 358 

to the capital of Guzerat ; G-uzerat was an industrial 
and commercial region, and the two terrible famines 
through which it had just passed had aroused 
it to seek the reason of such horrors ; nearly J25 
lakhs of people had died out of a population of 
less than a crore. They saw one reason in the huge 
amount of wealth drained out of the country. Many 
of their people emigrated, and they found that their 
inferior political position hampered their trade, and 
that it was therefore necessary to agitate politically. 
They had many cotton mills, forced to pay the unjust 
excise duty, and they felt that commercial pursuits 
without political action were suicidal. Agricultural- 
ists suffered under inelastic revenue conditions, and 
all asked : " Why are we so poor f " Hence Guzerat 
turned to the Congress. 

The Hon. Mr. P. M. Mehta proposed, the Hon. 
Mr.' S. Nair seconded, and Mr. S. N. Pandit supported 
the election of the Hon. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, 
and he took the Chair amid immense applause. 

After alluding to the Congresses previously held in 
the Bombay Presidency, Mr. Bannerji alluded to the 
Coronation Darbar to be held at Delhi, and remarked 
that the 3858 Darbar at Allahabad, that of 1877 at 
Delhi, that of 1887 at Calcutta, had been marked by 
declarations of wider liberty to Indians ; safely the 
Darbar of Delhi in 1893 would grant some substantial 
concession to the people, 

The question, however, which concerned them most 
was the Report of -the Universities Commission, which 
had aroused " alarm, deep, ge^'ame, and all-pervading, 

28 




354 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

felt by all sections of the educated community 
throughout India, by Hindus and Musalmans alike ". 
" The noblest gift which British yule has conferred 
upon India is the boon of high education. It lies at 
the root of all our progress." The President then 
analysed the Report, pointing out its deficiencies, and 
condemned the new policy towards the Universities ; 
he, however, put much trust in the Viceroy, who 
would, he hoped, remedy the points protested against 
by the Indian community. He then turned to the 
economic problem, and asked whether it was true, as 
Mr. Digby asserted, " that India has undergone steady 
material retrogression under British rule," and 
declared that behind the economic policy lay the 
entire problem of Indian administration. A Com- 
missio'n of Enquiry should be issued to settle the 
question: "Is the country getting poorer day by 
day?" An enquiry had been held in 1880-81, under 
Lord ( Ripon, and a second during the Viceroyalty of 
Lord .Dufferin, but the results of those enquiries 
were .withheld from publication : 

Now these enquiries either prove, or disprove the 
allegation that the country is becoming poorer under 
British rale. If they disprove the allegation, nothing 
would be more natural than that the t rulers of India 
should hasten, by their publication, to refute a charge 
which involves so serious a reflexion upon their own 
administration. If these enquiries do not disprove the 
charge, nothing would be more natural than that they 
should keep back the evidence of which they are in 
possession. To withhold from the public the results of 
these enquiries and the evidence on vs hich they are based, 
raises a presumption against the roseate view of the 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 355 

economic situation. The presumption is strengthened by 
the steady refusal to hold an open enquiry, and it assumes 
more or less the complexion of definite proof, in view of 
facts the significance of which cannot be overlooked. 

The President then dealt with the terrible re- 
currence of famines, growing worse as time went on. 
It' such famines happeue'd in Europe, what would be 
said ? " But India is beyond the pale of civilised 
opinion, and her calamities do not apparently stir 
the conscience of even the great Nation into whose 
hands her destinies hav.e been consigned by an all- 
wise Providence." " Destitution is the root-cause 
of Indian famines." The people, if they were nor- 
mally prosperous, could buy food when crops 
failed : 

But they are absolutely resourceless, sunk in the 
deepest depths of poverty, living from hand to mouth, 
often starving -upon one meal a day, and they die in their 
thousands and hundreds of thousands upon the fir:. ' stress 
of scarcity, and as the situation deepens they die in their 
millions and tens of millions, despite the efforts of a 
benevolent Government to save them. 

The President, urged that the Government should 
seek to check the growing destitution by : 

(1) The revival of our old industries tuid the croatiou 
of now ones ; (2) the moderate assessment of the laud- 
tax (3) the remission of taxes which press heavily upon 
the poor ; (4) the stoppage of the drain, and the adoption 
of the necessary administrative measures in that behalf. 

The President then considered Industries, Land* 
Revenue Assessment, Bemission of Taxation, tha 
Drain, and other subjects, and urged that if the 



356 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

people had a voice in the expenditure, economy would 
result. He said in conclusion : 



triumphs of liberty are not won in a day. 
Liberty is a jealous Groddess, exacting' in her worship and 
claiming from her votaries prolonged and assiduous de- 
motion. Bead history. Learn from it the inestimable 
lesson of patience and fortitude and the self-sacrificing 
devotion which a constitutional struggle for constitutional 
liberty involves. Need I impress these lessons upon a 
People who have presented to the world the noblest of 
these virtues ? Every page of Indian history is resplen- 
dent with the touch of self-abnegation. . . . The re- 
sponsibilities of the present, the hopes of the future, the 
glories of the past ought all to inspire us with the noblest 
enthusiasm to serve our country. Is there a land more 
worthy of service and sacrifice ? Where is a land more 
interesting, more venerated in antiquity, more rich in 
historic traditions, in, the wealth of religious, ethical and 
spiritual conceptions, which have left an enduring impress 
on the civilisation of mankind ? India is the cradle of two 
religions. It is the Holy Land of the East. Here know- 
ledge first lit her torch. Here, in the morning of the 
world, the Vaidic Rishis sang those hymns which re- 
present the first yearnings of infant humanity towards 
the divine ideal. Here' was developed a literature and 
language which still oxcite the admiration of mankind 
a philosophy which pondered deep over the problems 
of life and evolved solutions which satisfied the highest 
yearnings of the loftiest minds. Here, man first essayed 
to solve the mystery of life, and the solution, wrapped in 
the rich colours of the poetic imagination and clothed 
with the deeper significance of a higher spiritual idea, 
bids fair, thanks to the genius of the greatest Hindu 
scientist of the age, to be accepted by the world of 
science. From our shores went forth those missionaries 
who, fired with apostolic- fervour, traversed the wilds of 
Asia and established the ascendency of that faith which 
is the law and the religion of the Nations of the far East. 
Japan is our spiritual pupil. China and Siberia and the 
islands of the Eastern Archipelago turn with reverend 



THH EiaHTEBNTH CONGRESS 357 

eyes to the land where was born the Prophet of their 
faith. Our pupils have out-distanced us; and here 
are we, hesitating-, doubting, calculating, casting 
up moral results to satisfy ourselves that our gains 
have been commensurate to our sacrifices. Such 
indeed has not been the royal road to political en- 
franchisement. The triumphs of liberty have not thus 
been won. Japan is tin object-lesson which thrusts itself 
upon the view. Read her history ; note her wonderful self- 
sacrifice, her marvellous power of adaptation, her patience, 
her fortitude, her indomitable energy and persistency, 
and let the most ancient of Eastern nations derive inspira- 
tion and guidance from the youngest, which has solved 
the riddle of Asiatic life and has harmonised the 
conservatism of the East with the progressive forces of 

the West Despotic rule represents a stage of 

transition, the period of which should not be unneces- 
sarily prolonged. But transition must give place to 
permanence. All signs point to tho conclusion that the 
period of reconstruction lias now arrived The forces are 
there ; the materials are there ; they lie in shapeless 
masses. "Whore is the man of genius who will com- 
municate to them the vital spark and transform them 
into a new and a higher and a grander organisation, 
suited to our present requirements arid fraught with the 
hopes of a higher life for 1 us and a nobler era for British 
rule in India The statesmanship of Mr. Chamberlain, 
bent upon the woik of reconstruction and consolidation in 
South Africa, will pale before the splendour of this 
crowning achievement. Wo plead for the permanence 
of British rule in India. We plead for the gradual 
reconstruction of that ancient and venerated system 
which has given to India law and order and the 
elements of stable peace. We plencl for justice and liberty, 
for equal rights and enlarged privileges, for our 
participation in the citizenship of the Empire ; and I am 
sure we do not plead in vain ; for the Empire, thus 
reconstituted and reorganised, will be. stronger, nobler, 
richer far in the love, the gratitude, the enthusiastic 
devotion of a happy and contented people, rejoicing in 



358 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

their indissoluble union with England, and glorying in the" 
rich promises of steady and uninterrupted progress 
towards their high destinies, under the protection and 
guidance of that great people, to whom in the counsels of 
Providence has been assigned the high mission and the 
consecrated task of disseminating among the nations of 
the earth, the great, the priceless, the inestimable blessing 
of constitutional liberty. 

When the cheers evoked by the eloquent speaker 
had subsided, the Subjects' Committee was approved, 
and the Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, Eesolution I, offering homage 
to the new King-Emperor, and Eesolution II ex- 
pressing sorrow for the passing away of Mr. B, M. 
Sayani and Mr. Banga Naidu, were put from the 
Chair and carried. 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer moved Resolution III, 
drawing attention to the poverty of the people, and 
suggesting remedies. He pointed out that there had 
been a time when the population of India was so 
flourishing that foreign visitors envied it, and when 
arts and industries flourished. The East India Com- 
pany had deliberately sacrificed India to the com- 
mercial advantage of England, had discouraged in- 
dustries and encouraged agriculture, so that India 
might produce raw materials for the manufacturing 
industries of England ; that policy had destroyed 
Indian industries, and Government, which had in- 
herited it, should reverse it. What is being done ? 
The gold mines of Kolar are worked by European 
capital. They yield 20 crores of rupees worth of gold 
annually, which is taken to another country. When 




THE EIGHTEENTH lONOHESS 

in another 20 or 30 years all the gold is dug up and 
carried away, what will remain to the people of Mysore 
but stones ? Government ought to protect Indian 
wealth, not allow it to be carried away. The splendid 
gift of Mr. Tata for scientific research and training 
had not been utilised. Further, the capital existing 
in the country in small amounts should be gathered 
into banks and used for industrial and agricultural 
purposes. 

The Hon. Mr, Perraju seconded, and dealt with 
revenue assessment, the ever fruitful source of 
poverty. Mr. M. K. Patel laid stress on the money- 
famine in India, and contrasted the beginning of the 
18th century, when India exported to England more 
than a million and a half sterling worth of piece* 
goods, and the end of the nineteenth, when she 
imported 28 millions worth of manufactured cotton. 
It is this destruction of her manufactures which has 
impoverished India. " The Indian Railways and 
Free Trade have between them ruined our artisan 
classes." The Hon. Mr. Goculdas K. Parekh also 
supported, showing how the heavy assessments threw 
land out of cultivation. The Resolution was carried. 

The fourth Resolution thanked the Famine Union 
in England for its effort to secure an enquiry into 
the economic condition of typical villages, and en- 
dorsed its request. It was moved by Mr. G. Raghava 
Iyer, and he showed the need for enquiry, in order 
that an accurate judgment might be formed on reliable 
facts and figures. He also supported the publication 
of .previous enquiries. Mr. Peter Paul Pillai seconded, 



360 HOW INDIA. TOOWHT FOB FREEDOM 

pointing to the frequency of famines in India. 
Air. V. R. Natu and Mr. Bhaishankar jSTanabhai 
supported, and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution V appealed to Government to secure 
better treatment for the Indian settlers in South 
Africa, and Mr. D. P. Thakore gave a graphic picture 
from his own experience of the constant and intoler- 
able insults to which all Indians were subjected : 
" the Indian is hated and insulted both in public and 
private life". Mr. Krishna Iyer seconded, and 
three Muhammadan residents in South Africa, 
Messrs. G-halara Hasan Muakhan, Haji Suleiman and 
Haji Sumar, having supported, the Resolution was 
carried. 

The sixth Resolution protested against the Currency 
Legislation of 1893, and was moved by Mr. Vithaldas 
Damodardas Thakarsey, seconded by Mr. G. Subra- 
mania Iyr, and supported by Mr. Sorabji Karaka, 
who said it had literally killed the mill-industry ; it 
carried. 

Mr. N. M. Samarth moved Resolution VI, con- 
demning the new burden imposed on India by 
increasing the pay of the British soldier, and the 
suggestion of an increase in the British troops 
quartered in India; the Resolution was second- 
ed by the Hon. Mr. Srinivasa Rao, supported by 
Mr. Baikunthanath Sen and carried. "Whereon the 
Congress adjourned. 

On meeting for the third day, the Congress tound 
itself face to' face with sixteen Resolutions, and the 
annual race began. Mr. J. Choudhuri moved 



THIS EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 361 

Resolution VIII, thanking the Government of India 
for its circular letter staying action on some of the 
proposals of the Universities Commission, and raising 
special objections to the most reactionary of the 
proposals made. He pointed out that education was 
regarded in quite a wrong spirit, and protested against 
the obstacles placed in the way of poor students. 
Mr. D. G. Padhya remarked that the Universities 
Commission had been composed of Government re- 
presentatives more largely than any other, and the 
whole scheme aimed at. the narrowing of the sphere of 
education in India, and the curtailment of the rights of 
the Fellows and Faculties had for object the gaining 
of an official majority in the Senate and Syndicate. 
Mr. N. B. Ranade d w ew attention to the injury propos- 
ed to be done to the teaching of History, Political 
Economy and Science, subjects vitally necessary for 
Indians. Mr. G. M. Tripathi condemned the inter- 
ference of the Si-ate in education, forcing on men 
who should be gurus, giving freely of their know- 
ledge-, the banya system of so much education for so 
much coin. The poor boys here were more eager 
for learning than the rich. The Resolution was 
carried. 

Mr. G. Subramaiiia, Iyer proposed Resolution IX, 
asking the Government to support Mr. Tata's Re- 
search Institute, and recommending the establish- 
ment of similar institutions in different parts of the 
country. It was seconded by Mr. Krishna JSTair, 
supported by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, and 
carried. 



if* 4 



362 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

In Resolution X, the inadequacy of the representa- 
tion of experienced Indians on the Police Commission 
was regretted, Mr. S. Sinha pointing out that there 
were only two Indians outside officials, and of these 
one was a 0. I. JB. always seeking to please English- 
men, and the other a Maharaja as yet untried. 
Unless the grievances of the people touching the 
Police were placed before the Commission, there 
would be no reforms. Mr. Krishnamachari seconded, 
Messrs. N. N. Mitra, M. K. Padhya, S. B. Bhagvat 
supported, and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution XI was on the separation of the 
Judicial and Executive Functions, patiently moved 
by Dewan Bahadur Amhalal Sakerlal, seconded by 
Mr, Ambikacharan Mozurndar who said they could 
not afford to be tired of discussing it as long as the 
administration tired them by practising it supported 
by Mr. Rustam K. R. Cuma and Pandit K. P. 
Kavyabisharad, and carried. 

Resolution XII passed a well-merited condemna- 
tion on the system of appointing to District Judge- 
ships Covenanted Civilians with little knowledge of 
law. Mr. Jogendranath Maker ji moved it, giving 
instances of judicial ignorance. Mr. A. M. Advani, 
in seconding, added to these, and Mr. Hardeoram 
Nanabhai Haridas complained that logic and facts 
were useless before the Assistant Civilian Judge ; they 
had to rely on adjectives. The Resolution was passed. 

Once more the reduction of the Salt Tax, that most 
iniquitous burden on the poor, came up as Resolution 
XIII, and was moved by Mr. C. Y. Chintamani in a 




THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 363 

terse and forcible speech, and seconded by Mr. J. V. 
Besni, who remarked that, in Guzerat, salt cost 
Re. 0-1-8 per maund, and the dnty on that quantity 
was Rs. 2-8-0. The Resolution was carried. It is 
astounding that these things should be pointed out 
so constantly, and no redress should be gained. In a 
Self-Governed country such grievances would be 
removed. 

Once more the Congress, in Resolution XIV, 
voiced the grievances of Indians in the Public 
Services. Mr. G. K. Setna moved, Mr. Abdul Kasim 
seconded, and it was carried. 

Railways were the next example of the exclusion 
of Indians in the higher branches of the Service, and 
Mr. Govindrao Apaji Patil moved Resolution XV, 
remarking that there would be less loss ou the 
railways were it not for the high cost of Europeans, 
and caustically remarking that Indians might become 
Assistant Collectors and Collectors, but not Traffic 
Inspectors. Mr. S. M. Patel seconded, and Mr. M. K. 
Patel having supported it, the Resolution passed. 

Mr. D. E. Wacha brought up the standing grievance 
of the Excise Duty on Indian-produced cloth in 
Resolution XVI, saying that he would refer the 
Congress to his previous speeches on the subject. 
Setih Mangaldas Girdhardas seconded, and the 
Resolution was carried. 

" Resolution XVII, on the Medical Services, asking 
for the reforms previously demanded, was moved by 
Dr. A. Erulker Salomon. Dr, Joseph Benjamin 
seconded, and it was carried. 



364 HOW INDIA WROUaftT FOB FREEDOM 

Mr. N. C. Kelkar moved the eighteenth Resolution, 
urging Government to throw open the higher grades 
of the Army to Indians and to establish Military 
Colleges. These requests had long been lurking in 
the seclusion of the Omnibus, but now came out once 
more on their own feet, were seconded by Dr. Joseph 
Benjamin, and carried. 

The President then drove in the Omnibus (No. XIX), 
and Resolution XX on the British Committee and 
India, and both were carried. Thanks were offered to 
Sir William Wedderburn and the British Committee 
in Eesolution XXI, and the reappointment of Messrs. 
A. 0. Hume and D. E. Wacha as Secretaries was put 
from the Chair as Resolution XXII. He also put 
Resolution XXIII, fixing the Nineteenth Congress at 
Madras. 

A vote of thanks was moved to the President, who 
acknowledged it in a felicitous and eloquent speech, 
specially appealing to the younger generation to take 
up the work of the Congress, and so bring about the 
realisation of the Nation's hopes. 

With his inspiring words ringing in their hearts, 
the Eighteenth National Congress dissolved. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Homage to the Crown 

I. Resolved That the Congress begs to tender its respectful 
homage to His Most Gracious Ma]esty, King-Emperor Edward Vll, 
on the occasion of the approaching Coronation Darbar to be held 
at Delhi on 1st January, 1903, and humbly trusts that His Majesty's 
reign will be an era of peace, prosperity and contentment through- 
out the Empire and will be marked by the gradual but complete 
redemption of the pledges contained in Her late Majesty's Procla- 
mation and re-affirmed m His Majesty's "gracious Message to the 
Indian people. 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 865 

Regret of th GongreaB 

II. Rosolved -That this Congress wishes to place on record 
its great regret at the death of Mr. R. M. Sayani, one of its past 
Presidents, and of Mr. P. Rangia Naidu, who did valuable services 
in various capacities to the interests of this country. 

Poverty and Remedies 

III. Resolved That the Congress earnestly desires to draw 
the attention of the Government of India to the great poverty of 
the Indian people, which, in the opinion of the Congress, is mainly 
due to the decline of indigenous arts and manufactures, to the drain 
of the wen 1th of the country which has gone on for years, and to 
excessive taxation and over-assessment of land which have so far 
impoverished the people that at the first touch of scarcity large 
numbers are forced to throw themselves on State help. And the 
Congress recommends the following anumgst other remedial 
measures : 

(1) That practical steps in the shape of State encouragement 
be taken for the development and revival of indigenous arts and 
manufactures and for the introduction of new industries. 

(2) That Government be pleased to establish technical 
schools and colleges at important centres throughout the country. 

(3) That the Permanent Settlement be extended to such 
parts of the country as are now ripe for it, in accordance with the 
conditions laid down in the Secretary of State for India's Despatches 
of 1862 and 1867 on the subject; and that reduction of, and judicial 
restriction on, over-apsessinents be imposed in those phrts of India 
where Government may still deem it inadvisable to extend the 
Permanent Settlement. 

(4) That the drain of the wealth of the country be stopped, 
at least in part, by a much wider employment of the children of the 
soil in the higher branches of tho Public Service. 

(5) That Agricultural Banks be established for tho better 
organisation of rural credit and for enabling solvent agriculturists 
to obtain loans on comparatively easy terms. 

Enquiry into Economic Condition 

IV. ResolvedThat this Congress desires to place on record 
its grateful appreciation of the efforts which the Famine Union in 
England is making to secure a detailed enquiry into the economic 
condition of a number of typical villages in India. In the opinion 
of this Congress, such an enquiry will in no way prove inquisitorial 
as apprehended, but will be of the highest value for a proper under-, 
standing of the true condition of the Indian Ryot, and will clear up 
many of the misapprehensions Which prevail at present on the 

29 



366 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

subject and which interfere with tho adoption of the right remedial 
measures. That the Congress is of opinion that such an enquiry, 
following the two severe famines, is highly expedient, inasmuch as it 
will enable the Government to bo placed in possession of economic 
data of great utility for purposes of .comparison. And the Congress 
hopes that the Secretary of State for India will be pleased to 
reconsider his decision in the matter* 

In this connection the Congress would respectfully urge thai 
the Government of India should be pleased to publish the results of 
the official enquiries which have been held in the past on this 
subject, notably the enquiry instituted during tbe time of Lord 
Dufferiu, extracts from which, alone, have been published. 

South Africa 

V. Resolved That this Congress once more urges upon tho 
attention of the Government of India the serious grievances of 
Indian Settlers in South Africa, and regrets to observe that the 
Imperialistic spirit of the British Colonies, instead of mitigating the 
anti-Indian legislation, threatens to impose further disabilities and 
hardships on His Majesty's loyal Indian subjects there. In view of 
the admitted loyalty of these Indian settlers and tho help rendered 
by them during the late war, as well as the invaluable help rendered 
by India to the British Empire at a most critical time, the Congress 
fervently prays that the Government of India will be pleased to 
take the necessary practical steps to secure a just, equitable, and 
liberal treatment of the Indian settlers in South Africa. 

Tii 4&1S connection the Congress notes with satisfaction the 
assurance recently given by the Secretary of State for India, to a 
deputation that interviewed him on the subject, that early steps 
are contemplated to relax the stringency of the restrictions at 
present enforced ag.imst the Indian settlers in the territories lately 
conquered from the Boer Government. 

Monetary 

VI. Resolved That this Congress strongly reiterates its pro- 
test against the currency legislation of 1893, which has artificially 
enhanced the value of the rupee by more than thirty per cent, 
which indirectly enhances all taxation to that extent, and which, 
whilst giving the Government large surpluses from year to year, 
affects most injuriously the interests of the agriculturists and other 
producers of this country. 

Military 

VII. Resolved That this Congress outers its most emphatic 
protest against the fresh permanent burden of 786,000 per annum, 
Which the increase made during the course of the year in the pay 
of the British soldier woul<| impose on the revenues of India, and 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 367 

views with alarm the recent announcement of the Secretary of 
State for India, hinting nt a possible increase in the near future of 
the strength of the British troops in the country. In view of the 
fact that during tho last throe years large bodies of .British troops 
have with perfect safety boon withdrawn for service in South Africa 
and China, tho proposal to increase tho stoeugtih of the existing 
British garrison manifestly involves a grievous injustice to the 
Indian tax-payer, and the Congress earnestly trusts that tho pro- 
posal will either bo abandoned, or else be carried out at the cost of 
tho British Exchequer, which, in fairness should bear, not only the 
cost of any additional British troops that may be employed, but 
also a reasonable proportion of tho cost of the existing garrison. 

XVIII. Kosolved That while thnukiug the Government of 
Lord Cur/on for opening a military career to a few scions of noble 
families by tho creation of the Cadet Corps, this Congress urges 
that in view of the loyalty and splendid services rendered by the 
Indian troops to tho British Empire in the late Chinese war and 
in other wars, Government, will be pleased to throw opon to the 
Natives of India higher posts in the Military Services and to 
establish Military Colleges at. which Indians may bo trained for a 
military career as commissioned and non-commissioned officers 
in tho Indian Army. 

Education 

VIH. Resolved That this Congress desires to tender its 
respectful thanks to the Government of India for the Circular Letter 
recently addressed by them to Local Governments on the subject 
of the Universities Commission Report so far as ifi relates to the 
proposals for the abolition of Second Grade Colleges and Law 
classes which IWIH partially allayed tho apprehension in the public 
mind that duo weight might not be attached to public opinion in 
taking action on tho recommendations of the Commission. That 
this Congress views with the gravest alarm many of the Commis- 
sion's recommendations, the acceptance of which will, in its opinion, 
reverse tho policy steadily pursued during the last half of a century 
by tho British Government in tho matter df higher education, by 
checking its spread and restricting its scope, and by virtually 
destroying such limited independence as tho 'Universities at present 
enjoy. 

That in particular the Congress objects most strongly to the 
following recommendations of the Commission : 

(a) The abolition of all existing Second Grade Colleges ex. 
cept such us may be raised to the status of a First Grade College, 
and tho prohibition of tho affiliation of now Second Grade Colleges. 

(6) Tho fixing by the Syndicate of minimum, rates of 'fees for 
different colleges. 



368 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

(c) The introduction of a rigidly uniform course of studies 
throughout the country, irrespective of the lines on which the 
different Universities have so far progressed. 

(d) The monopoly of legal instruction by Central Law 
Colleges, one for each Province or Presidency. 

(e) The virtual licensing of all secondary education by 
making the existence of all private schools dependent upon their 
recognition by the Director of Public Instruction. 

(/) And the official! sation of the Senate and the Syndicate 
and the practical conversion of the University into a Department of 
Government. 

IX. ResolvedThat this Congress considers that the Institute 
of Research which the private beneficence of Mr. Tata proposes to 
establish, should receive adequate support from Government, and 
the Congress is strongly of opinion that similar institutions should 
be founded in different parts of the country. 

Police 

X Resolved That this Congress records its sense of regret 
at the inadequacy of the representation on the Police Commission 
of Indian gentlemen of experience on the subject, and at the limited 
scope of reference as indicated in tho Resolution of the Government 
of India, and in the opening speech of the President. 

This Congress further records its deliberate conviction that the 
Police will not be rendered efficient unless the following among 
other reforms are carried out : 

(1) That men of adequate qualification are secured for 
superior offices in the Police Service. 

(2) v That educated Indians are largely employed in >the 
superior offices in the Police Service. 

(3) That the position and prospects of investigating and 
inspecting officers are improved, so as to attract educated men to 
the Service. 

(4) That the District officer, who is District Magistrate 
and head of the Police, is relieved of his judicial powers and of all 
control over the Magistracy. 



XI. Resolved That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, appeals to the Government of India and the Secretary of 
State, to take early practical steps for the purpose of carrying out 
the separation of Judicial and Executive functions in the adtninistra- 
tion of criminal justice, the deairibility of which has been frequently 



THB EIGHTEENTH CON0BK88 369 

Admitted on part of Government. In this connection, the Congress 
regrets to notice that the trend of recent legislation is not only to 
deprive the Judiciary of its salutary and wholesome power of 
check and restraint over the Executive, but to invest the Executive 
with greater and uncontrolled powers. 

Civilian Judgea 

XII. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that the 
present system, under which a very large proportion of the 
District Judgeships, Joint-Judgeships and Assistant-Judgeships, 
are filled by Covenanted Civilians without any special legal 
training and without adequate guarantee of the knowledge of law 
necessary for the satisfactory discharge of the very important and 
responsible judicial duties entrusted to them, is injurious to the 
best interests of efficient judicial administration in the Muffasal, 
and that it is urgently necessary to devise means to ensure a higher 
standard of efficiency in the administration of law, by securing the 
services of trained lawyers for the said posts. 

Salt Tax 

XIII. Resolved That the Congress strongly protests against 
the present high duty on salt, and in view of the fact that the 
prevalence and spread of many diseases are now traced to the 
insufficiency of salt consumed by the Indian masses, and that the 
accounts of the Government of India have now been showing 
largo surpluses year after year, the Congress urges that Govern- 
ment should bo pleased to reduce the Salt Tax by at least the 
amount of its enhancement in 1888. 

Public Service 

XIV. Resolved That the Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, again records its deep regret that the labours of the 
Public Service Commission have practically proved void of any 
good results to the people of this country, and is strongly of 
opinion that no satisfactory solution of the question is possible,. 
unless effect is given to the Resolution of the House of Commons 
of 2nd of June, 1893, in favour of holding the Competitive 
Examination for the Indian Civil Services, i.e., Civil, Medical, 
Police, Engineering, Telegraph, Forest, and Accounts, both, in 
England and in India. That the policy of the Government of 
India in regard to the minor Civil Services practically excludes the 
Natives of India from higher appointments in them, and is there- 
fore opposed not only to the recommendations of the Public 
Service Commission but to Eoyal and Viceregal' pledges given to 
the Indian people from time to time. 



370 HOW IHDIA WROUGHT FOB JPBEEDOM 

XV. Resolved That, in view of the fact that the Railway 
Administration forms an important branch of the P.W. Department 
of the Government, the Congress notices with regret that the 
Natives of India are practically excluded from higher appointments 
such as Traffic Inspectors, District Traffic Superintendents, 
Accountants, etc., on State, as well as on guaranteed Hallways, and 
appointments of Rs. 200 and above are, as a rule, bestowed only on 
Europeans. That the exclusive employment of Europeans in tho 
higher posts results in heavy working charges, the burden of 
which falls on the Indian tax-payers at whose expense tho State 
railways have been constructed, and who have to bear tho ultimate 
liability of deficits on the Guarantefcd Railways The Congress 
therefore deems it its duty to urge in the interests of economical 
railway administration, as also for the purpose of removing 
legitimate grievance, that Government will be pleased to diroct 
the employment of qualified Indians in the higher branches of tho 
Railway Service. 

Cotton Excise Duty 

XVI. Resolve^ That having regard to the fact, that while 
cloth manufactured by means of power looms in this country in no 
way competes with the piece goods imported from Lancashire, tho 
imposition of the Excise duty of 3 per cent thereon, apart from its 
tendency to arrest the free growth of the weaving industry, con- 
tinues to operate as a great injustice to the manufacturers, and 
imposes serious hardship on the masses of the people who consume 
the coarser indigenous products. This Congress earnestly prays 
that the Government will be pleased to take the mutter into favour- 
able consideration and repeal the duty at an early date. 

Medical 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that in the 
interests of the Public, the medical science and tho profession, as 
well as to secure economy of administration it is necessary 

(1) That there should be only one Military Medical Service, 
with two branches one for the European Army and the other for 
the Native troops, graduates of the Indian Colleges being employed 
to the latter with greater economy and efficiency to the .Stale. ; 
and 

(2) That the Civil Medical Service of the country should be 
reconstituted as -a distinct and independent Medical Service, wholly 
detached from its present military connection, and recruited from 
the open profession of medicine in India and elsewhere, duo regard 
being had to the utilisation of indigenous talent. That this Congress, 
while gratefully acknowledging what has been done to improve the 
position and prospects of the subordinate Medical Service, is of 
opinion that the grievances of assistant surgeons and hospital 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 371 

assistants, compared with members of similar standing in other 
departments of the Public Service, require thorough redress. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolutions 

XIX. Resolved That this Congress concurs with previous 
Congresses in strongly advocating (a) That with a view that the 
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council may enjoy greater 
respect and confidence it is necessary to reconstitute it on a broader 
basis and that the time is ripe for the appointment of Indian 
lawyers of eminence as Lords of the Judicial Committee, to 
participate in the decision of Indian appeals. 

(6) That the grant of exchange compensation allowance to 
the non-domiciled European and Eurasian employees of Government, 
should be discontinued. 

(c) That the rules under the Arms Act should be modified 
so as to make them equally applicable to all residents in, or 
visitors to, India, without distinction of creed, caste, or colour, to 
ensure the liberal concession of licences wherever wild animals 
habitually destioy human life, cattle, or crops, and to make all 
licences granted undei the revised uilcs, of lifelong tenure, 
revocable only on proof of misuse, and valid throughout the 
Provincial jurisdiction in which they are issued 

(d) That a widespread system of Volunteering, such as 
obtains in Groat Britain, should be introduced amongst the people 
of India. 

(e) That a High Court of Judicature be established in the 
Punjab. 

(/) That, inasmuch as the scheme of reorganisation of the 
Education Service is calculated to exclude Natives of India, 
including those who have been educated in England, from the 
superior grade of the Educational Service to which they have 
hitherto been admitted, the scheme should be recast, so as to afford 
facilities for the admission of Indian graduates to the superior 
grade of the Educational Service. 

(</) That the act of the Secretary of State of India in fixing 
the limit at two posts beyond which Natives of India cannot 
compete in the Cooper's Hill College is opposed to the plain words 
of Act I of 1833, and to Her late Majesty's gracious Proclamation. 

(fr) That the system of trial by jury should be extended to 
the districts and offences to which "at present it does not apply, 
and that the verdicts of juries should be final. 

(') That it is desirable that the Criminal Procedure Code 
should be so amended as to conter upon accused persons who are 
Natives of India, the right of claiming in trials bjr jury before the 



* . . t, . 



372 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOE FREEDOM 

High Court, and in trials with the aid of assessors, that not less 
than half the number of jurors, or of the assessors, shall be Natives 
of India. 

(j) That the existing rules, framed by the different Provin- 
cial Governments in the matter of the Forest Department are oppos- 
ed to the Resolution of the Government of India made in 1894, with 
the object of enunciating the objects of forest conservancy and that 
an amendment of the rales, in conformity with the above resolution, 
id urgently called for in the interests of the inhabitants of rural 
India. 

Congress Work 

XX. Resolved That the Congress is of opinion that it is 
essential for the success of its work that there should be a Commit- 
tee in London acting in concert with it, and a weekly journiil 
published in London propagating its views, and this Congress 
resolves that its British Committee, as at present constituted, and 
the Journal India as published by it r be maintained and continued, 
and the cost be raised in accordance with the following scheme 

That a circulation of 4,000 copios of India be secured by allot- 
ting 1 ,500 copies to Bengal, 700 copies to Madras, 200 copies to the 
N. W. Provinces, 50 copies to Oudh, 100 copies to the Panjab, 450 
copies to Berar and the Central Provinces and 1,000 copies to 
Bombay ; the rate of yearly subscription being Its. 8. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed Secretaries for the 
circles against which their names appear, and to be held responsi- 
ble for the sums duo for the copies of India assigned to their 
respective circles, and the money be paid in advance in two half- 
yearly instalments : ' 

BENGAL : BERAR & THE CENTRAL PROVINCES 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji. Mr> R> N . Mudholkar. 

Mr. Bhupendranath Basu. 

Mr. Baikonthanath Sen. ^ -yp. PROVINCES & OUDH 

BOMBAY : Pandit M. M. Malaviya. 

Hon. Mr. P. N. Mehta. ** a ? a Prasud Varma ' 

Mr D. E. Wacha i} r> ? S nha ' 

Son. Mr. G. K. Gokhale. Mr ' A ' Nutul y- 

MADRAS: C AWN PORE : 

Hon. Mr. Srinivasa Kao. Mr * Pritl 'inath Pandit. 

Mr. Viiiaraghavachari. -r> T 

Mr. V. Ryru Nambier. PANJAB ' 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer. Lala Harkishan Lai. 



THE EIGHTEENTH CONGRESS 373 

That with a view to meet the balance required to defray the 
expenses of India and the British Committee, a special delegation 
fee of KB. 10 be paid by each delegate, in addition to the usual fee 
now paid by him, with effect from 1902. 

Thanks of Congress 

XXI. Resolved That this Congress tenders its most grateful 
thanks to Sir W. Wedderburn and the other members of the British 
Congress Committee, for the services rendered by them to India 
during the present year. [And see IV, VIII, and XVIIL] 

Formal 

XXII. Resolved That this Congress re-appoints Mr. A. 
Hume, C.B., to be General Secretary, and Mr. D. E Wacha, to be 
Joint- General Secretary, for the ensuing year. 

XXIII Resolved That the Nineteenth Indian National Con- 
gress do assemble after Christmas, 1903, at Madras. 



CHAPTER XIX 



ONCE more the National Congress met at Madras, in 
a large pandal holding nearly 6,000 persons, erected 
Spring Gardens, Teynampet. The Nineteenth 



in 



Congress held its sittings on December 28th, 29th 
and 30th, 1903, and the third Industrial Exhibition 
was held with it, and was opened, on December 26th, 
by the young Maharaja of Mysore. The delegates 
numbered 538, distributed as follows : 



Madras .... 

C. P., Berar, Secunderabad and Hyderabad. 

Bengal and Assam 

Bombay 

U.P. 

Panjab ... 
Burma ... 



383 

18 
47 
76 

8 
5 

1 

538 



We see Burma represented for the first time, buiJ 
Sindh sent no one this year. 

The President of the Reception Comnittee, Nawab 
Syed Muhammad Sahab Bahadur, welcomed the 
delegates, and after announcing the loss the 
Congress had sustained in the passing away of 
Lord Stanley of Alderley and the Raja of Ramnad, 



THE NINETEENTH COHGBB88 375 

urged that Muhammadans and Hindus had 
nmon political interests, and most cordially unite 
the good of their common country. Some d,e* 
seated political agitation, hut "politics is the 
euce of social happiness/' and in concerning the.m~ 
yes with political work, they were following the 
^mple shown them by the British Nation. Im-* 
bience of criticism was a common official fault; 
ne the less was it their duty to point out what was 
aded, and the people must be emancipated from 
)ir intellectual and political thraldom. He recalled 
rd Ripon's work in laying the foundations of 
Lf-Grovernmeiit, and suggested that a statue 
)uld be erected to him. 

The Hon. Mr. P. M. Pherozeshah Mehta proposed 
. Lai Mohan Ghose for formal election as President, 
dug tribute to his great gifts; Mr. Eardley 
rton seconded, the Hon. Pandit M. M. Malaviya, 
(ported, and the election was confirmed with 
bfening cheers. 

Mie President said that though for some years 
had not taken an active part in politics, he had 
m thinking over political problems and had 
awed with unabated interest the course of events, 
I perhaps the views thus slowly matured might be 
re valuable than if he had been speaking all 
time. Lord Curzon saw the hand of Providence 
the extension of British rule, and said everyone 
aid admit it was for his good. But Providence 
j too often appealed to both by the governing 
ises and by the leaders of the masses. 



V 1 4 J **'V<H*"- 



376 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Coming to the case of our own country, although there 
is not a man amongst us who is not sincerely loyal to 
the British Government, yet, claiming the undoubted 
right of British subjects to criticise the acts of the 
Government, may we not respectfully ask our rulers and 
in this connection T make no distinction between the 
different English political parties may we not ask 
whether we are to believe that the policy which many 
years ago killed our indigenous industries, which even 
only the other day and under a Liberal administration 
unhlushingly imposed excise duties on our cotton manu- 
factures, which steadily drains our National resources to 
the extent of something like 20 millions sterling per 
annum, and which, by imposing heavy burdens on our 
agricultural population, increases the frequency and 
intensity of our famines to an extent unknown in former 
times are we to believe that the various administrative 
acts which have led to those results were directly mspif ed 
by a beneficent Providence ? 

The speaker then turned to the very sore subject 
of Lord Curzon's Delhi Darbar, with its extravagance, 
the treatment accorded to the Indian Princes " sub- 
jected to a humiliation they had never before known 
under the British Government " and the Indian 
visitors, who returned " with bitter memories of 
the different treatment received by Indians and 
Europeans ". The growing feeling of dislike to I^ord 
Curzon was intensified by the anger aroused by that 
unfortunate pageant. The President said : 

We are not a Self-Governing Nation. We are not 
able, like the English people, to change one administra- 
tion for another by our votes in the polling booths. We 
have to depend entirely upon the justice of the British 
Parliament ; for unfortunately it is only too true that, 
as time advances, our Indian bureaucracy, instead of com- 
ing into line with popular ideas, seems to grow more and 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 377 

more unsympathetic. Bo you think that any administra- 
tion in England, or France, or the United States, would 
have ventured to waste vast sums of money on an empty 
pageant, when Famine and Pestilence were stalking over 
the land, and the Angel of Death was flapping his wings 
almost within hearing of the light-hearted revellers ? 
Gentlemen: a year has now rolled hy since the great 
political pageant was held at Delhi against the almost 
unanimous protests of all our public and representative 
men both in the press and on the platform. On what 
ground did they protest ? They protested, not because 
they were wanting in loyalty to the Sovereign, whose 
coronation it was intended to celebrate, but because they 
felt that if His Majesty's Ministers had done their duty, 
and had laid before him an unvarnished story of his 
famine-stricken subjects in India, His Majesty, with his 
characteristic sympathy for suffering humanity, would 
himself have been the first to forbid his representatives 
in this country to offer a pompous pageant to a starving 
population. However, our protests were disregarded, 
and the great tamasha was celebrated, with that utter 
recklessness of expense which you may always expect 
when men, no matter how highly placed, were dealing 
with other people's money, and were practically accoun- 
table to no one for their acts. 

We are all familiar with the financial jugglery which, 
by distributing the expenses under various and sometimes 
under the most unexpected headings, makes it so dif- 
ficult for ordinary men to find out the total cost of such 
a pageant. Still, whether you estimate that cost by a 
few lakhs more or less, it cannot be denied that if even 
half of the vast sum spent in connection with the Delhi 
Darbar had been made over for the purposes of famine 
relief, it might have been the means of saving millions 
of men, women and children from death by starvation. 

The President then discussed the questions of Free 

Trade and Fair Trade as affecting India, dealing 

caustically with Mr. Chamberlain's program in e, and 

proceeded to analyse the causes of the increasing 

80 



378 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM! 

poverty of India. Anarchy had been put an end 
to, but "after all it makes but little difference 
whether millions of lives are lost on account of war and 
anarchy, or whether the same result is brought about 
by famine and starvation ". The President next 
referred to the burden of military extravagance, the 
maladministration of justice, and the physical ill- 
treatment of Indians by Europeans and the impos- 
sibility of obtaining redress, saying that he was 
hopeless of obtaining justice where crimes of violence 
on Indians were committed, unless Parliament would 
take up the question. Lettres de cachet were abolished 
in France in 1789, but were introduced here in 1818, 
and were not a dead letter. Lately, they had had a 
Sedition Act, and this year Lord Curzon had thrown 
a bombshell 1 in to their midst with the Official Secrets 
Bill, which relieved the prosecution of giving evidence 
to prove the guilt of the accused, and left the accused 
to prove his innocence a reversal of all civilised 
jurisprudence. The Universities Bill, officialising 
the centres of learning, came in for trenchant criticism. 
Then followed a plea for compulsory free primary 
education, a condemnation of the "retrograde and 
reactionary Madras Municipal Bill," a pressing of the 
claims of Indian industries, ending on a glad note of 
some sympathy shown in England, and the rapproche- 
ment between Hindus and Mnhammadans. 

Thus ended one of the ablest speeches uttered by a 
President of the National Congress. Eeaders will do 
well to note the increasing signs of the coming 
danger, forced on by Lord Curzon's policy against 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 379 

all the warnings of the Congress. Coercion created 
unrest ; a feeling of general insecurity arose, owing 
to the odious system of the lettres de cachet, under 
which no man's liberty was safe j men began to 
despair of improvement, and secret societies were 
formed. The voice of Congress was disregarded, 
and its leaders lived under the shadow of arrest. 
Each year showed growing anger and increasing re- 
sentment again the Curzonian rule. 

The Congress adjourned for the day, after the 
Subjects Committee had been approved. 

The second day began with the expression of 
sorrow for the loss sustained by India in the deaths 
of Lord Stanley of Alderley, Mr. W. S. Caine and 
the Raja of Ramnad, the Eesolution being put from 
the Chair and passed in silence, standing. 
Resolution II, moved by Mr. D. E. Wacha, dealt 
with the deeply felt wrong of the exclusion of Indians 
from the higher grades of the Public Service. 1 He 

1 Survey Depai tment of the Government of India. 132 Officers 
salaries from Bs 3002,000, only two are Indians on Rs. 300. 

Government Telegiaph Department. 52 Appointments of Rs. 500 
and more, only one Indian. 

Indo-Bntish Telegiaph.l3 Officers above Rs. 500 salary, not an 
Indian 

Mint Department. 6 Officers above Rs. 500 pay, not an Indian. 

Post Office Last year only 1 Indian among the 10 men drawing 
more than Rs. 600, who was a member of the Civil Service. 

Geological Survey. -2 out of the Officers drawing salaries above 
Rs. 500, an Indian. 

Botanical Survey None. 

In the Foreign Department Out of 22 such Officers only 3 are 
Indians. . 

Miscella-neous. There are 22 Officers, of whom there is not a 
single Indian. 

Financial Department. 14 are Indians out of 59 who draw more 
than Re. 600 pay. 



380 HOW INDIA WBOUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

gave some striking statistics of the various Services, 
showing how foreigners everywhere kept out Indians, 
leaving the badly paid offices to the people of the 
country and monopolising the well-paid, a condition 
intolerable to the self-respect of the people of any 
civilised land. " We do not grumble at Europeans 
having a .share of the loaves and fishes, but we do 
grumble and make it a strong grievance that the bigger 
and most numerous loaves are deliberately allowed', 
in defiance of charters, pledges and proclamations, to 
go to the whites, and smaller and fewer loaves to 
the blacks." 

It is not open to us to suspect the motives of 
Government, but Government may do so, and castigate 
us to any extent, as Lord Curzon tried the other day to 
castigate Mr. Gokhale most wrongfully. It comes to this, 
that what is mild or inoffensive in the captain becomes 
choleric and blasphemous in the soldier. So on our part 
it is "blasphemous to attribute motives to Government, 
but it is not blasphemous for the Government to rave and 
rant and castigate us to its heart's content. . . . Through- 
out the whole career of the British Indian Government, 
not from to-day but from the days of the East India 
Company, there is this tradition to give a- promise to the 
ear and to break it to the heart, and they faithfully and 
loyally follow that tradition. In the case of the-PuJblic 
Service Commission, we have found, to our bitter cost 
and experience, that the same traditional policy has been 
carried on. Promises were most profusely given to us ; 
a Commission was appointed amid a great flourish; 
finality was to be given to our legitimate aspirations and 
our just grievances were to be fairly redressed. It has 
been so for the last half century. When the practice 
comes, we find ourselves exactly in the same situation as 
were in before the Commission was appointed. This 

he tale of our grievances, of our legitimate and fair 

vances, 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 381 

So spake Mr. Wacha in 1903. We have now, in 
1915, the Report of another Public Service Commission 
awaiting publication. The same old story will be 
repeated. How can it be otherwise when the 
Commissions are predominantly Anglo-Indian, and 
when the power and place of the Anglo-Indian depend 
on his asserting that the Indian is unfit ? 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer seconded, showing how. 
Indians had been more and more ousted from positions 
of influence, giving them no opportunity of developing 
their powers ; where was an Indian Marquis of Ito, 
or Count Okuma ? Europeans were paid large salaries 
while they gained experience here, and then were 
given high positions abroad to utilise outside India 
the experience gained in India. 

They say there should be an irreducible minimum of 
Englishmen. What does it mean r* Slavery is engrained 
in the skin of our body. If we in our own country 
are not to be trusted with responsible appointments, 
if our own Government \\ill not take us into their 
confidence and place us in offices which will give us 
responsibility in the administration of our own country, 
what is it, Gentlemen, but slavery ? We are hewers 
of wood and drawers of water, and nothing more, 
.... In every department there is a regular retro- 
grade policy being pursued. On the one hand, they 
go on making promises and giving us hopes and 
assurances, and on the other hand they go on adopfting a 
backward policy. After a hundred years we have not ad- 
vanced by one inch, but have gone a long distance back- 
ward from where we were. 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji spoke to the resolution, 
declaring that " we have lost ground, but our cause 
is one of righteousness and justice," and he felt 



382 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

" confident that the day will come which will 
mark the ultimate triumph of equality, and of equal 
principles even in this unhappy land of ours ". 
Messrs. Peary Lai G-hose and Abdul Kasim followed 
and the Resolution was carried. 

Resolution III on the rise of land assessment, was 
entrusted to Mr. L. A. Govindaraghava Iyer, who 
pointed out that Permanent Settlement, and where that 
could not be, longer terms of Settlement would better 
the condition of the ryot. He showed that more was 
demanded than the ryot could pay, whereas he ought 
to be so taxed that he could save in good seasons and 
so face bad ones. In 1852, the Secretary of State 
sent out a statesmanlike despatch on Permanent 
Settlement, but the present-day Government was not 
politically wise. 

The Hon. Mr. Parekh seconded, and the Resolution 
was supported by Messrs. Peter Paul Pillai, N. 
Srinivasavarada Chariar, S. Subramaniam, P. R. 
Sundara Iyer, and carried. 

Resolution IV, on South Africa, was moved by 
Dr. U. L. Desai and seconded by Mr. S. K. Nair. 
Mr. C. F. Sievwright brought a petition from Indians 
in Australia, asking to be rescued from the degrading 
restrictions placed on them. Mr. V. G-. Vasudeva 
Pillai, the first delegate from the newly created 
Burmese Congress centre, supported, and the 
Resolution being carried, the Congress rose for the 
day. 

On the third day, Resolution V, on the Universities 
Bill, was moved by Mr. Surendranath Banner ji, who 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 383 

pointed out that Government was taking control of 
Higher Education, as it had limited the civil freedom 
of their Corporations. The new-fangled Imperialism 
was darkening the prospects of human freedom. 
Lord Curzon's " name would go down to posterity 
indissolubly linked with a reactionary and retrograde 
measure which has been condemned by the unanimous 
opinion of educated India ". They were told that a 
body of educational experts met in 1901, and advised 
changes. They " met in secret, deliberated in secret, 
resolved in secret, and, I presume, dispersed in 
secret ". The Senates were against the Bill, and 
they had public opinion behind them. The Univer- 
sities were made Government Departments. Private 
institutions would be checked, private colleges de- 
stroyed, the educational area restricted. The Bill 
made a revolution. 

Mr. A.mbalal Saharlal Desai seconded the Re- 
solution, and it was supported by Messrs. Hari- 
prasad Chatterji, R. N. Mudholkar, G. Subramania 
Iyer, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and Mr. Chou- 
dlmri, all voicing protest and condemnation. The 
Resolution passed, and the results of that reactionary 
and mischievous measure have fully justified the 
protest of the Congress. 

Resolution VI, on the Official Secrets Bill, was 
viewed with equal disapproval, as " against the 
interests of the public, dangerous to individual 
liberty and retrograde in policy ". Mr. Bishan Nara- 
yan Dhar moved the Resolution, saying that no 
measure of equal importance had ever been so 



384 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

universally condemned. In the Imperial Council 
Nawab Syed Muhammad and Mr. Gokhale had earned 
the country's gratitude by denouncing it, " an odious, 
nay, iniquitous measure," of which " it is impossible 
to speak with patience or moderation w . " Lord 
Curzon is astonished that this should be described as 
Russianising the administration. I am astonished 
that anyone should be so imperfectly informed re- 
garding the Russian Government, as to think that it 
has got anything in its purely civil laws so arbitrary 
and so disastrous to the civil liberties of the 
people as Lord Curzon's Bill, if passed, would 
be in this country." Running over the changes 
in the law made by the Bill, the speaker described 
them as "monstrous, odious and iniquitous in the 
extreme," and as " calculated to shake our confidence 
in the justice and fairness of our rulers". "The 
policy of coercion and distrust is a mistaken, a 
suicidal policy." Mr, Murlidhar seconded the Reso- 
lution, and it was supported by the "Hon. Mr. 
Gr. Srinivasa Rao and carried. The Bill was, in due 
course, added to the Coercion Legislation. 

Resolution VII, on military expenditure, moved by 
Mr. N. M. Samarth, seconded by Mr. V. Krishna- 
swami Iyer, supported by Messrs. Charu Chandra 
Ghose and Mr. G-. A. Natesan, and carried, need not 
detain us, as it is one of our hardy annuals j but 
Resolution VITI was a novelty, for it thanked the 
Government for reducing the Salt Tax and raising 
the assessable minimum of Income-Tax, thus 
granting two requests of the Congress ; the Resolution 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 385 

was moved by Mr. C. Y. Chiiitamani, seconded by 
Miss Balga.rme, and carried. 

Mr. J. Choudhuri moved Eesolution IX, on the 
Partition of Bengal, that high-handed measure which 
nearly led to a revolution, and was annulled by the 
King-Emperor in 1911. Indians were trying to weld 
Indian nationalities into a Nation, but Lord Curzon 
would " divide us and rule ". Mr. G. Raghava Rao 
seconded, and then Mr. V. Krishnaswami 4 iyer moved 
an amendment to omit the later part of the Resolution 
which dealt with a proposal to separate certain 
districts from Madras. The Amendment was lost and 
the Resolution carried. 

Resolution X condemned the Madras Municipal 
Bill, said by the Hon. Mr. Krishna Nair, the mover, 
to be "highly reactionary, retrograde and re- 
volutionary " : the Corporation consisted of 24 men 
elected by the people and 8 nominated; the Bill 
reduced the popular representatives to 16, and gave 
8 to associations wholly or mainly composed of 
Europeans. A similar Bill had ruined the Calcutta 
Municipality. Mr. A. C. Parthasarathi Naidu second- 
ed, saying that thfe Bill reduced Local Self -Government 
to a nliara, ITU carefully analysing the provisions of 
Hhe Bill. The Resolution was carried. 

Resolution XI, recommending the election of 
certain gentlemen to Parliament/, and Resolution 
XII thanking the Government for the Co-opeirative 
Credit Societies Bill were carried. The President 
then put from the Chair the Omnibus, Resolution 

V 3HV> fc ke sual vote of thanks 



886 HOW INDIA WROUGHT OR SRBEDOM 

to Sir William Wedderburn and the British. Com- 
mittee. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji moved the 
re-appointment of Mr. A. 0. Hume and Mr. D. B. 
Wacha, adding the Hon. Mr. G-. K. Gokhale as a 
second Joint General Secretary. Resolution XV 
fixed the next sitting of the Congress at Bombay, 
and with the usual votes of thanks the Nineteenth 
Session of the National Congress found its ending. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Sorrow of Congress 

I. Resolved 'that this Congress desires to put on record its 
sense of the deep and irreparable loss sustained by India by the 
deaths of Lord Stanley of Alderley and Mr. W. S. Oaine, the 
memory of whose services the people of India will always cherish 
with gratitude. 

That this Congress also wishes to place on record its deep 
regret at the death of the Raja of Ramnad, who has always been a 
distinguished benefactor of the Congress 

Publio Service 

II. (a) That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses; again records its deep regret that the labours of 
the Public Service Commission have practically proved void of 
any good result to the people of this country ; that while the 
recommendations- of the Commission did not secure full justice to 
the claims of the people of the country to larger and more extended 
employment in the higher grades of the Public Service, the 
Government have not even carried them out in their integrity, and 
have not extended the principle of appointing Indians to new 
appointments since created from time to time, and in Special 
Departments such as the Salt, Opium, Medical and Police Depart- 
ments, the Suivey Departmpnt of the Government of India, the 
Government Tplegiaph Department, the Indo-British Telegraph 
Department, the Mint Department, the Postal Department, and the 
Department. 

That in the opinion of this Congress the recent policy of 
departments and of the authorities responsible for 
nistrations proscribing the appointment of Indians 
and the Railway Services is a grave violation of the 
Burances given by the Government. 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 387 

(c) That in the opinion of this Congress in order to arrest 
he economic drain that is caused by the present system ef appoint- 
ments by the Government, to secure to the people of the country 
he invaluable benefit of the experience and knowledge which a 
raining in the Public Service affords, and to introduce economy in 
be administration, a policy of free employment of the Natives of 
ae soil in all branches of the Service, is imperatively demanded. 

Permanent Settlement 

III That this Congress views \\ ith alarm the tendency to in- 
rease the land revenue assessment every time there is a revision, 
nd declares its firm conviction that the policy of raising the assess- 
ient so frequently and so heavily is increasing the poverty of the 
agricultural population of this country and rendering them still 
irther unfit tp withstand the periodical visitations of bad seasons 
ad famines than they are now. This Congress, therefore* pxoya 
lat the Permanent Settlement be extended to such parts of ti& 
>untry as are now ripe for it, as laid down in the Secretary of 
bate for India's despatches of 1862 and 1867 on the subject ; and 
lat Settlements for longer periods be made, and judicial and legis- 
tive restrictions on over-assessments be imposed, in those parts Of 
idia where Government may still deem it inadvisable to extend 
ie Permanent Settlement. 

Indians in the Colonies 

IV. That this Congress views with grove concern and 
gret the hard lot of His Majesty's Indian subjects living in 
ritish Colonies in South Africa, Australia and elsewhere, the 
eat hardships and disabilities *o which they are subjected by the 
jlonial Governments, and the consequent degradation of their 
atus and rights as subjects of the King, and protests against the 
eatment of Indians by the Colonies as backward and uncivilised 
ces 5 and it prays that, in view of the grout part the Indian 
ttlers have played in the development of the Colonies and the 
onomic advantages which have resulted both to India and to the 
Monies from their emigration to and stay in the latter, the 
overnment of India will be pleased to ensure to them all the rights 
rtl privileges of, British citizenship in common with the European 
ibjects of His Majesty, by enforcing, if neoesaary, such measures 

will render it impossible .for the Colonies to aecure Indian immi- 
iwats except on fair, equitable and honourable terms ; and that in 
w to the great importance of the principle of equal treatment to 
I His Majesty'* subjects, His Majesty's Government should devise 
[equate measures to ensure that position to Indian emigrants in 
[ the British Colonies, 

Education 

V. That this Congregft, while yrelcomiBg any wisely con- 
lered scheme lor the reform of the educational policy of 



388 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Government, is of opinion that the Universities Bill, if passed into 
law, mil have, as recommended in the report of the Universities 
Commission, the effect of restricting the area of education and 
completely destroying the independence of the Universities upon 
which largely depend their efficiency and usefulness, and of turning 
them practically into departments of Government. 

That this Congress is of opinion that the provisions of the Bill 
will not remove the shortcomings of the present system of higher 
education bat that provision for funds and improvement in the 
standard of teaching by the agency of a superior class of teachers 
are imperatively needed in the interests of higher education. 

That this Congress prays for the following modifications : 

(a) That each University should be dealt with by a separate 
Act. 

(6) That in the case ot the older Universities the number of 
Ordinary Fellows should not be less than 200, of whom at least 80 
should be elected by registered graduates and 20 by the members 
of the Faculties, and that, in the case of the Universities of Allaha- 
bad and' of the Panjab, a similar provision should be made. 

(c) That the ordinary Fellows should hold office as at present 
for life, but should be liable to disqualification for absence during a 
fixed period. 

(d) That the provision of a statutory proportion for the 
heads of Colleges on the Syndicate be omitted. 

(e) That all graduates of ten years standing in a Faculty be 
declared eligible to vote. 

(/) That the section making it obligatory upon Colleges 
Which apply for affiliation or have been affiliated to provide for 
suitable residential quarters for students and professors and for 
the permanent maintenance of the Colleges be omitted. 

(0) That as regards affiliation and disaffiliation the decision 
should, instead of being the direct act of Government as under the 
Bill, be as at present the act of the University, subject to the 
sanction of Government. 

(h) Thrft as regards the inspection of Colleges it should be 
conducted by persons specially appointed by the Syndicate, 
unconnected with the Government Educational Department or any 
aided or unaided College. 

(*) That the power of making bye-laws and regulations 
should as at present be vested in the Senate, subject to the sanction 
of the Government. 



THJB NINETEENTH CONGRESS 389 

Ooeroion 

Official Secrets Bill 

VI. That this Congress views with entire disapproval the 
Official Secrets Bill now before the Supreme Legislative Council 
inasmuch as it is uncalled for, against the interests of the 
public, dangerous to individual liberty and retrograde in policy, and 
prays that the Government of India may be pleased to confine its 
scope to the disclosure of Naval and Military secrets 

Military 

VII. (a) That this Congress reiterates its opinion that 
the scope of the measures, which have been undertaken from 
time to time for increasing the army in India, for armaments and 
fortifications with a view to the security of India, not against 
domestic enemies, or against the incursions o'f warlike peoples of 
adjoining countries, but to maintain the supremacy of British 
Power in the East, and on which millions of Indian money have 
been spent, reach far beyond the Indian limits in that the policy 
that has dictated these measures is an Imperial policy ; and that, 
therefore, the Indian Army Charges, which not only include the cost 
of the native army but also that of the British forces amounting to 
about, one-third of the whole British army which, forms the 
Imperial Garrison in India, are excessive and unjust, especially 
having regard to the fact that the Colonies which, are equaUy 
dependent upon and indebted to the mother-country for their 
protection, contribute little or nothing towards the Imperial military 
expenditure. 

(6) That inasmuch as large bodies of British troops have 
with perfect safety and without imperilling the peace of the 
country, been withdrawn for Service outside the statutory limits of 
India, this Congress is of opinion, that the Indian tax-payers should 
be granted substantial relief out the British Exchequer towards the 
cost of maintaining in India the present strength of the European 
army. 

(c) That this Congress protests most emphatically against 
the manner in which the Indian revenues have been charged 
with 786,300 per annum for the increased cost of the recruitment 
of the British army, in spite of the Viceroy of India and kit Council 
having strongly condemned such a charge as being injurious to 
Indian interests, and as calculated to retard many urgent measures 
of domestic reform now under contemplation or to course of 
initiation, 

(d) That this Congress reiterates its conviction that inasmuch 
at the army amalgamation of 1869 has all. along been the cause of 
a considerable portion of the unjust aud excessive burden of Indian^ 

81 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

military expenditure, the time has come when steps should be 
taken to have that system wholly abolished. 

Thank* of Congress 

Till. That this Congress tenders its thanks to the Government 
of India for jthe relief granted to the poorer classes of the 
country by the reduction of the Salt-Tax and by raising the 
assessable minimum for Income-Tax, and prays that the Government 
of India be pleased to make a futher reduction in the Salt-Tax. 

XII. That this Congress tenders its thanks to the Govern- 
ment of India for the introduction of the Co-operative Credit 
Societies' Bill into the Viceregal Legislative Council, and trusts that 
the measure may be so enacted as to achieve the objects the 
Government has in view. 

[And see XIV] 

Partition* 

IX. That this Congress views with deep concern the present 
policy of the Government of India in breaking up territorial 
divisions which have been of long standing and are closely united 
by ethnological, legislative, social and administrative relations, and 
deprecates the separation from Bengal of Dacca, Mymensingh, 
Chittagong Divisions and portions of Chota Nagpur Division, and 
also the separation of the District of Ganjam and the agency tracts 
of the Ganjam and Vizagapatam Districts from the Madras 
Presidency, 

Madras Municipality 

X. That this Congress is of opinion that the policy of the 
Madras Municipal Bill, now before the local Legislative Council, 
is not in consonance with the principles of local Self-Government 
in India, laid down in the time of Lord Bipon, and it desires 
to point out that the interests of the rate-payers of the City would 
not be adequately served by a lesser representation than that 
of twenty-four members. That, if the elective franchise is to be 
given to associations and institutions, it is of opinion that the 
institutions and associations should be such as possess a direct 
interest in the administration of the Municipal affairs of the 
City, and that the number assigned to them should be very 
limited. That the Madras Bailway and the Port Trust are not 
bodies to whom such representation should be assigned, but that 
it should .be extended only, if at all, to bodies like the Chamber of 
Commerce, the Traders Association, and the University, by giving 
each of them the power of returning one member. 



THE NINETEENTH CONGRESS 391 

Parliamentary Representation 

XI. That this Congress desires to accord its moat cordial 
support to the candidature of Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji for North 
Lambeth, Mr. W. C Banner] i for Walthamstow, Sir Henry 
Cotton for Nottingham, and Sir John Jardinefor Roxburghshire, and 
appeals to the electors of these constituencies that, in the interests 
of the people of India, they will be pleased to return them to 
Parliament, so that they may not only loyally serVe them,* but 
represent in some manner the people of a country which, though a 
part of the British Empire, has no direct representative in the 
British Parliament. 

Confirmation of Previous Resolution* 

XIII. That this Congress concurs with previous Congresses in 
strongly advocating [1902 (a) -(j)]. 

(fc) That the necessity is urgent for the complete separation 
of Executive and Judicial functions, so that in no case shall the two 
functions be combined in the same officer , 

(I) That the simultaneous holding in India and in England of 
all examinations for all Civil branches of the Public Service in 
India^ at present held only in India, should be conceded , 

(m) That 'an enquiry into the economic condition of the 
Indian ryot, as urged by the members of tha Famine Union in 
England, in their appeal to the Secretary of State for India, 
should be instituted 

Thanks of Congress and Congress Work 

XIV That this Congress desires to convey to Sir William 
Wedderburu and the other members of the British Committee 
its most grateful thanks for their disinterested services in the 
cause of our political advancement 

And that a sum of Rs 10,500 be assigned for the expenses of 
the British Committee, and that the several Congress circles do 
contribute the amount allotted to each. 

That the following gentlemen bo appointed Secretaries for the 
Circles against which their names appear and be responsible for the 
sums due by the respective Circles, and that the money be paid in 
advance in two half-yearly instalments : 

BENGAL : BOMBAY : 

Bs.bu Surendranath Bannerji. Hon. Mr. P. M. Mehta. 

Babu Baikunthanath Sen. Mr, D. E. Waoha. 

Hon. Mr. Bhupendranath Bunu. Hon. Mr Gk X, Qokhsto, 



392 

MAJWU8 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT JPOE FREEDOM 



Bon. Mr, G. Srinivasa Eao. 
HQXU Mr. Vasudeva lyengar. 
Jfcr V. Eyru Nambier. 
M*. CK Eaghava Eao, 
Berharopur. 



BE*AR AND THE CENTRAL 
Mr. R.N. Mudholkar. 



N. W. PROVINCES & OUDH : 

Hon. Pandit M. M. 

Malaviya. 

Mr. Ganga Prasad Yarina. 
Mr. S. Sinha. 

CAWNPORE : x 

Mr. Prithwinath Pandit, 

PANJAB 
Mr. Harkishan Lai. 



Formal 



XT. That this Congress re-appoints Mr. A. 0. Hume, C. B. 
fc tie General Secretary, and Mr D. E. Wacha to be Joint General 
Secretary, and appoints the Hon Mr. G. K. Gokhale as additional 
Jtint fcreneral Secretary for the ensuing year. 

XTI. That the Twentieth Indian National Congress do 
assemble, on such day after Chri&trnas Day, 1904, as may be later 
determined upon, at Bombay. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE Twentieth National Congress, closing the second 
decade of this powerful organisation met in Bombay 
on the 26th, 27th and 28th of December, 1904, in 
a large Pavilion on the Crescent Site. The Congress 
met under the gloom created by Lord Curzon's policy, 
rightly characterised in the Official Report of the 
Congress as "repressive and re-actionary " ; there 
had grown up a feeling 

of deep resentment. . . . when a series of repressive 
measures both legislative and administrative were 
forced by him on the country in the teeth of the fiercest 
opposition from the public Long before the Con- 
gress of last year met, it had come to be very generally 
recognised that whatever may be said in favour of Lord 
Curzon's administration, the educated classes of the 
country, at any rate, had in him no friend, and that 
their aspirations would receive at his hands not merely 
cold neglect, but actual repression. . . The situation made 
the Congress of 1904 one of unusual importance. 

The gathering was the largest since 1895, 1010 
delegates registering their names. They were divided 
as follows : 

Bombay (548), Sindh (44), Kathiawar (26) 618 

C! P., Berar, Secunderabad and Hyderabad 104 

Madras 104 

Bengal (99) and Assam (3) 102 

U. P - .. 54 

Panjab .. -28 

1,010 



394 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

The Hon. Sir Pherozeshah M. Mehta, who had 
received the K.C.I.E., the Chairman of the Reception 
Committee, after asking a choir of ladies to sing the 
Congress Anthem, warmly welcomed the dele- 
gates, and congratulated them on the presence of 
Sir William "Wedderburn and Mr. Samuel Smith, M.P. 
The Congress voiced once in each year the public 
opinion of the country, and the surest testimony to 
its value was the very policy of reaction and retro- 
gression which it provoked. The possession of India 
was " a blessing to England if administered in the spirit 
of righteousness, a curse if in the seductive spirit 
of worldliness >> . On the whole, England had chosen 
wisely and well, but while many grievances which 
take more than a page of the Report to enumerate 
continue, there would be " two parties about England 
in India ". Political agitation there would be. 

The only question is whether we should suppress 
and bottle up our feelings, and hopes, and aspirations 
and our grievances in the innermost recesses of our own 
hearts, in the secret conclaves of our own brethren, or 
deal with them in the free light of open day. The former 
course would- be preferred by the prophets of despair. 
We, gentlemen, prefer the latter, because we have faith 
in the ultimate wisdom, beneficence and righteousness of 
the English people. 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji proposed Sir Henry 
Cotton as President, focussing in a few eloquent 
sentences his great services to India. Mr. 0. Sankaran 
Nair seconded, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 
supported, and Sir Henry Cotton took the Chair amid 
loud cheers. A gift for the Congress of Rs, 4,000, 
collected by The GvjwraM,, and a handsome silver 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 395 

salver were presented to Sir Henry by its Editor, 
Mr. I. S. Desai. 

After thanking the Congress for the honour done 
to him, the President said that the Congress was 
" the voice and brain of the country/' that the work 
of educating the country was carried on by other 
agencies, and that the function of the Congress was 
" to give united and authoritative expression to views 
on which there is already a consensus of opinion in 
the country ". The public opinion of England needed 
to be moved. 

Internal agitation in Ireland was the necessary 
stepping-stone of reform, but by itself it accomplished 
little ; it was only when Irish agitation forced itself upon 
English Liberal statesmen, and was supplemented by a 
powerful phalanx of opinion in England, that any 
concessions were allowed to the sister island. And so it 
is in the case of India, The remedy for both countries 
is the same. 

After noting the growth of National feeling, Sir 
Henry Cotton quoted with approval the words of the 
Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, words which some 
officials in Bombay would certainly consider seditious 
now, except perhaps if they knew it was a quotation : 
he spoke in the freer days of 1850 : 

I conceive that the administration of all the depart- 
ments of a great country by a small number of foreign 
visitors, in a state of isolation produced by a difference in 
religion, ideas and manners, which cuts them off from all 
intimate communion with the people, can never be con- 
templated as a permanent state of things. I conceive, 
also, that the progress of education among the Natives 
renders such a scheme impracticable, even if it were other- 
wise free from objection. 



396 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

" Every thinking man/' added Sir Henry, " must 
know that these words are true," and the connection 
between India and England would last. Lord 
Cromer had said the same, and had declared that the 
Government must adapt their system to the changes 
taking place in educated Indians, " if they do not 
wish to see it shattered by forces which they have 
themselves called into being, but which they have 
failed to guide and control". Sir Henry bade his 
hearers avoid depression, and not to submit with 
resignation to 'the policy of the Government, 
and he held up, as the ideal, India taking 
rank as a Nation among the Nations of the 
East. Autonomy is the key-note of England's true re- 
lations with her Colonies, and " the key-note also of 
India's destiny ". " Complete autonomous States 
which are federated together and attached by com- 
mon motives and self-interest to a central Power," 
such was " the tendency of Empire ". The ideal for 
India was " a Federation of free and separate States, 
the United States of India ". 

The President then dealt with the economic prob- 
lem, condemned the " drain " and the exploitation 
of the country by English capital, urged the sub- 
stitution of Indian for European officials, and the 
reconstitution of the Indian Civil Service, with 
other special reforms, protested against the Partition 
of Bengal, and the treatment of Indians in the 
Transvaal, and concluded by bidding his hearers 
labour with hope "and courage in the cause they 
had embraced. 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 39? 

The strong and outspoken discourse aroused the 
greatest enthusiasm, and was closed amid vociferous 
applause. The Subjects Committee was approved, 
and the Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, Mr. Surendranath Bannerji 
brought forward Resolution I, which dealt with 
Indians in the Public Service, saying that it was 
extraordinary that, 150 years after the birth of British 
rule in India, they should be obliged to protest 
against a policy " inconsistent with the great tradi- 
tions of the British rule in the East, and with the 
honour of the British name in this country ". The 
promises made had only been eluded until now, but 
by Lord Curzon's Resolution of 24th May, 1904, they 
were openly repudiated, and, by a bitter irony, on the 
birthday of the Queen, whose Proclamation was set 
at naught. " Under the new policy, race is the test 
of qualification. TTnder the old policy, merit was the 
test of qualification." The reactionary policy of Lord 
Curzon tore up the Proclamation of tne Queen. 

Lord Curzon from his place in the Imperial Council 
(I am quoting the substance of what he said), declared 
that by our environments, our heritage and our up-bring- 
ing we are unequal to the responsibilities of a high office 
under the British rule. I venture to say, Sir, that never 
was a deeper affront offered to the people of India by 
the representative of the Sovereign. It is bad enough to 
repudiate the Proclamation, but it is adding insult to 
injury to cast a slur upon the people of this country. In 
your name and on your behalf, Gentlemen, I desire to 
record my most emphatic protest against this assumption 
of our racia} inferiority. Are Asiatics inferior to 
Europeans P Let' Japan answer. Are Indians inferior to 
1 Europeans P Let Lord George Hamilton answer, and 



898 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

Lord George Hamilton is not a friend of the people of 
this country. Gentlemen, are we the representatives of 
an inferior race, we, who are the descendants of those 
who, in the modern world, while all Europe was steeped 
in superstition and ignorance, held aloft the torch of 
civilisation ? Are we the representatives of an inferior 
race, from whose shores, forsooth, went forth those 
missionaries who have converted two-thirds of the human 
race into moral superiority ? 

Mr. Bannerji then gave a number of figures, 
showing the percentage of Indians in the Service, 
pointed to the fact that they had 14 per cent of em- 
ployments carrying Rs. 1,000 and upwards, and 17 
per cent of employments carrying Rs. 500 and up- 
wards. " Only 14 or 17 per cent of the higher 
appointments -fall to our lot, although the country is 
ours, the money is ours, and the hulk of the population 
is ours." Then followed some stinging comparisons 
between the position of Asiatics in India and in other 
countries under white rule, and he once more appealed 
to the pledges given in the Proclamation of the 
Queen. 

Mr. Gr. Subramaiiia Iyer seconded, and remarked 
that Indians were worse off than in 1833, and that 
while Lord Lytton broke the Queen's promises by 
what he called t( subterfuges," Lord Curzon openly 
said that the principles and policy of British rule in 
India were not those laid down in the Queen's Pro- 
clamation of 1858. We must hold to the liberties 
and privileges conferred on us by statute also, and 
" hold them in such a way that not only the English 
Nation but the whole world will say that India 
should be free ". 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 399 

In supporting the Resolution, the Hon. Mr. Krish- 
nan Nair gave a historical sketch, showing how 
much more equal was the treatment of Indians in the 
past than under Lord Curzon. Mr. G. Abdul Kasim 
spoke on Muhammadan agreement. Mr. Hussain 
Badruddin Tyabji brought more statistics proving the 
injustice under which Indians suffered. The Resolu- 
tion was then carried. 

Resolution II urged t/*e claims of Higher Education- 
and thanked the Government for aiding Primary 
Education. India needed manual training and the esta- 
blishment of Polytechnics. Mr. D. G. Padhya moved 
it, and Mr. R. P. Karandikar seconded, pointing to the 
splendid example set by Japan. He pressed the need for 
agricultural training, and quoted Mr. Arthur Balfour's 
speech on Ireland, pointing out how * f one by one 
each of her nascent industries was either strangled 
at its birth or handed over gagged and bound to the 
jealous custody of the rival interest in England, until 
at last every fountain of wealth was hermetically 
sealed," so that the whole Nation threw itself on the 
land. Dr. H, S. Gour followed, condemning the 
Universities Act, which sealed up the portals of 
knowledge "with golden locks which would open 
only to golden keys ". Lord Curzon would " make edu- 
cation the privilege of the rich and not the birthright 
of the poor M . We are told that an oriental people 
should be -governed in the oriental way, but if so, 
oriental Kings gave education free. 

Mr. 0. Y. Chintamani said that Ll'Bpn, asked 
us to consider education 




400 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

other questions, but that was impossible, for, as 
Mr. Morley had said, the questions of education 
" touch the moral life and death of Nations ". Lord 
Curzon's educational measures were political, and he 
was swayed in them mainly by political considerations. 
A section of educated Indians was found inconvenient, 
and they were to be politely suppressed. The Govern- 
ment sent out circulars introducing the new policy 
by instalments while the public were discussing the 
Report and they believed it to be under consideration. 
The Senates, now the Act was passed, had been 
Europeanised and officialised, and under the word 
" efficiency " the Indian and non-official element was 
suppressed. Mr. G. A. JSTatesan complained of the 
"policy of distrust and retrogression," and gave 
figures to show that in five years 6,223 graduates had 
been produced, 1,242 a year out of a population of 
300 millions ! The Resolution was carried. 

Eesolution III, on the " deplorable poverty of the 
people " and suggesting remedies, was moved by 
Mr. E. N. Mudholkar, who compared the state of the 
people, " on the whole sound," with the necessariea 
and comforts of life, and exporting a large amount ef 
-merchandise, " when there was nothing but anarchy 
and misrule in this land/' with the present poverty, 
where the highest figure, Lord Ourzon's., was Es 30 
per head per year, or one and a half annas (l^d.) a 
day, out of which Es. 3^ was 1 paid in taxation. He 

showed how Indian manufactures had been killed fey 

i 

the East India Company and the Government by 
prohibitive duties, and the industrial population was 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 401 

forced on fco the land, making agriculture the staple 
industry. He then dealt with land assessment, with 
the efforts to introduce the mill industries, and the 
action of Lord Salisbury, who " directed that steps 
should be taken to protect the British manufacturers 
against the competition of the Indian manufacturers ". 
The result of the whole policy was the poverty of the 
Indian masses. 

The Hon. Mr. L. A. G-ovindaraghava Iyer seconded 
the Resolution, dealing with the necessity for 
Permanent Settlement and for a judicial check on 
taxation of improvements made by the ryot. The 
Eesolution was supported by the Hon. Mr. G. K. 
Parekh, Messrs. R. V. Mahajani, K. Natarajan, 
Maneekji K. Pat el, and carried. 

Resolution JY, in view of the alarming indebtedness 
of the peasantry, repeated the request of the previous 
Congress for an enquiry into the condition of a few 
typical villages. It was moved by the Hon. Mr. H. S. 
Dixit, .seconded by the Hon. Mr. V. C. Desika- 
chari, supported by Rai Parvatishankar Choudhuri, 
Dr. Joseph Benjamin, and carried. 

Resolution V brought up once more the condition 
of Indians in the Colonies, and Messrs. Madanjit 
and 'Baroacha told the oft-repeated story of South 
African sufferings, jroin their own experiences, and 
Dr, Munji, from his experience as a Civil Surgeon m 
the Boer War, added his testimony. The carrying of 
the Resolution closed the second day's work. 

On the third day, the President moved from the 
Chair Resolution VI, expressing the sorrow of fclto 



2 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FEEEDOM. 

mgress for the deaths of Mr. J, KT. Tata and of 

at true friend of India, William Bigfoy. He then 

lied on Sir William Wedderburn to move an * 

iportant Resolution (No. XV) out of its order, 

jsiring that as a General Election was approach- 

g in England a deputation should be sent from 

idia to bring the claims of India before the electors 

id the candidates. He urged two special points as 

1 primary importance : the revival of the old custom 

an enquiry iSnto the state of India every 20 years, 

id the placing of the salary of the Secretary of 

bate for India on the British Estimates. Mr. B, G. 

ilak seconded, and urged that an agitation must be 

iade in England, for there the judges sit who would 

ecide our case, and as the Government of India was 

npervious, they must reach the English people, and 

lere should be a permanent political mission in ] 

Ingland. Mr. S. Sinha, in supporting, laid stress upon 

tie importance of the English becoming personally ] 

cquainted with Indians. The Resolution was carried. 1 

Sir Balchandra Krishna moved the seventh Ee- 
olution, asking that the cost of the Secretary of 
State for India should be placed on the British 
flstimates. The Colonies had their Secretary and 
heir office free ; India paid nearly 34 lakhs of rupees 
or hers. The Hon. Mr. G. Sriiiivasa Rao seconded, 1 

Mr. M. K. Padhya supported; he urged that the c 

Secretary of State was responsible to no one not to ^ 

,he Indian people who paid him, not to the House 
>f Commons because it did not pay him. The Resolu- "' 

5ion was carried. 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 403 

Resolution VIII dealt with the artificial surpluses, 
raised largely by the appreciation of the rupee, and* 
urged reduction of taxation arid the devotion of part 
of the accumulated funds to Education, Medical 
Belief, and the helping of Local and Municipal 
Boards. It was moved by Mr. G. K. G-okhale, who 
remarked on the extraordinary surpluses during the 
last six years, amounting to 30 crores of rupees, and 
asked how these arose. He showed that they arose 
from the value of the rupee being enhanced, so 
that raising the money wanted for the foreign 
charges in silver and paying in gold, the Indian 
Government saved some 5 crores of rupees a year. 
The high level of taxation was unfair and should be 
lowered, and the money gained by over-taxation 
returned to the people on the lines suggested. Dewan 
Bahadur Ambalal Sakarlal Desai seconded, a-nd 
pressed the return of the needlessly high surpluses 
to the people. Mr. G. Subramania Iyer follow- 
ed and remarked that Sir Antony MacDonnell 
had said before the Currency Committee that the 
enhancement of the value of the rupee would be a 
new burden on the people, but he said that it waa safe 
to add it, because the people of India did not know it 
would operate in that way, while an addition to 
direct taxation was dangerous and impolitic. The 
poor who have suffered most by the forced apprecia- 
tion should benefit by the surpluses created. The 
Eesolution was carried. 

Resolution IX claimed enlarged representation, and 
was moved by Mr. V. Krishnaswami Iyer, 



404 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

referred to the enlargement of the Councils in 1892, 
and the power then given to discuss the Budget ; but 
the Budget having been settled before the discussion, 
the members had only to state their opinions and read 
their little essays, the discussion being a farce. Pandit 
Madan Mohan Malaviya seconded, and said the 
reforms were good as far as they went, but more 
power, should be given to the Councils and they 
'should be enlarged. Would not the Government 
show a little more trust in the Ind Mti people ? " We 
have our minds imbued with the ideas of freedom 
through a body of English literature .... In our 
own country we are anxious to feel that we are 
really a part and parcel of the great British Empire 
which we love because Of its love of freedom." 
Mr. Jehangir B. Petit followed, pointing out that 
educated' Indians had shown themselves worthy of 
fullpr representation and power, enumerating the 
results, beneficial to the country, that they had 
brought about. They nad justified themselves b,y 
their achievements. It would be a proud day for 
England when she gave to India "the inestimable 
boon of Self -Government, to which all human beings 
have a birth-right and which is long overdue ". The 
Resolution was carried. 

Hesolution X was on Tibetan affairs and the 
Forward Policy, that fruitful source of waste of life 
and treasure. It was moved by Mr. N A. Wadia, 
who remarked that they were struggling " to main- 
tain the small modicum of constitutional privilege 
conceded by Parliament nearly 50 years ago ". He 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 405 

condemned the policy whit,** went beyond the Indian 
borders : the brave peasants of Tibet fought for the 
freedom of their soil from the foot of the foreigner, 
*' with a patriotism as pure, with love of independence 
as tenacious, with contempt for danger and for death 
as admirable as any recorded in ancient or modern 
annals w *. The speaker proceeded with a powerfully 
reasoned argument against Lord Curzon's mischievous 
missions, and urged that the employment of Indian 
troops outside India without the consent of Parlia- 
ment was illegal. 

Lala Murlidhar seconded, Mr. N. B. Ranade 
supported, and the Resolution was carried. 

Police Reform came up once more in Resolution 
XI, and was moved by Mr. Vijayakumar Bcwe t 
seconded by Mr. Sris Chandra Sarbadhikari, supported 
by Mr. V. G. Joshi, and carried. 

Resolution XII on Military Expenditure was very 
briefly moved and seconded by Messrs. N. M. Samarth, 
and G. R. Abhyankar, and carried. Then followed 
the separation of Judicial and Executive functions 
as Resolution XIII, moved, seconded and sup- 
ported by Messrs. Harischandra Rai Yiahandas, 
N. K. Ramaswami Iyer, and Kaliprasanna Roy, and 
carried. 

Resolution XIV, on the Partition of Bengal, was 
moved by the Hon. Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar, 
seconded by Mr. A. Ohoudhuri, and supported by 
Mr. Binai Kumar Rai, and the -Hon. Baiknnthanatn 
Sen, Bengali gentlemen, who all felt too strongly to 
do more than speak a few sentences. It was carried 



406 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

after a brief expression of sympathy from Mr. E. KT, 
Mudholkar . 

Mr. S. Sinha moved Resolution XVI, urging the 
election to Parliament of Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, Sir 
Henry Cotton and Mr. John Jar dine in the interests of 
India. Mr. V. P. Yaidya seconded and it was carried. 

Mr. D. B. Wacha moved, and the Hon. Mr. D. N. 
Bose seconded Resolution XVI, the annual vote of 
thanks to Sir William Wedderburn and the British 
Committee. The President then moved Resolution 
XVIII re-appointing Mr. A. 0. Hume, Mr. D. E. 
Wacha, and the Hon. Mr. G-. X. G-okhale as General 
and Joint General Secretaries. He also moved Re- 
solution yrXj appointing a Committee to report by 
the 1st of July, 1905, on the question of the con- 
stitution of the Congress. Resolution XX fixed 
Benares for the Congress of 1905. Resolutions XXI 
anli XXlT thanked the Reception Committee and the 
President, and Sir Henry Cotton, answering with a 
few words of grateful thanks, brought the Twentieth 
National Congress to an end. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Employment of Indiaim in the Public Service 

L (a) That in the opinion of this Congress, the principles and 
policy enunciated by the Government of India in their Resolution, 
dated 24th Hay 1904, on the snbject of the employment of Indiana 
in the higher grades of the Public Service, are inconsistent with 
those laid down in the Parliamentary Statute of 1833 and the 
Proclamation of 1858 by the late Queen-Empress, and this 
Congress enters its respectful but emphatic protest against an 
attempt to explain away pledges solemnly given by the Sovereign 
and Parliament to the people of this country, and to deviate from 
arrangements deliberately arrived at by the Government after a 
careful examination of the whole question by a Public Commission* 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 407 

(b) That this Congress is of opinion that the true remedy for 
many existing financial and administrative evils lies in the wider 
employment of Indians in the higher branches of the country's 
service j and while concurring with previous Congresses in urging 
that immediate effect should be given to the Resolution of the 
House of Commons of 2nd June, 1893, ia favour of holding the 
competitive examinations for service in India simultaneously in 
England and in India, this Congress places on record its firm 
conviction that the only satisfactory solution of this question is to 
be found in the reorganisation of the Indian Civil Service, which 
should be reconstituted on a decentralised basis, its judicial 
functions in the meantime being partly transferred to persons who 
have been trained in the profession of Law 

(c) That this Congress deplores the abolition of the 
competitive test for the Provincial Service in most Provinces of 
India. ast experience has amply established the fact that a 
system of Government nomination degenerates, in the special 
circumstances of this country, into a system of appointment by 
official favour, and this, by bringing" unfit men into the Service, 
impairs the efficiency of the administration, and in addition 
unfairly discredits the fitness of Indians for high office. This 
Congress, therefore, respectfully urges the Government of India to 
restore the competitive test for the Provincial Service, wherever 
it has been abolished. 

Education 

II. That this Congress, while thanking the Government of 
India for the increased outlay on Primary Education, promised in 
their Resolution of March last, and for the institution of ten 
Technical scholarships for the study of technical arts and 
industries in foreign countries, repeats its piotest of last year 
against the retrograde policy adopted by Government in regard to 
Higher Education, as calculated to officialise the governing bodies 
of the Universities and to restrict the scope of University Education 
generally , and the Congress places on record its emphatic opinion 
that in view of the large surpluses which the Government are now 
realising year after year, it is their clear duty to make a much 
larger allotment than at present out of public funds for educational 
expenditure so as 

(a) to spread primary education more widely among the 
mass of the people, and to make a beginning in the direction of free 
and compulsory education ; 

(b) to make due provision for imparting instruction in manual 
training and in scientific agriculture ; 

(c) to provide for the better manning and equipment of 
Government Colleges and High Schools so as to make thea really 
model institutions ; 



408 HOW INDIA WBOTTOHT FOB FREEDOM 

(d) to establish at least one central fully-equipped 
Polytechnic Institute in the country, with minor Technical Schools 
and Colleges in different Provinces. 

Economic Situation 

III. That this Congress is of opinion that the deplorable 
poverty of. the people of this country is mainly due to the drain of 
wealth from the country that has gone on for years, to the decay 
of indigenous arts and industries, to over-assessment of land, and to 
th#. excessively costly character of the system of administration. 
And the Congress recommends the following among other remedial 
measures : 

(A) That Government be pleased to afford greatei 
encouragements to education, as indicated in the previous resolution. 

(b) That the Permanent Settlement be extended to such 
parts of the country as are now ripe for it, in accordance with the 
conditions laid down in the Secretary of State for India's Des- 
patches of 1862 and 1867 on the subject, and that where Govern- 
ment may still deem it inadvisable to introduce the Permanent 
Settlement, judicial restrictions be imposed on over-assessment. 

(c) That steps be taken to employ a much larger number of 
Indians in the higher branches of the Public Service. 

Indebtedness of the Peasantry 

IV. Besolved That in view of the alarming indebtedness of 
the peasantry of the country and of the fact that large numbers of 
them are forced to throw themselves on State help at the first 
touch of scarcity, this Congress again earnestly endorses the 
suggestion put forward by the Famine Union in London that a 
careful inquiry be directed by Government into the condition of a 
few typical villages in different parts of India. 

Indian Emigrants to British Colonies 

Y. (a) That the Congress, while noting with satisfaction the 
relaxation of restrictions recently ordered by the Government of 
the Australian Commonwealth in the case of Indian visitors to 
Australia, places on record its deep regret that Indian Settlers 
subjects of His Majesty the King- Emperor should continue to be 
subjected to harassing restrictions and denied the ordinary rights 
- of British citizenship in His Majesty's Colonies. 

(b) In particular, this Congress records its most emphatic 
protest against the threatened enforcement, in an aggravated form, 
of the anti-Indian legislation of the late Boer Government of the 
Transvaal fey the British Government, In view of the fact that one 
of the declared causes of the recent Boer War was the treatment 
meted out to the Indian subjects of the King-Emperor by the 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 409 

Government of that Republic, and in view also of the admitted 
loyalty of Indian Settlers in South Africa and the great help 
rendered by them during the War, this Congress fervently prays 
that the British Parliament will insist on a just and equal treatment 
being secured to Indian settlers in that Grown Colony. 

(c) In this connection the Congress tenders its sincere 
thanks to the Government of India and the Secretary of State for 
India for their firm stand in the interests of Indian emigrants, and 
the Congress earnestly trusts that they will not relax their efforts 
in the matter till a satisfactory solution is reached. 

Deaths of Mr. J. N. Tata and Mr, W. Digby 

VI. That this Congress places on record its sense of profound 
sorrow at the death of Mr. J. N. Tata, whose great services to the 
industrial development of India ns also his enlightened philan- 
thropy and patriotism the country will gratefully remember. 
This Congress also records its deep grief at the death of 
Mr. William Digby, in whom the people of India have lost an 
earnest and devoted champion of their cause. 

Secretary of State's Salary 

VII. That this Congress, while protesting against the injustice 
of charging the cost of the India Office in London to the revenues 
of this country, when the Colonies are exempted from any share of 
the cost of the Colonial Office, places on record its opinion that the 
whole of tho salary of the Secretary of State for India' should be 
borne on the English Estimates. 

Surpluses 

VIII. (a) That, in the opinion of this Congress, the large and 
recurring surpluses of the last six years amounting in all to about 
twenty millions sterling so far from being the result of any 
increased prosperity of the people, are only an indication of the 
fact that the level of taxation in the country is maintained much 
higher than is necessary, inasmuch as these surpluses have been 
rendered possible mainly, if not exclusively, by the artificial 
appreciation of the rupee, and the consequent saving of between 
three and four millions a year on the Home remittances of the 
Government of India. 

(b) That both for the sake of giving relief to the classes which 
have suffered most from the currency policy of the Government and 
to remove from the path of Government a direct temptation to in- 
crease expenditure, which the existence of large surpluses year after 
year undoubtedly constitutes, this Congress strongly urges (1) a 
farther reduction in the salt duty! (2) a redaction in tide land revenue 
demand of the State in those Provinces where the agriculturists 



410 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

'iave had a series of calamitous years ; and (3) the abolition of the 
excise duties on cotton goods 

(c) That rail such reduction is effected, the Congress nrgen 
that part of the surpluses he devoted to purposes which would 
'directly benefit the people, such as the promotion of scientific, 
Agricultural, and industrial education, and increased facilities of 
Medical relief, and that the rest be employed in assisting Local and 
Municipal Boards, whose resources have been seriously crippled by 
famine and by the annual recurrence of plague, to undertake 
urgently-needed measures of sanitary reform and the improvement 
o* means of communication in tho interior. 

Representation 

IX. That in the opinion of the Qfcngress, the time has arrived 
when the people of this country should be allowed a larger voice in 
the administration and control of the affair of their country by 

(a) The bestowal on each Province or Presidency of India of 
the franchise to return at least two members to the English House 
of Commons. 

(b) An enlargement of both the Supreme and Provincial 
Legislative Councils increasing the number of non-official 
members therein, and giving them the right to divide the Council 
in all financial matters coming before them the Head of the 
Government concerned possessing the power of veto 

(c) The appointment of Indian representatives (who shall be 
nominated by the elected members of the Legislative Councils) as 
Members of the India Council in London and of the Executive 
Councils of the Government of India and the Governments of 
Bombay and Madras. 

Tibetan Affairs and Forarjirdl Policy 

X That this Congress expresses its profound regret tnat in 
the case of the recent Tibetan Expedition the object of the Act of 
1858, in providing that India's revenues shall not be spent outside 
the Statutory limits of India, except to repel foreign aggression, 
without the previous sanction of Parliament, was frustrated in 
practice by the Government continuing to describe the Expedition 
as a " Political Mission," till it was no longer possible for Parlia- 
ment to withhold its sanction to the required expenditure, and that 
Indian revenues were thus unjustifiably deprived of the protection 
constitutionally secured to them. This Congress further places on 
record its regret that the House of Commons refused to contribute 
from the Imperial Exchequer even a portion of the cost of that 
Expedition, when it was in furtherance of Imperial interests and to 
carry out an Imperial polioy that the Expedition, had been 
undertaken. 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 411 

The Congress protests strongly against this injustice and all 
the more because it apprehends that the Tibetan Expedition was 
but part of a general forward policy, which, with the Missions to 
Afghanistan and Persia, threatens to involve Incha in foreign 
entanglements, which cannot fail to place an intolerable burden on 
the Indian revenues and prove in the end disastrous to the best 
interests of the country. 

Police Reform 

XI. This Congress places on record its deep regret that the 
Keport of the Police Commission has still been withheld by the 
Government from the public, though it is now two years since the 
Commission reported, and though portions of it have found their 
way into the columns of papers beyond the reach of the Official 
Secrets' Act. 

In view of the great urgency of a thorough reform of the Police 
force of the country, in view further of the large public interests 
involved in a satisfactory solution of the question and the obvious 
necessity in consequence of giving the public ample opportunity to 
express its views before the authorities proceed to formulate a 
scheme of reform, in view, finally, of the fact that all public 
criticism expressed nfter the subject has been considered by both 
the Government of India and the Secretary of State for India is 
bound to be virtually ineffective, this Congress earnestly urges the 
publication of the Commission's Report without any further delay 

Military Expenditure 

XII. (a) That this Congress regards with grave alarm the 
heavy and continuous increase that has been taking place year after 
year in the Military burdens of the country and that in the opinion of 
this Congress the present Military Expenditure of India is beyond 
her capacity to bear. 

(6) That the Congress can only contemplate with dismay all 
further proposals to throw fresh burdens on the revenues of India 
in connection with Army expenditure, and it enters its earnest 
protest against throwing the cost of the proposed Army reorganisa 
tion scheme of Lord Kitchener on the Indian Exchequer. 

(c) That as the strength of the Army maintained in India 
and the measures that are from time to time adopted to improve 
its efficiency are determined, not by a consideration of the military 
needs and requirements of India, but for upholding British 
Supremacy in the Bast, as moreover, large bodies of British troops 
have, in recent years, been temporarily withdrawn, wih perfect 
safety and without imperilling the peace of the country,, for service 
outside the statutory limits of India, this Congress is of opinion 
that the time has come when the British Parliament should seriously 



412 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

consider the justice and policy of making a substantial contribution 
towards Army Charges in India. 

Separation of Judicial and Bxecutlve Function* 

XIII. Thafc this Congress, concurring with previous Congresses, 
appeals to the Government of India and the Secretary of State not 
to delay any longer the Separation of Executive and Judicial 
Functions in the administration of Criminal Justice, the desirability 
of which has been frequently admitted by Government and the 
practicability of effecting which with a very inappreciable increase 
of expenditure, if any, has been repeatedly shown. 

The Partition of Bengal 

XIV. That this Congress records its emphatic protest against 
the proposals of the Government of India, for theJPartitionof Bengal 
in any manner whatsoever. That the proposals are viewed with 
great alarm by the people, as the division of the Bengali Nation 
into separate units will seriously interfere with its social, intellectual 
and material progress, involving the loss of various constitutional, 
and other rights and privileges which the Province has so long 
enjoyed and will burden the country with heavy expenditure which 
the Indian tax-payers cannot at all afford. 

The Congress is of opinion that no case has been made out for 
the Partition of Bengal, but if the present constitution ofthe Bengal 
Government is considered inadequate for the efficient administra- 
tion of the Province, the remedy lies not in any redistribution of 
its territories', but in organic changes in the form of the Govern- 
ment, such as the conversion of the Lieutenant-Governorship of 
Bengal into a Governorship with an Executive Council like that 
of Bombay and Madras. 

Delegation to England 

XV. That, looking to the near approach of a General Election 
in England, and to the vital importance, at this crisis, of bringing the 
claims of India before the Electors, before the Parliamentary 
Candidates, and before the political leaders, it ia expedient that 
the Congress should depute trustworthy and experienced represent- 
atives nominated by the different Provinces to be present in 
England for this purpose, before and during the election j and that 
a fund of not less than Us, 30,000 should be raised to meet the 
necessary expenses of such Deputation. 

Election of Members to the British Parliament 

XVI. That this Congress desires to accord its most cordial 
support to the candidatures of Mr. Badabhai Naoroji for North 
Lambeth, Sir Henry Cotton for Nottingham, and Sir John Jardine 
for Roxburghshire, and appeals to the electors of these constituencies 



THE TWENTIETH CONGRESS 413 

that in the interests 06 tho people of India, they will be pleased to 
return them to Parliament, so that they may not only loyally servo 
them, but represent in some manner tho people of a country which, 
though a part of the British Empire, has no direct- representative 
in tho British Parliament. 

Thanks to the British Committee 

XVII. That this Congress desires to convey to Sir William 
Wedderburn and the other members of the British Committee 
its most grateful thanks for their disinterested services in the 
cause of our political advancement. 

And that a sum of 700 he assigned for the expenses of the 
British Committee and that the several Congress circles do 
contribute the amount allotted to each. 

Appointment of General Secretary and Joint 
General Secretaries 

XVIII. That this Congress reappomts Mr. A. O. Hume, C. B. f 
to be General Secretary and Mr. D. E. Wacha and the Hon. 
Mr. G. K. Gokhale to be Joint General Secretaries of the Congress 
for the ensuing year. 

Constitution of the Congress 

XIX. That the question of the Cpnstitution of the Congress be 
referred for report to a Committee consisting of the following 
gentlemen : 

BOMBAY : PAN JAB . 

SirP.M. Mehta TIT- iw 

Mr. D. E Wacha. Jf ^rJf 3pat ?*' 

Hon. Mr. G. K. Gokhale. Mr. Dharmadas. 

Hon. Mr, Ibrahim Rahimtulla. Lala Harkishan Lai. 

MADBAS : UNITED PROVINCES : 

Mr. C. Sankaran Hair. Babu Gangaprasad Varma. 

Mr. Krishnaswami Iyer. Hon. Pandit Madan Mohan 

Mr. M. Viraraghava Chari. Malaviya. 

Nawab Syed Mahomed. Mr. S. Sinha, 

BENQAI : 

Babn Surendranath Bannerji. BKBAB AND CENTRAL PBOVINCES. 
Hon. Mr. Ambjka charan 

Ma^umdar. Mr. B. M. Mudholkar. 

Babu Baikunthanath Sen. Mr. M. V, Joshi. 

Mr. Abdul Kasim. Mr. M. K. Padhya. 



414 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POR FREEDOM 

The Next Session of the Congress 

XX That the Twenty-first Indian National Congress do 
assemble, on each day after Christmas Day, 1905, as may be later 
determined upon, at Benares. 

XXI. Thanks to the Reception Committee and those who have 
in various ways assisted it. 

By the President. 

XXII. Thanks to the President. 
President's reply in closing the proceedings. 



CHAPTER XXI 

IN the sacred City of Kashi, the modern Benares, the 
Twenty-first National Congress gathered together. 
Says the Official Report : 

The Congress met at a great crisis in the political 
fortunes of this country. Never since the dark days of 
Lord Lytton's Viceroyalty had India been so distracted, dis- 
contented, despondent ; the victim of so many misfortunes, 
political and other , the target for so much scorn and 
calumny emanating from the highest quarters its most 
moderate demands ridiculed and scouted, its most reason- 
able prayers greeted with a stiff negative, its noblest aspira- 
tions spurned and denounced as pure mischief or solemn 
nonsense, its most cherished ideals hurled down from their 
pedestal and trodden under foot never had the condition 
of India been more critical than it was during the second 
ill-starred administration of Lord Curzon. The Official 
Secrets Act was passed in the teeth of universal opposi- 
tion. It was condemned by the whole Press Indian and 
Anglo-Indian protests from all quarters poured in, but 
Lord Curzon was implacable, and the Gagging Act was 
passed. Education was crippled and mutilated ; it was 
made expensive and it was officialised ; and so that most 
effective instrument for the enslavement of our National 
interest, the Indian 'Universities Act, was passed, and the 
policy of checking if not altogether undoing the noble 
work of Bentinck, Macaulay and" Xrord Halifax, which for 
more than half a century has been continued with such 
happy results to the country, came m full 



416 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

On the 27th, 28th, 29th and 30th of December, 
1905, 758 delegates gathered on the noble cliff of 
Rajghar, dominating Gangamai's rolling flood, and 
the eye, looking upwards, rested on the great curving 
bank, the Crescent Moon, crowned with temples and 
stately dwelling-places. They came thither as follows 
from : 

Bengal 209 

U. P 203 

Panjab (104) and N. W. F. P. (1) . 105 

C. P. (44), Berar (16) and Secunderabad (3) 64 

Bombay (95) and Sindh (16) . ... 110 

Madras (64) and Mysore (1) . ... 65 
Burma . ... . . . .2 



758 

(The list gives 757, but No. 606 is repeated in error.) 

Munshi Madho Lai was the Chairman of the 
Eeception Committee, and made a very brief speech 
of welcome, asking Pandit Bishambharnath to propose 
the President-elect. Yery warm were the words with 
which he proposed and Mr. Bomesh Chandra Dutt 
seconded the Hon. Mr. Gropal Krishna Grokhale ; they 
were followed by Sardar Gurucharan Singh, Mr. It. K. 
Mudholkar and Mr. Gr. Subramania Iyer, and then 
the idol of India took the Presidential chair amid 
resounding cheers, and delivered one of the most 
notable speeches to which the Congress had listened 
during the twenty-one years of its existence. 

Mr. Gokhale remarked that he was called to take 
charge of the vessel of the Congress with rooks 
ahead and angry waves beating around, and invoked 



THE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS 417 

the Divine guidance. He then, after a few words 
of homage to the Prince and Princess of Wales, then 
visiting India, and of respectful welcome to the nw 
Viceroy and Lady Minto, turned to the administration 
of Lord Curzon, just closed. Stern and scathing was, 
his verdict 

Gentlemen, how true it is that to everything there is 
an end ! Thus even the Viceroy alty of Lord Ourzon has 
come to a close ! For seven long years all eyes had con- 
stantly to turn to one masterful figure in the land now 
in admiration, now in astonishment, more often in anger 
and in pain, till at last it has become difficult to realise 
that a change has really come. .For a parallel to such an 
administration, we must, I think, go back to the times of 
Aurangzebo m the history of our own country. There 
we find th'e same attempt at a rule excessively centralised 
and intensely personal, the same strenuous purpose, the 
same overpowering- consciousness of duty, the same 
marvellous capacity for work, the same sense of loneliness, 
the same persistence in a policy of distrust and repression, 
resulting in bitter exasperation all round. I think even 
the most devoted admirer of Lord Curzon cannot claim 
that he has strengthened the foundations of British rule 

in India To him India was a country 

where the Englishman was to monopolise for all time 
all power, and talk all the while of duty. The Indian's 
only business was to be governed, and it was a sacrilege 
on his part to have any other aspiration. 'In his scheme 
of things there was no room for the educated classes of 
the oountry ; and having failed to amuse them for any 
length #f time by an empty show of taking them into his 
confidence, he proceeded in the end to repress them, 
Even in his last farewell speech at the Byculla Club in 
Bombay, India exists only as a scene of the Englishman's 
labours, with the toiling millions of the country eighty 
per c4nt of the population in the background. The 
remaining twenty )6er cent, for aught they are worth 
might as well be gently swept into the sea ! 



HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

G-okhale tore into shreds the attempt to 
separate the educated from the uneducated Indians, 
and. pointed oat that the suggestion that the former 
W*re opposed to the latter was " unreal and ridiculous," 
and that the useful measures of which Lord Ourzon 
bj&asted had been persistently urged fey the Congress. 
Turning to the Partition of Bengal, he denounced it as 
"a cruel wrong," and indignantly flung back Lord 
Curaon's false assertion that the agitation was 
<e manufactured," declaring that nothing more intense, 
widespread and spontaneous had been seen in Indian 
political agitation. Mentioning the remarkable men 
$h0 had como forward v against the Partition, he 
exclaimed : 

If the opinions of even such men are to be brushed 
aside with contempt, if all Indians are to be treated 
as n$ Better than dumb, driven cattle; if men, whom 
any ther country would delight to honour, are to 
be thus made to realise the utter humiliation and 
helplessness of their position in their own, then all 
I <ja.n say is- "Groodbye to all hope of co-operating 
ia any way with the bureaucracy in the interests 
of the people!" I can conceive of no graver indict- 
ment of British rule than that such a state of things 
be possible after a hundred years of that rule ! 
. . . The tremendous upheaval of popular feeling 
has taken place in Bengal in consequence of the 
partition, will constitute a landmark in the history of our 
Kfctiqnal progress. For the first time since British rule 
began, all sections of the Indian community, without 
distinction of caste or creed, have been moved by a 
oejjotmon impulse and without the stimulus of external 
pressure, to act together in offering resistance to a 
cemmon wrong. A wave of true National consciousness 
hjfcg swept over the Province and, at its touch, old barriers 
have, for the time at any rate, been thrown down, personal 



TEB TW1JTTT-IIB8T 

jealousies have vanished, other controversies have been 
hushed ! Bengal's heroic gtand against the oppression of 
a harsh and uncontrolled bureaucracy has astonished and 
gratified all India, and her sia^eringfl have/ Jaot been 
endured in vain, if hen they have helped to draw closer all 
parts of the country in sympathy and in aspiration. A 
great rush and uprising- of the waters such $9 had been 
recently witnessed in Bengal cannot take place without 
a little inundation over the banks here and there. These 
little excesses are inevitable when large saasBes ef men 
move spontaneously -esrpeciaHy when the movement is 
from darkness into light, from bondage towards freedom 
and they mtrtt not fee allowed, t disconcert us too much. 
The most aeteunding jfoet of the situation is that the 
public life of this country has received an accession of 
strength of great importance,, and for this all India owes 
a deep debt of gratitude to Bengal. 

Speaking of the Swadeshi movement, Mr. Gokhale 
justified the boycott as a political weapon, to be 
used only at the last extremity, and with strong 
popular feeling behind it. 

The devotion to Motherland, which is enshrined in the 
highest Swadeshi, is an influence so profound and 
so passionate that its very thought thrills and its 
actual touch lifts one out of oneself. India needs 
to-day above everything else that the gospel of this 
devotion should be preached to high and low, to Prince 
and to peasant, in town and in hamlet, till the Service 
of Motherland becomes with us as overmastering a 
passion as it is in Japan. 

Turning then to the Congress movement, 
Mr. Gokhale traced it to the National consciousness 
quickened by the beloved Lord Bipqn. "Hope at 
that time was warm and faith was bright " that by 
urging reforms Indians could win a steady progress 
towards political emancipation. " Much had happened 
to chill that faith and dim that hope," yet the 



420 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

people now realised "the idea of a United India 
working for lier salvation ". Advance would be 
gradual, but the resources of the country must 
be devoted to it, and the people educated. For a 
hundred years England had ruled India, but four 
villages out of every five were without a school-house, 
and seven children out of eight grew up in ignorance. 
" India should be governed first and foremost in the 
interests of the Indians themselves. This result will 
be achieved only in proportion as we obtain more 
and more voice in the Government of our country," 

That the Charter Act of 1833 and the 

Queen's Proclamation of 1858 have created in the eyes of 
reactionary rulers a most inconvenient situation is clear 
from a blunt declaration which another Viceroy of India, 
the late Lord Lytton, made in a confidential document 
and, which has since seen the light of day. Speaking of 
our claims and expectations based on the pledges of the 
Sovereign and the Parliament of England, he wrote : 
"We all know that these claims and expectations never can 
or will be fulfilled. We have had to choose between 
prohibiting them [the Natives of India] and cheating 
them, and we have chosen the least straightforward 

course. . Since I am writing confidentially, T do 

not hesitate to say that both the Government of England 
and of India appear to me up to the present moment 
unable- to answer satisfactorily the charge of haying taken 
every means in their power of breaking to the heart the 
wqrds of promise they had uttered to the ear." We 
accept Lord Lytton as an unimpeachable authority on the 
conduct of the Government in evading the fulfilment of 
the pledges. We deny his claim to lay down that our 
"claims and expectations never can or will be fulfilled " 

Our whole, future, it in needless to say, is bound tip 
with this question of the relative position of the two races 
in this country. 1?he domination of one race over another 
especially when there is no great disparity between 



THE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS 421 

their intellectual endowments or their general civilisation 
inflicts great injury on the subject race in a thousand 
insidious ways. On the moral side, the present situation 
is steadily destroying our capacity for initiative and 
dwarfing us as men of action. On the material side, it 
has resulted in a fearful impoverishment of the people. 
For a hundred years and more now India has been for 
members of the dominant race a country where fortunes 
were to be made, to be taken out and spent elsewhere. 
As in Ireland the evil of absentee landlordism has in the 
past aggravated the racial domination of the English 
over the Irish, so in India what may be called absentee 
capitalism has been added to the racial ascendancy of 
Englishmen. A- great and ruinous drain of wealth 
from the country has gone on for many years, the net 
excess of exports over imports (including treasure) 
during the last forty years amounting to no less than a 
thousand millions sterling. The steady rise in the death- 
rate of the country from 24 per thousand, the average 
for 1882-84, to 30 per thousand, the average for 1892- 
94, and 34 per thousand, the present average is a 
terrible and conclusive proof of this continuous impoverish- 
ment of the mass of our people. India's best interests 
material and moral no less than the honour of 
England, demand that the policy of equality for the 
two races promised by the Sovereign and by Parliament 
should be faithfully and courageously carried out 

Mr. G-okhale then turned to the bureaucracy, and 
bitterly blamed the system, adding that " the 
Bureaucracy is growing frankly selfish and openly 
hostile to their [the educated classes] national 
aspirations. It was not so in the past." And he 
spoke of the different feeling within living memory, 
when the rulers looked forward to India's Self- 
Government. It was pretended that the people were 
indifferent, but "what the educated Indians think 
to-day, the rest of India thinks to-morrow " 



422 HOW INDIA WJtOUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Lastly, Mr. Grokhale advised concentration on 
selected portions of the Congress programme : (1) a 
larger and larger share in Administration and control, 
by a steady substitution of Indians for Europeans; 
(2) improvement in methods of administration ; (8) re- 
adjustment of financial arrangements; and (4) measures 
to improve the condition of the people". An elabora- 
tion of these brought hi* splendid speech to a close. 

The approval of the Subjects' Committee was 
given, and the Congress adjourned. 

On the second day, after noting seme telegrams of 
good wishes, the President mpved from the Chair the 
first Besolution of welcome i$ T. B. H. the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, and it was enthusiastically 
carried. 

Resolution II, on the further reform of the 
Legislative Councils, was moveet fcy the Hon. 
Mr. J. Ghoudhuri, who remarked that recent 
legislation would have been very different had the 
Supreme Council been more than a debating society. 
Indians praet&ally said t0 the officials : That is jour 
suggestjott* reason fe m our side: justice is on our 
side: the votes are &n your eiga : do just as you 
please." The Eon, Mr. L. JL Govimdaragiiava Iyer 
seconded in a weighty speech, pointing out that 
England's chief aim was not mereljr to govern India 
efficiently but "to make her JW&tiewBing," and 
for this larger representation wft&aeeded, Messrs. 
E..P,KaraBaikar, Ok 
Bhunji, and 



Besslation was ewrriel. 



TEE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS 

Resolution III was on Excise Policy and Administra 
tion, and was ably moved by Sir 
Krishna,, seconded by Mr. G. A. Natesan, 
by Mr. B. 8. Bhatia and carried. 

Resolution IT dealt witli irepresentatiofc, btit on 
lines different from those f Resolution II, for It 
asked that each Province in India should return two 
members to the House of Commons, that three 
Indians should be placed on the India Council, 
tw in the Viceroy's Executive Council, and ona in 
the Executive Councils of .Bombay and Madras. 
Mr. G. Srinivasa Rao moved the Resolution, in a 
short speech, Mr. S. R. Das formally seconded it, 
Mr. Fazal Husain supported it, and it was unani- 
mously carried. 

Mr. Ambalal Desai moved Resolution V, suggest- 
ing a revival of Parliamentary enquiries into th 
condition of the country, and the placing of th 
Secretary of State's salajry on the British estimates. 
He recalled the value of the enquiries on the renewals 
of the East India Company's Charter, and such en- 
quiries might mitigate present evils. Mr. Tarapada 
Bannerji seconded, laying stress on the importance 
of,*ich enquiries. Mr, V. Krishnaswami Aiyar sup- 
ported, noting that when the Government of India 
had been transferred to the Crown, serious "misgivings 
'had been felt as to Parliamentary control, and they 
had been justified. Good might come out of such 
enquiries as were proposed, as the knowledge 
obtained would touch the heart of the British people. 
The Resolution was carried. 



424 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Resolution VI dealt with the Public Service 
question, and was moved by Mr. N". M. Sarnarth, who 
dealt severely with Lord Curzon's insolent treatment 
of the Proclamation of 1858, saying that "happily 
Jor his Lordship and unhappily for India, we are not 
living .in the days of Burke and Sheridan. Otherwise 
on$ could well* imagine the fate that would probably 
have befallen the late Viceroy on his return to 
England, after trifling with tos Queen's Proclamation." 
Pandit Bishan Ndrayana Dhar seconded, pointing to 
the eminent Indians who were " debarred from holding 
Wigh appointments in the Public Service of their own 
country". Mr. J. Simeon and the Hon. Mr. K. R. 
Ghiruswami Aiyar supported, and the Resolution was 
carried. The Congress then adjourned. 

On the fchird day, Mr. G. Subramania Iyer moved 
Resolution VII, dealing with the fashion in which 
the artificial surpluses were disposed of, and referred 
to Mr. Gokhale's speech in the previous year as the 
basis of his own. Mr. R. N. Mudholkar seconded v 
deploring the unsoundness of Indian finance, an 'I 
pointing out that expenditure grew from military 
extravagance, and high berths for Europeans, while 
education was starved. Mr. Mathnra Das supported, 
and the Resolution was carried. 

Mr. H. A P Wadia moved Resolution VIII, on 
the hopeless subject of military expenditure, arid 
asked that the 10 millions sterling sanctioned for 
military purposes be spent in education and i 
reducing the ryots' burdens. On speaking for " the 
"oiceless millions," he said, "it is not so much a 



THE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS 425 

right that we desire t assert as a sacred duty which 
we aspire to perform" Mr. V. Ryru Nambier 
secoiided, urging that a large army was not needed to 
secure internal peace $ what was an army in a 
population of 300 millions ? The loyalty of these was 
India's defence. After speeches from Messrs. N. B. 
Ranade and Krishna Baldev Tarma, the Resolution 
was carried. 

Resolution IX was on the South African 
troubles growing worse each year, the conditions of 
the Indians being far worse than under the Boers, 
urged Mr. Madanjit. Mr. B. N. Sarma spoke-out 
boldly, warning England that in the Empire there 
could not be permanently a racial supremacy, one 
race dominating another. "If we are true to our- 
selves, then the race which has produced the great 
philosophers, the greatest statesmen and the greatest 
warriors shall not crouch for this or that favour at 
the hands of other people. It is then and then alone 
that the South African problem, as well as other 
"Indian problems will find thfeir best solution." Well 
spoken indeed. Then, and only then. 

Dr. B. S. Mmrji remarked that Indians as a Nation 
were boycotted, both in and out of India, Foreigners 
in India dominated and ruled, and Indians in foreign 
countries were ruthlessly boycotted. " Our rulers do 
not believe that we -SS$ men*" The Resolution was 
carried 

Mr. Romesh Chandra Butt gave a charm even 
to our old friend the separation, f Judicial and 
Executive functions, embodied in Resolution X, and 
34 



426 HOW INBJA WROUGHT * FREEDOM 

the Hon. Mr. SetalwaA duly seqanded it. Hi*. Satish 
Chandra Bannerji supported, urging &* need to ma ^ e 
British justice sound, Mr. Bishnupada. Chatterji 
added some instances of the miscarriages of justice, 
and the Resolution passed as usual. 

Plice Beforms -flrere entrusted to their old cham- 
pion, Mr. S. Sinhfc, &n& he moved Besolution XI, and 
said how bitterly the Police CommJMfon had dis- 
appointed them, constituting^ a special Folice Service 
from which Indtag should tee excluded, I*>rd Curzon's 
corps d'eUte, reserved to Uurpeans. Messrs. Jogiah, 
Ishwar Saraa, l!^arfati Ka^, A. C. J*arthasarathi 
Naidu, and Kaliprasanna KavyaMsliarad, all spoke to 
it, and the Keseltitte -was carried. 

Resolution SJI ugainst the Partition of Bengal was 
moved by Mr. Surendpariath Banuerji, as soon as the 
shouts of " Bande Mataram " allowed him to speak. 
With passionate eloquence he voiced the anger of his 
people, and declared that agitation should never stop 
until the Partition was cancelled. He proved to be a 
true prophet, and the cancellation in 1911 proved 
what agitation could do, even in India, under coercion 
and an autocracy. He described the grief and 
excitement in Calcutta : u the shops were closed, 
the domestic hearth was not lit, food was not 
cooked ". The Government was busy " forging in- 
struments of repression, laying the foundation for the 
inauguration of a reign of terror ". Meetings were 
grahibited, Sankirtan processions stopped, the singing 
of ** tSande Mataram " punished, boys prosecuted and 
sent to gaol. They believed Gtod was with them, and 



THE TWENTY-MUST CQNGESBfl 427 

" men fortified by such belief and working leader such 
conviction are irresistible and iuvi&ctbto > th$F is no 
danger which they are not re% t &ritve, BO 
difficulty which they are nob prepa*$i to ttteMWfc ", 

Mv. A. Choudhuri seconded im a vtt^ sffteefe, 
and Messrs. Baifcuatfianath Ben, $ V. Ytfty* {few 
&lp4ur), 8. Bbha, Hadayat Bai^t AWWT Bafcsim, 
B. ST. Mu^olfewr (Ba Ba^mr) Mdt tfawnrfifc!, 
voiced, In ^ne. md% nat protest tftor as^tht, the 
anger and determination O f India. W@t of ten has 
the Nation*.! 0^jpess witnessed fcch a scene of 
excitement, 

Then came -jWsobtion XI13, protesting against the 
repressive meanurea adopted t oruh the antagonism 
that Lord Gwezm*8 tyranny had created. Pandit 
Hadan Mohau Malaviya showed, hi moving it, that not 
one act of violence had been committed l>y the people, 
in spite of all that had occurred. No protest was 
heeded, and as a last measure of despair the boycott 
of foreign goods was adopted. Then came a series 
of repressive measures ; " persecution is the only word 
that you can use " for the measures adopted. Ear- 
nestly he hoped that the Government would put an 
end bo the boycott by removing its cause. 

Lala Lajpat Rai, seconding, congratulated Bengal 
n its splendid opportunity of heralding a new 
political era for the country. The English had taught 
them how to resist when they had a grievance, and 
the English expected them to sh^w more manliness 
in their struggles for liberty, They must show that 
they ww "ao longer beggars, a4 that we are 



428 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

subjects of an Empire where people are struggling to 
achieve that position which is their right" If other 
Provinces followed the example of Bengal the day 
was not far distant when they would win 

Messrs. H. A. Wadia, W. D. A. Khare, V Krishna- 
swaini Aiyar who recounted the example of Ireland 
and of China A. H. Gaznavi who exposed the vio- 
lent and hysterical behaviour of Mr Bamfylde Fuller, 
his threats, and his rudeness to respectable men, 
whom he rated and insulted like a bully, " blood- 
shed might be necessary," ho said, and the Gurkhas 
had been brought to check the state of affairs 
Panday Ramsaran Lai and G-. S. Khaparde all 
spoke, the Resolution was passed, and the meeting 
adjourned. 

The Congress met for the fourth time on December 
80th, and the President called on Mr. Heramba 
Chandra Maitra to move Resolution XIY on Education, 
which protested against the policy of officialising and 
restricting education, thanked the Government for 
some special grants made, though insufficient to meet 
the country's needs, and urged the recommendations 
made by the Industrial Education Committee, and the 
establishment of a Polytechnic Institute, with affiliated 
schools and colleges. The mover made a weighty 
and impressive speech, remarking that amid the 
exciting topics of the time the perennial importance 
of education must not be overlooked Higher 
education was openly restricted by the Government, 
who regarded one college student to every 11,000 of 
the population as too large a proportion. The 



THE TWENTY-FTKST* CONORESS 429 

University Commission said that it was better to 
have a comparatively small number well educated than 
a large number inadequately educated. 

Is it better that a few men should have a surfeit of 
luxury and millions should starve, than that all should be 
moderately fed H Is it better that a few healthy strong 
giants should stride across the face of the country, and 
others should be so many skeletons ? Is it better that 
there should be a few saints in the country and the rest 
should be blackguards, than that all men should be of 
fairly good character P 

The question could not be better put. The view 
taken by the University Commission is opposed to 
every modern theory of Society, though it is easy to 
see why it should be the view of a foreign Government, 
determined to keep a Nation in bonds. Mr. Maitra 
said with impassioned eloquence : 

We are denied admission into South African Re- 
publics; we are denied admission into Australia. Are 
we also to be denied admission into the Republic of 
Letters ? Are we not to be admitted freely to the 
franchises of the citizenship of the great Republic of 
Letters ? .... "We claim, we demand, that we should be 
helped to believe that the British Government in 
India is a wise and humane dispensation and not 
a scourge for the punishment of the people for their 
former sins. That is all we demand and ask for 
in this Resolution. The noblest service which one man 
can render to another, next to helping in, the belief in the 
glory and goodness of God, is to uiifold the doors of the 
temple of culture to a man, and the cruellest wrong that 
one can do for another is to withhold from hiifc the boon 
of education, which is a solace to him in the Says e>f 
Borrow, which is an augmentation in the days of joy, which 
is always a friend and companion. 'We dem'and that 
d shall not be deliberately guilty of that cruel 



430 HW INDIA WR0TTGHT POB 



Mr. B, G. Pandhya seconded and, after many 
sound arguments against the officialising 1 of education, 
remarked that "the aim is to manufacture in 
India, to manufacture fi'dm colleges and sehaels, 
submissive slaves who will lie willing instruments 
in the hands <*f de&pets who live upen the people of 
this country w * Dy Hilraisarn Sircar, supporting 1 , 
advocated industrial education, pleading for an adapt- 
ation of technical education as in Japan, America and 
Germany. Messrs. M. K. Patel, Bamananda Chatter ji 
who said that India's political salvation depended 
on mass education and Nareschandrft Ben supported 
the Resolution, which was carried* 

Mr, B. G, Tilak, "who was received with an 
ovation," says the Report, moved Resolution XV on 
Famine, Poverty, Economic Enquiry and Land 
Revenue j he urged the duty of Government to deal 
with the causes of poverty, to ensure prosperity; 
Governments womld not be needed if there were 
universal well-being, any more than doctors would 
be wanted if there were no disease. Pandit 
Gokarnath seconded, Messrs. N. K. Ramaswami 
Aiyar, Hanktu Prasad, Rarnbhuj Dutt, and K. N. 
Beskmukh supported, and the Resolutfpn was 
carried. 

The Hon. Mr. G. K. Parekh moved and Mr. Ali 
Muhammad Bhhnji seconded, Resolution XVI^ to 
relieve the, Muhammadan pilgrims of the Bombay 
quarantime in view of the 10 days' quarantine at 
Katnran. The Resolution was supported by Moulvi 
Abdul Eayum and Mr. G. S, Khare, and passed. 



THE TW1NTT-PIBST C&N&XB88 431 

Resolution XVII, the Omnibus, was put fram th 
Chair. Mr. K. Venkata Kao proposed and Mr. J. N. 
!Uy seconded Resolution XVIII, supporting Mr. 
Badabhai Narji's candidature at South Lambeth ; 
and Mr. I). A. Khare moved and Mr. 1C. Nara- 
yana Eao seconded Resolution XIX, thanking 
Mr. G-. K. Gokhale &&&, Lala Lajpat Rai for 
their great services in Bngiand. Mr. M. V, Joshi 
then moved Resolution XX, appointing Mr. Gokhale 
to fee the Delegate of the Congress to urge the more 
pressing proposals of the Congress on the authorities 
in England. Mr. C. Vijiaraghavachari seconded, and 
Sister Nivedita supported the Eesolution, urging the 
Congress to remember the birth of Nationality in 
Europe, an impulse against the Napoleonic movement, 
a century before ; now history was repeating itself, 
and India must speak for the salvation of Europe, 
for the English Empire must be Imperialism or 
Nationality, Slavery of Nations or Freedom for the 
peoples of the earth. 

Resolution XXI appointed a Standing Committee 
to promote the objects of the Congress throughout 
the year. Resolution XXII re-appointed the Secre- 
taries; Resolution XXIII thanked Sir William 
Wedderburn and the British Committee. Then 
Mr. Yatindranath Choudhuri invited the next Con- 
gress to Calcutta, the Congress gladly accepting. 

Finally, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, in words 
of deepest gratitude and admiration, voiced the 
love and trust of India in the vote of thanks to 
the President, endorsed by tumultuous applause; 



432 HOW INDIA WROtJGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji seconded, and Mr. Gokhale 
very briefly replied. Thus had the Twenty-first 
National Congress its ending. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Message of Welcome to Their Royal Highnesses 
the Prince and Princess of Wales 

I Resolved That this Congress, representing His Majesty's 
Indian subjects of all races, creeds and communities, most humbly 
and respectfully offers its loyal and dutiful welcome to Their Royal 
Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales on the occasion of 
their visit to India 

The Congress re deeply touched by the expressions of Their 
Highnesses' sentiments of cordial good- will towards the people of 
India, is confident that the personal knowledge gained during the 
present tour will stm-ulate their kindly interest in the welfare of 
its people, and it expresses the fervent hope that His Royal 
Highness will be graciously pleased to submit, to His Majesty the 
King-Emperor, the earnest prayer of this Congress that the 
principles of the Queen's Proclamation be enforced in the 
Government of this country. 

(a) That the President do submit the above resolution to 
His Royal Highness by wire. 

Representation 

II Resolved That in the opinion of this -Uofcgress the time 
has arrived for a further expansion and reform of the Supreme and 
Provincial Legislative Councils, so that they may become more 
representative of the people, and the non-official members thereof 
may have a real voice- in the G-overmneat of the country. The 
Congress neceramenda an increase in the number of non-official and 
elected menttberja and the grant to them of the right of dividing the 
Councils in financial matters coming before them. ; the head of the 
Government concerned possessing the power of veto. 

IY. Reselved That in the opinion of this Congress the time 
has arrived when the people of India should be allowed a larger 
voice in the administration and control of the affairs of their 
country by 

(a) The bestowal on each f the Provinces of India the 
franchise lo return at least two members to the British House of 
Commons. 



THE TWENTY-OFIJR8T OONGBDSff 

(&) The appointment of not legs than three Indian gentlemen 
of proved ability and experience as members of the Secretary of 
State's Council. 

(c) The appointment of two Indians as members of the 
Governor- General' 8 Executive Council and of one Indian as a 
member of the Executive Councils of Bombay and Madras. 

Excise 

III. Resolved That (a) this Congress, while thanking the 
Government of India for the appointment of a Committee* to 
enquire into Excise Administration in. the several Provinces of the 
country, regrets that its composition is exclusively official, and that, 
therefore, it cannot inspire full public confidence ; 

(5) this -Congress, concurring in the opinion of previous 
Congresses, expresses its deliberate conviction that the recognition 
of the principle of local option in practical administration and a 
large reduction in the number of existing liquor-shops are conditions 
precedent to any satisfactory refoim in Excise Administration ; 

(c) this Congress respectfully urges on the Government of 
India the desirability of speedily carrying out the principal 
proposals contained in Sir Fredrick Lely's memorandum of last 
year on Excise Administration , 

(cif) that the Congress begs to protest against the virtual 
shelving, by the Government of India in its executive capacity, of 
the Bengal Excise Bill, which has been welcomed as a sound and 
progressive piece of temperance legislation. 

Periodical Enquiries 

V. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion that to enable 
the Parliament to discharge more satisfactorily its responsibility in 
regard to the Government of India, periodical Parliamentary en- 
quiries into the condition of India should be revived, and the salary 
of the Secretary of State for India should be placed on the British 
estimates. 

Public Service 

VI. Resolved (a) That, in the opinion, of the Congress, the 
principles and policy enunciated by the Government of India in. 
their Resolution, dated 24th May, 1904, on the subject of the 
employment of Indians in the higher grades of the Public Service, 
are inconsistent with those laid down in the Parliamentary Statute 
of 1883 and the Proclamation of 185$ by the late Queen-Empress, 
and this Congress enters its respectful but emphatic protest against 
an attempt to explain away pledges solemnly given, by the 



434 HOW IKDIA WROUGHT 3?OK 

Sovereign and Parliament to the people ol this country, r ml to, 
deviate from arrangements deliberately arrived at by tho (Invom- 
tnont after a careful examination of tho whole question by a I'ublio 
Commission. 

(&) That this Congress is of opinion that tho trw remi'dy 
for many existing financial and administrative evils lion in tho 
wider employment of Indians in the higher bztinvhoH ol the 
country s service ; and while concurring with previous Contf rosaou 
in urging that immediate effect should be giveu to tho Kwrintii/u 
of the House of Commons of 2nd June, 1898, in favour of holcluif* 
the competitive examinations for the Civil Services simnlttmoourtly 
ia England aad in India, this Congress pK-ea on recoil its imia 
convieljon that the only satisfactory solution of this quct.tion IH to 
boiond in the re-organisation of the Indiiui Civil Sorvio wlncli 
ehovi>i he reconstituted on a dociutraliaert basin. iN judicial 
functions in the meantime being partly tranifcxxed tt'*pei*onb who 
been trained in the profession of law. 



^ (c) That this Congress, concurring in the opinion of tho last 
v-onyroes, deplores the abolition of the competitive tett lor the 
Pro^-iucfai Service. Part experience has amply established il.u iuct 
tnat^ a system of Government nomination dejfentrates, ut ih- 
special eircutnstances of this country, into a system of pjijiouitmont 
toy official fa\cai, and thnft by bringing unfit'men into the bonico, 
impairs the officiency of tho admiinstrutiou and, in ud<Lt,oa, 
onifaarly discredits the fitnow of Indians tui high ofluv TliiM 
Congress tbertfore, ruapecdully n^es tho Oovernmeni tif Imiiu to 
restore the competitive test for the Provincial Son wo. 

Finance 

art ,. VIL . Resolved -That this Congress, while appiwiahu^r tbi- 
action of the Ootemmjnt of India hi apply,^ 'portion of its 
p m ' enues !"* Morcli to some of tho purpoao. wcoRimeiidod 
ingress, is of opwnon that ,.ho financial relief B i wn by 



nnng the last Uuvo vei>, ha 
; and V' e Co Sross roRMt. that ,,,Wantoo hu,s 



b T ,ano u,s 

beenMken of recent surpluses to inrwHbo largely tho mVlitwv 
expendxturo of the country, raise the salaHes of Eifropoan oft Si 



that 

, Ut l lised for rmrpo S o 8 of remission of 

, and, secondly, be devoted to objects directly benefiting the 
32X* a* '.''Parting scientitSo, industrial and aSculfcara 

education providing increased facilities of medical Telief and 



THE TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS 435 

Military 

VIII. Resolved (a) That this Congress, while recording its, 
emphatic protest against any change which weakens the supremacy 
of the Civil control over the Military authorities, is of opinion that 
the necessary Civil control cannot be adequately exercised until and 
unless the representatives of the tax-payers are placed in a position 
to influence such control. 

(b) That this Congress earnestly repeats its protest against 
the continued increase in the military expenditure, which is 
unnecessary, unjust and beyond the capacity of the Indian people. 

(c) That this Congress is , distinctly of opinion that as the 
military expenditure of this country is determined, not by its own 
military needs and reqiiirements alone but also by the exigencies of 
British supremacy and British policy, in the East, it is only fair 
that a proportionate share of such expenditure should be met out of 
the British Exchequer and shared by the Empire at large, instead of 
the whole of such expenditure falling on a part of the Empire 
which is the poorest and the least able to bear it. 

(<7) That in view of the changed position of affairs in Asia, 
due to tho recent -war between Itusaia and Japan and the Anglo- 
Japanese Treaty, this Congress earnestly urges that the large 
expenditure of 10 millions sterling sanctioned last year for the He- 
organisation scheme be not now incurred, and the money be devoted 
to an extension of education in all its branches and reduction of 
the ryot's burdens. 

Indiana in British Colonies 

IX. Resolved That (a) this Congress, while expressing its 
sense of satisfaction at the passing by the Australian House of 
representatives, of a Bill to amend the Law of Immigration so as to 
avoid hurting the susceptibilities of the people of India, again 
places on record its sense of deep regret that British Indians should 
continue to bo subjected to harassing and degrading restrictions 
and denied the ordinary rights of British citizenship in His 
Majesty's Colonies. The Congress particularly protests against the 
enforcement by the British Government of disabilities on the 
Indian settlers in the Transvaal and Orange River Crown Colonies, 
which were not enforced even under the old Boer rule, in spite of 
declarations by His Majesty's Minister that the treatment of the 
Indian subjects of the King-Emperor by the Boer Government 
was one of the causes of the late wnr ; 

(b) in view of the important part the Indian settlers have 
p^yed in the development of the Colonies, their admitted loyalty 
and peaceful and industrious habits, their useful and self-sacrificing 
services during the recent war, and, aboVe all, the great constitution- 
al importance of the principle of equal treatment of all citizens of 



436 HOW INDIA WBOUG-HT FOR FREEDOM 

the Empire anywhere in the King's Dominions, this Congress 
respectfully, but strongly, urges the Government of India and His 
Majesty's Government to insist, by prohibiting, if necessary, the 
emigration of indentured labour and adopting other retaliatory 
measures, on -the recognition of the status of Indian emigrants as 
British citizens in all the Colonies. 

Legal 

X Resolved (a) That in the opinion of this Congress a com- 
plete separating of Judicial fiom Executive functions must now be 
carried out without further delay, (b) that this Congress, 
concurring with previous Congresses, urges that the Judicial 
Service in all parts of the country, should be recruited from the 
Legal profession more largely than at present, as the system of 
appointing Civilians without special legal training to high judicial 
offices does not lead to satisfactory administration of justice in 
the Muffasal. 

Police 

XI. Resolved That this Congress, while noting with satisfac- 
tion some useful reforws recommended by the Police Commission, 
regrets that adequate measures have not been adopted to materially 
improve the efficiency and the honesty of the Police Service. 

That this Congress records its conviction 

(1) That competitive examinations for the recruitment of 
the Police Service in the higher grades should be thrown open to 
all classes of British subjects instead of being confined to candidates 
of British birth, and that such examinations should be held 
simultaneously in England and in India. 

(2) That educated Indians should be largely employed in 
the higher grades in order to secure efficiency in work. 

(3) That enlistment in the Provincial Service should be by 
competitive examinations. 

(4) And lustly, that District Officers, who are the heads of 
the Police, should bo relieved of ]udicial work and of all cojitrol 
over the Magistracj' of the District. 

Coercion 

The Partition of Bengal 

XII. Resolved That this Congress records its emphatic 
protest against the Partition of Bengal in the face of the strongest 
opposition on the part of the people of the Province. 

That having regard to the intense dissatisfaction felt by the 
Bengali community at the dismemberment of their Province 



THE TWENTT-3TIRBT CONGHUBSff, 437 

and their manifest disinclination to accept- the Partition as 1 an 
accomplished fact, this Congress appeals to the Government ot 
India and to the Secretary of State to reverse or modify the 
arrangements made in sucK a manner as to conciliate public opinion, 
and allay the excitement and unrest manifest among largb masse* 
of the people. 

That this Congress reeommends the 1 adoption o,f some arrange- 
ment which would be consistent with administrative efficiency, and 
would plaoe the entire Bengali community under one undivided 
administration either by the appointment of a Governor and Council, 
or by the adoption of some other administrative arrangement that 
may be thought desirable. 

Repressive Measures 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress records its earnest and 
emphatic protest against .the repressive measures which have been 
adopted by the authorities in Bengal after the people there had 
been compelled to resort to the boycott of foreign goods as a last 
protest, and perhaps the only constitutional and effective means, 
left to them of drawing the attention of the British public to the 
action of the Government of India in persisting in their determina- 
tion to partition Bengal, in utter disregard of the universal prayers 
and protests of the people. 

[See XVII,- 6.] 

Bduoation. 

XIV. Besolved (d) That this Congress repeats ita protest 
against the present policy of the Government of India in respeot 
of High and Secondary education, as being one of officialising the 
governing bodies of the Universities and restricting the spread of 
education. 

(6) That this Congress, while thanking the Government of 
India for the special grants made this year to Primary and High 
Education, again places on record its firm conviction that the 
material and moral interests of the country demand a much larger 
expenditure than at present on all branches of education, and a 
beginning in the direction of Ifree Primary Education. 

(c\ That in the opinion of this Congress the recommenda- 
tions of the Committee on Industrial Education should be promptly 
carried out by the Government for the better provision of Technical 
Education to the youth of the country. The Congress especially 
targes the Government to order an Industrial Survey as recommended 
by the Committee, and as suggested by the Government of India 
itself in its Home Department Resolution Ko. 199, dated 18th June, 
1888, as a necessary preliminary to the introduction, of an 
organised system of Technical education in the several Provinces. 

80 



438 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FBEEDOM 

(ti) That at least one central fully-equipped Polytechnic 
Institute should be established in the country with minor technical 
schools and colleges in the different Provinces. 

Poverty 

XV. Resolved That this Congress deplores fresh outbreaks 
of famine in several parts of the country, and holding that the 
frequent occurrences of famines are due to the great poverty of the 
people, which forces large numbers of them to throw themselves on 
State help at the first touch of scarcity, it again urges the Govern- 
ment of India and the Secretary of State to institute a detailed 
enquiry into the economic condition of a few typical villages m 
different parts of India. 

(1 ) This Congress is o* opinion that the property of an agri- 
cultural country like India cannot be secured without a definite 
limitation of the State demand on land, such as was proposed by 
Lord Canning in 1862, or by Lord Bipon in 1882. 

(2) It regrets that Lord Curzon, in his Land Resolution of 
1902, failed to recognise any such limitation, and declined to accept 
the suggestions of the Right HOD Sir Richard Garth and other 
memorialists. 

(3) It holds that a reasonable and definite restriction of the 
State-demand, and not the restriction on tenants' rights, such as 
has found favour in recent years, is the true remedy for the growing 
impoverishment of the agricultural population. 

Quarantine at Bombay 

XVI. Resolved That having regard to the fact that there is 
ten days international quarantine in existence at Kamran, this 
Congress holds that the quarantine of five days imposed at the 
port of Boffibay upon the Musalman pilgrims before embarking 
for Jedda is unnecessary and vexatious, and produces a feehug of 
discontent; this Congress, therefore, prays that the quarantine 
imposed at Bombay be entirely abolished. 

Provincial Grievances 

XVII. Resolved That this Congress, concurring with previous 
Congresses, strongly urges 

(1) The constitution of the Panjab into a Regulation Province. 

(2) The expansion and reform of the Panjab Legislative 
Council in accordance with the Indian Council Act of 1892. 

(3) The establishment of a Chartered High Court of Judica- 
ture in the Panjab. 



THE TWENTY-FIRST CONFESS 489 

(4) The Enactment of Legislation for Btmir by the Supreme 
Legislative Council ami not by ^Executive order of the Governor- 
General in Council. 

(.1) The restora-tini', to the people of tho Central Provinces 
of the right to elect then' representative on the Supreme Legislative 
Council instead of his beiug iiominatfxl by the Government. 

(6) i'flc cancollfirinn of the Government of India Notification 
of Sfltfi Jn, 18U1, in tho F^-ign Department , p, rgJng fche Press in 
teruU>iic<> imdur Kriiisb. tidmini&tiHtion in ^ r a.n States as being 
of tho liberty of th* 1 Proas in those tracts. 



India and tfr General Election 

JCV T U. Eiesrh ,iJ--Thafc i-his Congress desires to accord its 
MOM, sordini ji'j^vtrl, to tho <. M in*lidlahire pf Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji 
for cforth T.iHnJ t i,l, ."id apppp^i^ to the electors of that constituency 

to i>turn him ti? Ptult.unfiut. 

thanks of Congress 

XiX f{o^''M^rl^ Thai this Congress desires to record its sense 
of ' ; i',M Hpj;.-!', ?fclrj) uf tho manner in which the Hon. Mr G. K. 
G*>K"Hi, L. ''. F , a, 'id ?,ali J^ajpat Bai discharged the onerous duties 
in^i^Mvid 'j/i thorn in .'liujiami. 

XX.1II Bt>solv<'J That this Congress desires to convey to Sir 
VvMiiunt Wedtiorbum, JBart., and the other members of the British 
Committw, its ruoet grateful thanks for their disinterested services 
in tho I'auae of India's political advancement. 



of the Hon. Mr. Oohhale as 
Delegate to England 

XX Resolved-- That in view of the importance of urging the 
more pressing propnvls of the Congress on the attention of the 
authorities in Eii^lsmr! at the present juncture, the Congress 
appoints its Preewdu-t, the Hon Mr. Gopal Krishna' Gokhale, 
C.I E , as its deUgato, and deputes him to proceed to England for 
this piupose. 

Congress Work 

XXI. Resolved That} a Standing Committee of tho Congress 
be appointed to promote the objects of the Congress and to_ take 
such steps during the year as may be necessary to give effect to the 
Resolutions of the Congress. 

That the following gentlemen be appointed members of the 
Standing Committee for the year 1906 : 

(1) Hon. Sir Phorozeshah Mehta, K.C.I.E. (Bombay). 

(2) Hon. Da-ji Abaji Khare (Bombay). 



440 



HOW INDIA WROU&El? FOB FREEDOM 



G. Subramania Iyer Esq. (Madras). 
Hon. Nawab Syed Muhammad (Madras). 
Surendranath Bannerji, Esq (Calcutta). 
A. Choudhuri Esq. (Calcutta), 
Maulvi Abdu'.Kasim (Burdwan). 
8. Srnha Esq. (Bankipur). 

Hon. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (Allahabad). 
Munhhi Ganga Prasad Varma (Lucknow). 
Lala Lajpat Rai (Lahore). 
Lala Harkishan Lai (Lahore). 
Eao Bahadur R. N. Mudholkar (Amraoti) 
with 

D. B. Wacha Esq. (Bombay) ; and 
Hon. Mr. a. K Gokhale, C.I.E. (Poena). 

Formal 



y as 8 e c r e- 
> taries of the 
\ Committee. 



XXII. Resolved That this Congress re-appoints A. 0. Eumo 
Esq., C.B., to be General Secretary, and D E Wacha Esq. and the 
Hon. Mr. G. K. Gokhale, C.I E., to be Joint General Secretaries 
for the ensuing year. 

XXIV. Resolved That the Twenty -second Indian National 
Congress do assemble, on such day after Christmas Day, 19U6, as 
may later be determined on at Calcutta. 



CHAPTER XXII 

NEVER before nor since 1906, has the Congress seen 
such a gathering as that which assembled at Calcutta 
on the 26th, 27th, 28th and 29th of December in that 
memorable year. A huge Pavilion was erected by 
the Eussa Eoad, Bhowanipur, seating 16,000 persons, 
with wide passages that gave standing room to 
another 4,000 ; Bengal had been roused from end to 
end, all India sympathised with her wrongs, and 
1,663 delegates came to show their love. They came 
from : 

Bengal 686 

U. P 187 

Panjab . . . .139 

C. P. (90), Berar (60), Jaipur (1), Indore 

(1), Secunderabad (6), Bangalore (2) .. 160 

Bombay 262 

Madras 221 

Burma ... ... ... ... . . 8 

1,663 

Only once has this number been overtopped, in 
the memorable Congress of 1889, to which Charles 
Bradlaugh came, and ne^nr have the delegates been 
so evenly distributed as on this occasion. 



442 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

The welcome given to the President-elect and 
past Presidents, as they came on to the platform with 
the Chairman of the Reception Committee, Dr. Bash 
Behari Ghosh, rang out from 20,000 throats, and 
when silence was obtained, Mr. Nareiidranath Sen, 
the patriot Editor of The Indian Mirror, opened fche 
proceedings with a prayer, and two men choirs ?md a 
third of 30 young girls, sang National songs. Then 
Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh welcomed the delegates, and 
spoke with deep sorrow in that the year had robbed 
Bengal of two of her best beloved, W. C, Bannerji 
and Ananda Mohan Bose, leaders sorely needed now, 
compassed as they were with dangers and darkness. 
They had been afflicted by floods and famine, buj- 
far worse were the political perils around them. 
Lord Curzon had found India comparatively content- 
ed, and had left her fermenting with unrest, and his 
parting gift was the Partition of (t a Province, ior 
which he had always dissembled his love". 

The Partition of Bengal was followed by Russian 
methods of G-overmnent, with this difference, that the 
officials who devised them w.ero Englishmen, while the 
Russian official is at least the countryman of those whom 
he governs or misgoverns. The singing of national songs 
and even the cry of " Bande Mataram " were forbidden 
under severe , penalties. This ordinance was fittingly 
succeeded by the prosecution of schoolboys, the quarter- 
ing of military and punitive police, the prohibition and 
forcible dispersion of public meetings, and these high- 
handed proceedings attained their crown and completion 
in the tragedy at Barisal, when the Provincial Conference 
was dispersed by the Police, who wantonly broke the 
peace in order, I imagine, to keep the peace. !Now, 
though we are a thoroughly loyal people and our loyalty 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 443 

is not to be easily shaken because it is founded on a more 
solid basis than mere sentiment, I have no hesitation in 
saying that we should be less than men if we could for- 
get the tragedy of that day, the memory of which will 
always fill us with shame and humiliation. And this leads 
me to remark that it was not cowardice that prevented 
our young men from retaliating. It was their respect 
for law and ordertheir loyalty to their much reviled 
leaders that kept them in check. All this has now 
happily been put an end to. But as soon as the cloud 
began to lift, those Anglo-Indians who are obliged to 
live in this land of regrets merely from a high sense of 
duty were seized with the fear that their monopoly of 
philanthropic work might be interrupted, and immediate- 
ly commenced a campaign of slander and misrepresen- 
tation which in virulence and mendacity has never been 
equalled. I. C. S.'s in masks and editors of Anglo- 
Indian newspapers forthwith began to warn the English 
people that we were thoroughly disloyal, ferreting out 
sedition with an ingenuity which wquld have done no 
discredit to the professors of Laputa. 

He then spoke of Swadeshism, in which " you see 
the ci-adle of a New India. To speak of such a move- 
ment as disloyal is a lie and calumny. We love 
England, with all her faults, but we love India more. 
If this is disloyalty, we are, I am proud to say, 
disloyal." He closed with some wise words of counsel 
to the younger men, furious with the wrongs they 
suffered, of grave warning to England, coupled with a 
declaration of his belief in her justice. 

Raja Peary Mohan Mukerji proposed, the Hon. 
Nawab Syed Muhammad seconded, Mr. 0. Sankaran 
Nair remarking that " the people of this country 
have resolved to take the development of its resources 
into their own hands" supported the election of 
Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, who took the chair amid a 



444 HOW INDIA WROUGHT IOR FREEDOM 

scene of unparalleled enthusiasm. The noble veteran 
spoke a few words of thanks, and then gave his speech 
to Mr. Gokhale to read, his 82 years not permitting 
him to address an audience of 20,000 people. 

The President, as is his wont, interspersed his 
speech with deadly quotations, buttressing every 
position he took up. He regarded the work of tlie 
Congress as twofold : " First and most important is 
the question of the policy and principles of the system 
of Government under which India is to be governed 
in the future." Secondly, to watch the present system 
of administration, and introduce reform till it was 
"radically altered and based upon right principles 
and policy". He addressed himself chiefly to the 
first. Then he bililt up his argument. Indians " are 
British citizens, and are entitled to and claim all 
British citizens' rights ". The first of these is 
Freedom. Gladstone said : " Freedom .is the very 

breath of our life We stand for liberty, our policy 

is the policy of freedom." The first grant of Bombay to 
the East India Company in 1669, declared all living 
thereon and their descendants to be free as though 
" living and born in England ". The Boers, jn 1901, 
were called fellow-citizens, and had already reached 
Self -Government ; India had not obtained it 200 years 
after her becoming connected with England. When 
objection was raised to his name on the register of 
electors hi England, the Revising Barrister had brushed 
it aside, on the ground that as an Indian he was a 
British citizen. The Queen's letter to Lord Derby, 
bidding him draw up the Proclamation of 1858, desired 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 445 

him to point to the privileges "the Indians will 
receive in being placed on an equality with the sub- 
jects of the British Grown ". She bound herself to 
Indians " by the same obligations of duty which bind 
us to our other subjects," and she telegraphed a 
message to be read in open Darbar that " the great 
principles of liberty, equity and justice are secured 
to them". Edward VII, in 1906, said that he 
hoped that " throughout my dominions the grant of 
free institutions will be followed," etc. These rights 
were due to them, as a reparation for all they had 
suffered. Moreover the British " would not allow 
themselves to be subjected for a single day to such 
an unnatural system of Government as the one which 
has been imposed upon India for nearly a century 
and a half ". 

He then claimed for Indians in India all the 
control that Englishmen had in England. This 
was a necessity, in order to remedy the great 
economic evil which was at the root of Indian poverty. 
It was " absolutely necessary " for the progress and 
welfare of the Indian people. " The whole matter 
can be comprised in one word, Self-Government, or 
Swaraj, liko that of the United Kingdom or the 
Colonies." When should a beginning be made 
which should automatically develop into full Self- 
Government ? At once. " Not only has the time 
fully arrived, but had arrived long past." 

Simultaneous examinations should at once be 
held for the Public Service*, so as to change the 
administration from foreign to Indian, and then 



446 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOK FREEDOM 

transferred entirely to India. Free and compulsory 
education must be given. Representation, real and 
living, ,111 ust be granted. Were Indians to remain 
" under the barbarous system of despotism, unworthy 
of British instincts, principles and civilisation " ? Just 
financial relations must " be established at once. 
They require no delay or preparation. It only needs 
the determination and will of the British Govern- 
ment to do justice." If the British made up 
" their mind to do their duty " they could " devise 
means to accord Self -Government within no distant 
time ". He did not despair, but they must work, and 
agitate bot.h in England and India. 

Agitation is the life and soul of the whole political, 
social and industrial history of England. It is by agitation 
the English have accomplished their most glorious achieve- 
ments, their prosperity, their liberties and, m short, their 
first place among the Nations of the world. The whole life 
of England every day, is all agitation. You do not open 
your paper in the morning but read from beginning to 
end it is all agitation Congresses and Conferences, Meet- 
ings and Resolutions without end for a thousand arid one 
movements local and national. From the Prime Minister 
to the humblest politician, his occupation is agitation for 
everything he wants to accomplish. The whole Parliament, 
Press, and Platform is simply all agitation. Agitation is 
the civilised peaceful weapon of moral force, and infinitely 

preferable to brute physical force, when possible 

Agitate; agitate means inform. Inform, inform the 
Indian people what their rights are and how and why 
they should obtain them, and inform the British people 
of the rights of the, Indian people, and why they should 
grant them. If we do not speak they say we are satisfied. 
If we speak we become agitators ! The Indian people are 
properly asked to act constitutionally, while the Govern- 
remains unconstitutional and despotic. 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 447 

Finally, he appealed for union between Hindus and 
Muhammadans, for Indian emancipation depended on 
this. Social Reform and Industrial progress were 
also needed. 

Self -Government is the only and chief remedy. In 
Self -Government lie our hope, strength and greatness. 

I do not know what good fortune may be in store 

for me during the short period that may be left to me, 
and if I can leave a word of affection and devotion for 
my country and countrymen I say : Be united, persevere, 
and achieve Self-Government, so that the millions now 
perishing by poverty, famine and plague, and the scores 
of millions that are starving on scanty subsistence may 
be saved, and India may once more occupy her proud 
position of yore among the greatest and civilised Nations 
of the West. 

Bande Mataram was sung^ by the girls' choir, the ' 
audience standing, and the Congress adjourned, after 
the Subjects Committee had been elected. 

The second day saw an equally crowded Pavilion, and 
after the singing of patriotic songs, Mr. D. E. Wacha 
read some messages of goodwill from W. T. Stead. 
Dr. Rutherford, a number of men bers of Parliament, 
and, most interesting of all, from Natal and the 
Transvaal, sending little contributions to the 
Congress, and from " th Indian inhabitants of 
German South Africa, sending Ks. 285 to help the 
cause of their Motherland ". 

The President then moved Resolution I, of grief 
over the heavy death-roll of the year, Mr. W. C. 
Bannerji, Mr. Justice Budruddin Tyabji, and Mr. 
Airnnda Mohan Bose, all ex-Presidents of the Congress, 
and Mr. Viraraghavachariar, one of the leading 
workers in Madras. 



448 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Resolution II dealt with the wrongs inflicted on 
Indiana in the Colonies, and was moved by Mr. P. R. 
Sundara Aiyar, lamenting that there were 50,000 
Indian slaves in Natal, and many others else- 
where in Africa, and saying that British Indians 
were discriminated against, Portuguese and French 
Indian subjects/having more rights. Lord Lansdowne 
had said that " among the many misdeeds of the 
South African Republic, I do not know that any fills 
me with more indignation than its treatment of these 
Indians ". That was before the War. The Resolution 
was seconded by Mr. H. A. Wadia, supported by 
Mr. Madanjit, Mr. C. Y. Chintamani and Mr. Lalit 
Mohan G-hosal, and carried. 

The Hon. Mr. B. N. Sarma moved Resolution III on 
the necessity for retrenching Indian expenditure, and 
showed that between 1893-94 and 1906-07 the gross 
expenditure had risen from 90 crores of rupees to 134 
crores of rupees annually. The net expenditure in 
1861-62 was 34 crores, and in 1884-85 it was 41 crores, 
an increase of 16 per cent, while the growth of 
population was 14* per cent. But if: we take from 
1884-85 to 1904-05, we find the increase of expenditure 
was 70 per cent, and of population, at the highlit, of 
18 per cent. The currency policy of the Empire 
made the silver in the rupee worth only 12 annas, 
so that the ryot, to pay Rs. 3 in taxation, had to sell 
produce worth Rs. 4. During these twenty years, 
military expenditure had risen from 17 crorea to 32 
crores, almost cent, per cent. And of this, nearly 
7 crores was spent in England. With this great 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 449 

increase of military expenditure went the worst 
famines ever known in British India, causing some 
11 million deaths. Contrast this with the 2 million 
pounds spent in education, while England spent 16 
millions on education in her own land. 

Mr. G-. A. Natesan seconded, and pointed out that 
of the 90 crores of military expenditure 70 crores had 
been spent on wars outside the Indian frontiers and 
in parts of India and elsewhere, all against the real 
interests of India. The Welby Commission had re- 
commended that England should contribute to the 
cost and that was agreed to, but the pay of British 
soldiers in India was raised, which took from India 
thrice the contribution made by England. Sir Henry 
Brackenbury said, before that Commission : 

If it were desired to maintain British Rule m India 
only for India's sake, then, I think, it would be fair to 
make India pay to the utmost farthing that could be 
shown was due to Britain's rule over India ; but I cannot 
but feel that Britain's interest in keeping India under 
British rule is enormous. India affords employment 
to thousands of Britons India employs millions of British 
capital, and Indian commerce is of immense value to 
Great Britain. Therefore it seems to me that, India 
being held by Great Britain, not only for India's sake, 
Great Britain should pay a share of the expenditure for 
this purpose ; and in estimating what that share should 
be, I think that England should behave generously 
England is a rich country, and India is a poor country. 

Mr. N. M. Ranade supported, urging that the 
Government should repeal the Arms Act and give 
permission for Volunteering, and should give fuller 
employment to Indians, so reducing expenditure. 
The Resolution was carried! 
36 



450 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POR FREEDOM 

Resolution IV, separation of Judicial from Executive 
Functions, was moved by the Hon. Mr. Krishnan Nair, 
seconded by the Hon. Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar, 
supported by seven other speakers, despite its fami- 
liarity, and carried. Mr. Mozumdar said that he was 
chosen as seconder, because there was probably no 
other man in the Congress " who possesses the asinine 
patience of talking more than twelve times, and each 
time only to stocks and stones ". Yet people ask 
why we want Home Rule ! The Eesolution was carried 
with one dissentient. 

Khan Bahadur Moulvi Muhammad Yusuf moved 
Resolution V, asking that a Commission should be 
appointed by the Government, which should see if the 
decisions of the Privy Council against the validity of 
the Wakf-i-ala-aulad were consonant with the law, 
usages, and sentiments of Muhammadans, and if they 
were not, that steps should be taken to legalise the 
Musalman view. The Hon. Mr. Baikunthanath Sen 
seconded, pointing out that the decisions had curtailed 
the power of Muhammadans to make provision for 
their children. Mr. A. M. Jinnah, supporting, wel- 
comed the Resolution as showing that the Musalmans 
could make known their grievances through the Con- 
gress. Moulvi Abdul Kasim and Mr. S. B. Patel 
supported, and the Resolution was carried. The 
Congress adjourned. 

The third day began with National songs, and the 
arrival of H. H. the G-aekwar of Baroda, accom- 
panied by his Prime Minister, Mr. R, C. Dutt, was 
warmly welcomed. 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 451 

Nawab Khuja Athikulla of Dacca moved Resolution 
VI, against the Partition of Bengal, and declared 
that Hindus and Muhammadans should enter a united 
protest against it. 

Mr. Surendranath Banfcerji seconded, expressing 
their disappointment with the biographer of Cobden 
and Bright, but making excuses for him as breathing 
an undiluted bureaucratic atmosphere. Sir William 
"Wedderburn asked them to wait. 

Wait we must ; what else can we do F Waiting upon 
the will of our rulers has been our lot for the last three 
centuries. We; shall certainly wait; but not in meek 
submission to tins will of our rulers as the decree of an 
inexorable fate., but with the firm resolve to overcome 
that, fate, and work out our salvation. Our rulers must 
recognise the new spirit, born, it may be, of the huge 
blunder of the Partition, vibrating through our hearts, 
uplifting us to a higher plane of political effort. We are, 
Sirs, no longer Orientals of the old type, content to 
grovel under the weight of an overmastering fate, but we 
are Orientals of the new school, enfranchised by English 
culture and English influences, revivified by the 
example of China, Japan, and last, but not the 
least, of Persia, and as Orientals of the new school 
we believe that Nations by themselves are made. 

The Resolution was supported by Mr. R. N. 
Mudholkai, who declared that Bengal was divided 
because it was too strong for the bureaucracy, and 
that until re-union was conceded " we shall go on 
agitating, striving, and doing everything that lies 
within the limits of law till we obtain redress of our 
grievances *'. After two more gentlemen had spoken, 
the Resolution was carried. 

The Hon. Mr. Ambikacharan Mozumdar moved 
Resolution VII, declaring that in view of the little 



452 HOW INDIA WROUGHT POB PEEEBOM 

voice tlie people had in administration, and the lack 
of consideration shown by Government to their re- 
presentations, the Boycott was legitimate as a protest 
against Partition. Mr. Bepin Chandra Pal seconded 
in a vigorous speech, and said that it was not a mere 
boycott oi! goods, but one of honorary offices and 
associations with the Government in East Bengal. 
N ot one leader of the people would associate with the 
Lieuten&nt-Governor in any legislative work. The Hoa. 
Mr. L. A. Govindaraghava Aiyar justified the use 
of the Boycott in Bengal, but did not think it could 
be used ordinarily in other Provinces. Mr. A. Chou- 
dhuri pointed out that the Resolution was limited to 
Bengal, fchat was smarting under a great injury, 
and had a jright to use the Boycott as a political 
weapon. 

The Hoii. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, in 
supporting, said that Bengal was justified in using 
the Boycott as a weapon, but the Congress could not 
be committed to the view of Mr. Pal and the ex- 
tension of the Boycott, as he described it. He hoped 
the other Provinces would never be driven to the 
necessity of using it, but that reforms needed would 
be gained without it. The Hon. Mr. Gokhale said 
that they were bound only by the Resolutions of the 
Congress, and the Resolution declared that the boy- 
cott movement marking the resentment of the people 
against the Partition of Bengal was and is legitimate. 
They were not bound by individual speeches. The 
Resolution was carried with one dissentient and one 
neutral. 



THE TWJTOY-SECOffD COHaBKSS 453 



Mr, Naoroji left the Hall for half an hour, and his 
place was taken by Mr. R. 0. Dutt. Resolutions VIII 
and IX were postponed, and the Re/solutions OB 
Education taken. 

.Resolution X protested against the educational 
policy of the Government, restricting the spread o 
higher education, and asked for free education, to be 
gradually made compulsory, larger grants, technical 
eduratioi, and two removal of the restrictions on 
private tH^or prise iu education. It was moved by 
Dew an J&.liadcr Ambalal S. Desai, seconded by 
Mr. Ragftubdr Dayal, supported by Mr. 0. Karuna- 
kara. Menon, Messrs. M. K. Padhya, S. V. Khare, 
Earischarfira Vissevdas, Gr. A. Patel, and carried. 

Resolution XI declared that the time had come to 
organise National Education, Literary, Scientific and 
Tocb aical, for both boys and girls, on National lines and 
under National control. This Resolution was appro- 
priately moved by Mr. Hirendranath Datta, the Hon. 
Secretary of the National Council of Education. He 
said tli at Self- Government was a three-faced deity, 
political, industrial and fcducational. He quoted as 
describing Indian education what had been said of 
Irish : 

"Departments of Education in Ireland, primary, 
secondary, university, are directly controlled by the 
British Government. The language of Ireland, the his- 
tory of Ireland, the economics of Ireland, the possibilities 
and rights of Ireland find no place in the curriculum." 
Exactly the same here. " Education in Ireland encumbers 
the intellect, chills the fancy, and enervates the body. It 
destroys the fancy. It does not acquaint the youth with 



454 HOW INDIA WROUGHT TOR FREEDOM 

the traditions of his country, nor does it afford him 
facilities for physical culture." 

After describing what they were doing in Bengal, 
lie concluded : 

Trust not your education to aliens. In Native souls 
and Native hands, the only hopes of succour rest. 

Mr. M. P. Yenkatappiah seconded, and laid stress 
on the self-reliance embodied in the resolution, and 
it struck the note of Nationalism. The Resolution was 
supported by Messrs. S. K, Nair, C. "V. Vaidya, J. ]ST. 
Roy, Prof. V. G. Bijapurkar, Moulvi Ismail Hasan 
Sheraji, and Mr. M. K. Patel, and was carried. 

Resolution VIII was then moved by Rao Bahadur 
P. Ananda Charlu ; it advocated Swadeshi, and the 
veteran politician urged its adoption specially by the 
well-to-do, and^ suggested an association of rich men 
who should give bounties to industries, as the 
Government would not do it. The Hon. I 'and 51- 
Madan Mohan seconded, pointing out that the raw 
material left the country and came back as manufac- 
tured goods ; if they were free, they would adopt 
protection, as all countries did when industries were 
nascent. It was a religious as well as a patriotic duty 
to support indigenous industries. Mr. B. G. Tilak 
supported, saying that they, the middle classes, were 
the greatest consumers of foreign goods. Self- help, 
determination and sacrifice were needed. Lala 
Lajpat Rai urged that Indians should keep their 
capital in their own hands and utilise it, and arrange 
for the distribution of the articles they produced. 
Messrs. Khaja Muhammad Noor Golam Ahmed Khan 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 455 

and Y. R. Joshi supported, and the Eesolution was 
carried. 

Then came Resolution IX, demanding Colonial Self- 
Government, and laying down four steps to it, to be 
taken immediately (this, in 1906). The speeches were 
very short, the time being late, so Mr. A. Choudhuri 
only added a few sentences in moving, and the Hon. 
Mr. L. A. Govindaraghava briefly pointed to the 
action, in the Philippine Islands, of the United States. 
Dr. S. K. Mullick remarked that a paper had said that 
the English had come here like the Aryans and 
Mughals, and had come to stay ; then let them, like 
their predecessors, identify themselves with the people. 
Messrs. Bomanji Patel, V. A. Pandit, S. B. Mitra, 
A. Ramanna, P. C. Maitra, all supported. Mr. M. A, 
(Jinna.h proposed and Mr. M. Abdul Kasim seconded 
an amendment, cancelling a reservation in the 
original Resolution, regarding the backward class ; it 
was supported by Mr. Hafiz Abdul Rahim and 
accepted, and the amended Resolution was carried. 

The President moved 'from the Chair the Reso- 
lution re-appointing Messrs. Hume, D. E. Wacha 
and G: K. Gokhale, which was duly carried (and 
should be Resolution XI A .) He moved also Resolution 
XII, thanking Sir William Wedderburn and the 
British Committee, and the Congress adjourned. 

On meeting on the fourth day, the Congress was 
startled by the news that the Rt. Hon. Mr. Samuel 
Smith, who had been present on the first day, 
having come to India to preside at the All-India 
Temperance Conference, had suddenly passed away. 



456 HOW INDI\ WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM 

Mr. Surendranath Bannerji moved a Resolution oi 
SOITOW (No. XIII), seconded by Sir Balchandra, and 
put with a few words from the President, who had 
known him for 40 years. It was carried by the 
audience standing. 

Mr. C. Vijiaraghavachari moved Eesolution XIV, 
on Permanent Settlement, and protesting against the 
view that the Land tax was rent. Land in India 
had never belonged to the King ; the Sages had 
said that the world belonged to those who were 
born on it ; private property was gained by 
cultivation, and the King, who was ordained for 
protection, received a share from the cultivators 
for his services. The idea that land belonged 
to the King was western and feudal, not Indian. 
Mr. Gokaran Misra seconded, and Mr. Mehta 
Bahadurchand supported. Mr. Eaoji Govind drew 
attention to the shortening of the period between 
Settlements in Hoshan^abad, his district. It had 
been 30 years ; it was now 12. When it came under 
Britain, the Government took Es. 2,56,600 ; it rose 
after 20 years to Es. 2,70,000. After 30 years it was 
reduced to Es. 1,88,000, as the people could not pay, 
and. was again reduced to Es. 1 ,68,000. During the 
last 30 years, it rose, with cesses, to Es. 4,87,944, 
and at the current Settlement to Es. 9,30,257. In 
1893-94, under the last, Government took as tax 
Bs. 4,87,000 out of Es. 11,33,000, rents paid by tenants, 
leaving Es. 6,46,000 to the Malguzars. In 1896, the 
re-Settlement, the tenant-rents were Es. 11,42,000, 
and the Government tool: Es. 9,30,000, leaving only 



THE TWTfliraY-SBCONb CONGRESS 457 

Rs. 2,12,000. Mr. Desmukh added a few words on 
the land policy of Lord Curzon, " destructive to the 
people and suicidal to the Government," and the 
Resolution was carried. 

Mr. G. Subramania Iyer moved, Mr. Baikuntha- 
nath Sen seconded, and Pandit Ramanath supported^ 
Resolution XV, conveying the thanks of the Congress 
for his services in England to Mr. G-okhale, who 
answered in a short speech, when the great ovation 
which greeted him had subsided, saying what strong 
hope he felt from the advent of the new Grovern- 
ment to power, with a democratic House of Commons. 

Then the Hon. Mr. D. A. Khare moved Resolution 
XVI, containing a Constitution for the Congress, to 
be tried for a year ; it recommended (a) the formation 
of Provincial Congress Committees, which should form 
District Committees; (b) An All-India Congress 
Standing Committee \ (c) two alternative schemes f or 
selecting a President ; and (d) A Subjects Committee 
for settling the programme of the Congress each year. 
Four members spoke supporting it and it was carried, 
the delegates from each Province being asked to send 
up names for the All-India Committee. Most of this 
was incorporated in the Constitution framed in 1908. 

A vote of thanks to the President was proposed by 
Mr. Lai Mohan G-hose, and he was garlanded and 
bestrewn with flowers amid thunders of applause. A 
Swadeshi umbrella from Poona was unfurled and 
held over him for a moment, and then he said a few 
words of thanks. He reminded them that, in its 22nd 
Session, the Congress had placed before itself, a 



458 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

definite goal Self -Government, Swaraj Now it 
was for the younger generation to reach it. The 
Hon. Mr. Ohitnavis invited the Congress to Nagpur, 
for its 1907 meeting, and the Twenty-second National 
Congress " dispersed amidst scenes of the wildest 
enthusiasm and rejoicings ". 

Alas ! Coercion was to do its deadly work during 
the approaching year. The seeds sown by Lord 
Curzon were to ripen into their harvest of dragon- 
teeth. The strongest and furthest-sighted men were 
to hold to their old ideals of constitutional work and 
steady progress. Others, maddened by the repressive 
measures adopted, were to cause a partition worse 
than that of Lord Curzon, a division of the National 
Party, one part holding to the group that refused to 
despair of appealing to the House of Commons, and 
the other which became frankly antagonistic to all 
co-operation with the British Government. And 
beyond these, loomed up the Anarchist Party with the 
bomb and revolver for its methods, the incarnation of 
blind hatred, without constructive policy, the mad 
efforts of lads, dreaming of winning Liberty for their 
country, and succeeding only in committing a few 
useless crimes. In the scales of History shall all 
these be weighed, Government, Moderates, Extre- 
mists, Anarchists, and to each shall be assigned their 
own place. 

RESOLUTIONS 
Condolence 

I. Resolved That this Congress desires to place on record 
its sense of the great loss which the Congress and the country at 
large have sustained by the death of Mr. W. C. Bonnerji, 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONttBESS 459 

Mr. Justice Budruddin Tyabji, and Mr. Ananda Mohan Bose, 
ex-Presidents of the Congress, and Mr. M. Yiraraghava Chariar of 
Madras. Their great public services and the example of duty and 
of self-sacrificing devotion which they presented in their lives 
entitle them to the lasting gratitude of the country; 

That a copy of the foregoing Resolution be forwarded to the 
families of the late Messrs. Bannerji, Tyabji, Bose, and M. 
Yiraraghava Chariar, over the signature of the President of the 
Congress. 

Indians in th Colonies 

II. Resolved That this Congress, while noting with satis- 
faction the action of the Imperial Government in disallowing for 
the present the proposed Ordinance against British Indians in 
the Transvaal, desires to give expression to its grave apprehension 
that unless the Imperial Government continues to extend its firm 
protection to the British Indian Community, the policy of the 
Ordinance is almost certain to be enforced as soon as arrangements 
under the Constitution recently granted nre completed ; 

That thia Congress also places on record its sense of deep 
regret and indignation that the people of this country should be 
subjected to harassing and degrading restrictions and denied the 
ordinary rights of British citizenship in His Majesty's Colonies, 
and the Congress expresses its firm conviction that such a policy is 
fraught with serious danger to the best interests of the Empire. 

Finance 

III. Resolved That this Congress renews its protest against 
the excessive and alarming growth of military charges in repent 
years and their undue preponderance in the public expenditure 
of the country , 

That this Congress is of opinion that, as the military 
expenditure of the country is determined, not solely by its own 
military needs and requirements, but also by the exigencies of 
British supremacy and British policy in the East, it is only fair 
that a reasonable" share of such expenditure should be borne by 
the British Exchequer ; 

That this Congress strongly urges that by a substantial reduction 
of military expenditure and by the steady substitution of the Indian 
for the European agency in the Public Service, funds should be set 
free to be devoted to the promotion of edncation in all its branches, 
to improve sanitation and to the relief of the ryot's burdens, such 
as b further reduction of the Salt-tax, a reduction of the Land 
demand of the Staie, and measures for dealing with 
indebtedness. 



460 HOW INDIA WROUGHT TOE FREEDOM 

Separation, of Judicial and Executive Functions 

IV. Besolved That in the opinion of this Congress the 
separation of the Judicial from the Executive functions, which is 
admittedly necessary in the interests of good government and sound 
judicial administration, should no longer be deferred. 

Validity of Wafef-i*ala-aulad 

V. Besolved That in view of the general opinion amongst 
Muhammadans that the recent decisions of the Privy Council 
against the validity of the " wakf-i-ala-aulad " are againfet the 
Muhammadan Law, this Congress is of opinion thai a Commission 
should be appointed by the Government to enquire whether the 
Privy Council has not erred in its decisions, having regard to the 
law, usage and sentiments of the Muhammadan people , and, if it be 
found that the decisions are erroneous, this Congress urgos that 
steps should be taken to give legal effect to the right view. 

Partition of Bengal 

VI. Besolved That this Congress again records its emphatic 
protest against the Partition of Bengal, and regrets that the present. 
Government, while admitting that there were errors in the original 
plan, and that it went wholly and decisively against the wishes of 
the majority of the people of Bengal, is disposed to look upon it as 
a settled fact, in spite of the earnest and persistent protest ot the 
people, and their manifest disinclination to accept it as final , 

That this" Congress, composed of representatives from all the 
Provinces of this country, desires earnestly to impress upon the 
British Parliament and the present Liberal Government that it 
will be not only just, but expedient, to reverse or modify the 
Partition in such a manner as to keep the entire Bengali-speaking 
community under one undivided administration, and thus restore 
contentment to so important a Province as Bengal. 

Boycott Movement 

VII. Besolved That having regard to the fact that the 
people of this country have little or no voice in its administration, 
and that their representations to the Government do not receive 
due consideration, thij Congress is of opinion that the Boycott 
Movement inaugurated m Bengal by way of protest against the 
Partition of that Province, was, and is, legitimate. 

Swadeshi 

VI1L Besolved That this Congress accords its most cordial 
support to the Swadeshi movement, and calls upon the people of 
the country to labour for its success, by making earnest and 
sustained efforts to promote the growth of indigenous industries 
and to stimulate the production of indigenous articles by giving 
them preference over imported commodities even at some sacrifice. 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 461 

Self-Government 

IX. Resolved That this Congress is of opinion thai the 
system of Government obtaining in the Self-Governing British 
Colonies should be extended to India, and that, as steps leading 
to it, it urges that the following reforms should be immediately 
carried out : 

(a) All examinations held in England only should be 
simultaneously held in India and in England, and that all higher 
appointments which are made in India should be by competitive 
examination only , 

(6) The adequate representation of Indiana in the Council of 
the Secretary of State and the Executive Councils of the Viceroy, 
and of the Governors of Madras and Bombay , 

(c) The expansion of the Supreme and Provincial Legislative 
Councils, allowing a larger and truly effective representation of the 
people arid a larger control over the financial and executive 
admmistiatiou of the country , 

(d) The powers of Local and Municipal bodies should be 
extended and omcial control over them should not be more than 
what is exercised by the Local Government Board in England over 
similar bodies. 

Education 

X Uesolved That this Congress repeats its protest against the 
policy of the Government in respect of High and Secondary 
Education, as being one of officialising the governing bodies of 
the Universities, and restricting the spread of education. This 
Congratses of opinion that the Government should take immediate 
stops for (1) making Primary Education free and gradually 
compulsory, all over the country, (2) assigning larger sums 
of money to Secondary Education (special encouragement 
being given where necessary to educationally backward classes), 
(3) making the existing Universities more free from omcial 
control, and providing them with sufficient means to take up the 
work of teaching, and (4) making adequate provision for Technical 
Education in the different Provinces, having regard to local 
requix'ements. 

National Education 

XI. Resolved That in the opinion of this Congress "the time 
has arrived for the people all over the country earnestly to take up 
the question of National Education, for both boys and girls, and 
organise a system of education Literary, Scientific and Technical 
suited to the requirements of the country, on National lines and 
under National control. 



462 HOW INDIA WBOUQHT FOB FREEDOM 

Thanks of Congress 

XII. .Resolved That this Congress desires to convey to Sir 
William Wedderburn, Bart., and the other members of the British 
Committee, its most grateful thanks, for their disinterested services 
in the cause of India's political advancement. 

XV. Resolved That this Congress records its sense of high 
appreciation of the eminent public, service rendered by the Hon. 
Mr. G. K. Gokhale, C.I.E , during his recent visit to England, as the 
Delegate of the Congress. 

Condolence 

XIII. Resolved That this Congress desires to place on 
record its sense of the deep sorrow and of loss to India of the 
sudden death of the Et. Hon. Mr Samuel Smith, and that a copy of 
the foregoing resolution be communicated to the members of his 
family. 

Permanent Settlement 

XIV. Resolved That this Congress is of 01)1111011 that the 
prosperity of an agricultural country like India cannot bo secured 
without a definite limitation of the State demand on Imul, such ah 
was proposed by Lord Canning in 1862, 01 by Lord Ripon in 18H2, 
and it regrets that Lord Cuizon, in his Land Resolution of ]UO-, 
failed to recognise the necessity of any such limitation and declined 
to accept the suggestions of Sir Richard (lurth and otlnr 
memorialists in the matter. The Congress holds that a reasonable 
and definite limitation of the State demand is the true remedy loi 
the growing impoverishment of the agricultural population 

This Congress respectfully protests against the view that the 
Land Revenue in India is not a tax, but is in the nature ot lent 

Congress Work 

XVI. ^ Resolved That this Congiess adopts tentatively for 
one year* the following recommendations of the Standing 
Committee of the Congress appointed at Benares last year 

1. Provincial Congiesi, Committees 

(a) The Committee recommends that each Province should 
organise at its capital, a Provincial Congres? Committee in such 
manner as may be determined at a meeting of the Provincial 
Conference, or at a special meeting, held for the purpose, of 
representatives of different districts in the Province. 

(b) The Piovincial Congress Committee should act for the 
rovince in all Congress matters and it should be its special care to 



THE TWENTY-SECOND CONGRESS 463 

organise District Associations throughout the Province for 
sustained and continuous political work in the Province. 

2. Central Standing Congress Committee 

The Committee recommends that the Congress should appoint 
every year a Central Standing Committee for all India, to carry 
out the Resolutions of the Congress, and to deal with urgent 
questions that may arise and which may require to be disposed 
of in the name of the Congress, and that this Committee should 
consist of : 

12"members from Bengal, Behar, Assam and Burma 
8 Madras 



Bombay 

United Provinces 

Panjab 

Central Provinces 

Berar 



the President of the year and the General Secretaries being, ex 
omcio, members in addition. 

3. Selection of President 

In the matter of the selection of President in future years, the 
Committee recommends that the following scheme should be 
adopted 

The Provincial Congresw Committee of the Province, in which 
the Congress is to be held should organise a Reception Committee 
in such mannei as it deems proper for making arrangements tor 
the CongreBM Session, and the choice of the President should, in 
the iirst in^iuru-p, rcht with the .Reception Committee, if, alter 
conmiltiug Prot inruil Congu-hH Committees, the llocoption (Jomnnttoo 
is uble to mako tin 1 choice hj a nmpnty of :it leai&t thi co-fourths of 
its members. !i', howevei, no tuch inujniity c<tn be ohtuinod to 
support the. nomination of any per^m, tlie quudtiou should be 
referred to the Central Standing Committee of tho Congress, and 
the decision of this Committee, should be final 

4. Subjects Committee 

The Committee recommends that the Subjects Committee, 
appointed at each Session of the Congress to settle its programme 
of work, should consist of . 

25 representatives of Bengal, Behar, Assam and Burma 

15 Madras 

15 Bombay 

10 United Provinces 

10 Panjab 

6 Central Provinces 

4t Bejrar 



464 HOW INDIA WEOUQHT FOB FREEDOM 

and 10 additional members for the Province in which the Congress is 
held, elected by the delegates attending the Congress from the 
respective Provinces in such manner as they may deem proper ; 
and that the President of the year, the Chairman of the Reception 
Committee of the year, all ex-Presidents and all ex-Chairmen of 
Reception Committees who may be present at the Congress, the 
General Secretaries of the Congress, and the local Secretaries of 
the Congress for the year, should, in addition, be ex-officio members 
of the Subjects Committee. 

Formal 

XVII. Resolved That the next Congress assemble at Nagpur. 



CHAPTER XXHI 

PART I 

WE come to the saddest episode in the story of the 
Congress, the split in the National party. Th 
invitation to Nagpur for the* Congress of 1907 had 
been accepted by the Calcutta Congress, bat some 
local disagreements having supervened, which made 
the holding of the Congress there difficult, i no* 
impossible, the All-India Congress Committee, elected 
under the tentative Constitution passed at Calcutta, 
decided that the Twenty-third National Congress 
should be held at Surat, and some historic French 
gardens on the banks of the Tapti, forming French 
territory, were taken, and a charming city of tents 
was made with a large Pavilion. The whole country 
was in a state of turmoil and excitement, and the 
signs of cleavage of the National party into Right an& 
Le&'Wiftgs, indicated in the last chapter, had grown 
marked'. Yet all seemed well as the delegates poured 
in from all sides, some 1,600 in all ; bat no list of 
them seems to have survived. 

Dr. Bash Be&ari Ghose had been duly elected 
President of the Congress under, the tentative 
37 



486 BOW IND^A WEQUGBT FOB FBEXDOH 



of 1906, and the first sign of dis- 
cord was the suggestion that Lala Lajpat Rai, just 
released after his deportation, should be elected as 
President, as a protest against his unfair treatment 
by the Government. That staunch patriot, however, 
refused to be made into a battle-flag, and absolutely 
declined to be elected President in so irregular a 
fashion. Then a rumour spread that the four mili- 
tant Resolutions of the Calcutta Congress, on 
Self -Government, Boycott, Swadeshi and National 
Education, were pot to be put before the Subjects 
Committee. Whence the rumour came, none knew, but 
rumours rise and spread easily in an excited crowd. 
The Congress met on December 26th, 1907, and the 
Pandal, holding 7,000 people, was packed. The Presi- 
dent-elect received an enthusiastic ovation, a few 
cries of hostility being drowned in the roar of 
cheering. The Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
Mi. Tribhuvan Das Malvi, welcomed the delegates 
in a short speech, of which the most noteworthy 
passage referred to the sad condition of the country : 

Since the Congress met last year, we have passed 
through very troublous times indeed. Eminent Indians 
have been seriously suspected of and charged with the 
highest offences against the State,, exciting sedition, 
rioting and the like, in most cases without justification. 
Somehow the idea became prevalent among the ruling 
class that the present year, being the 50th year since the 
Indian Mutiny, Indians were preparing for a similar 
revolt, and a sort of panic seized them. To check this 
imaginary revolt all sorts of repressive and re-actjonary 
measures were taken. Old obsolete enactments, of the 
" existence whereof even no one ever dreamed, were brought 
into requeilion for the purpose of punishfing people for 



TWJENTY-THIBD CONGEB8& 467 

undefined olfences assancd to have been coraraitted, 
without giving any notice to the victims of the charges 
laid at their doors, or giving them an opportunity of 
meeting those charges. The people in certain locambea 
were assumed to- harbour treasonable intentions, and 
meetings weist prohibited in those districts, at first for a 
time, and we have new a very dangerous statute in the 
shape of the Seditions Meetings Act, capable of general 
application throughout the country by a notification in 
the Government Gazette, thrust npon as. 

It is all this coercive legislation, with the revival of 
the old wicked laws which place every man's liberty at 
the mercy of a frightened official, which renders 
intelligible the attitude of the Left Wing, that 
nothing but opposition to a Government which stoops 
to such measures is consistent with self-respect, ox 
offers any prospect of relief. 

Dewan Bahadur Ambalal S, Desai proposed Dr. 
Rash Behari Ghose as President. Beyond some cries 
of " No, No," there was little interruption, but a 
tumult broke out when the old favourite of the Con- 
gress, Mr. Burendrdnath Bannerji, arose to second. 
TThe party of shouters seems to have been small, about 
30 according to The Statesman, but they made so much 
noise, aided by the shouts of " Order " of the vast 
majority, that it was impossible to hear Mr, Bannerji, 
and the Chairman adjourned the meeting till the 
next day, hoping hot feelings would die down. 

The Congress met again on the 27th, and the warm 
greeting of ahuge majority showed the feeling of the 
delegates. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji finished his 
speech, Pandit Motilal Nehru supported his proposal, 
and Dr. Bash Behari Ghose was elected, and took the 



468 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FKEEDOM 

chair amid vociferous applause. Mr. B. G. Tilak 
then came to the platform and said he wished to move 
an amendment, either about an adjournment, or to 
the Presidential election. An argument ensued. 
'Mr. Tilak attempted to address the delegates, who 
refused to listen to him, upholding the authority of 
the President, who had ruled* him out of order. 
The platform was charged by men armed with sticks, 
a heavy shoe was flung at and struck Sir Pherozeshah 
Mehta and Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, the President 
declared the meeting adjourned, and the police 
cleared the Hall a sad page in the glorious history 
of the Congress ; but the Congress was saved by the 
statesmanlike action of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, Mr. 
Gokhale, Mr. D. E. Wacha, Dr. Rash'Behari G-hose, 
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mr. V. Krishnaswami 
Iyer, and many others. 

They met^ and drew up the following notice, call- 
ing* a National Convention on the next day, December 
28th: 

The 23rd Indian National Congress having been 
suspended sine die under painful circumstances, the under- 
signed have resolved with a view to the orderly conduct 
of future political work iri*the country to call a Conven- 
tion of those delegates tc the Congress who are agreed : 

(1) That the attainment by India of Self-Govern- 
ment similar to that enjoyed by the Self*Governing mem- 
bers o the British Empire, and participation by her in 
the rights and responsibilities of the ISmipxre on equal 
terms with those members is the goat of our political 



(2) That the advance towards this goal is to be by 
strictly constitutional means, by* bringing about * steafcty , 



THE TWMNT? -THIBD CONGRESS 

reform of the existing system of administration, and by 
promoting National unity, fostering pnblie spirit, and im- 
proving the condition of the mass of the people. 

(3) And that all meetings held for the promotion 
of the aims and objects above indicated have to be 
conducted in an orderly manner, with due submission to 
the authority of those that are entrusted with the power 
to control their procedure, and they are requested to 
attend at 1 p.m. on Saturday the 28th of December, 
1907, in the Fandal lent for the purpose by the working 
Committee of the Reception Committee of the 23rd 
Indian National, Congress. 

Signed : 

RASH BIHARI GHOSE NORENDRANATH SEN 

PHEROZESHAH M. MEHTA AMBALAL SAKEBAL DESAI 

SURKNDRANATH BANNERJI V. KRISHNASWAMI IYER 

G. K. GOKHALE TRIBHOVANDAS N. MALVI 

D. E. WACHA MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA 

And many others. 

Over 900 of the delegates subscribed to the above 
and attended the meeting. If the Congress was not 
to be slain by violence, some one had to act, and the 
delegates who originally signed the notice sprang into 
the breach. The approval of a large majority of the 
delegates present legitimated the calling of the 
Convention, and, if a majority is to rule, the Con- 
vention was the child of the 23rd National Congress. 

Sir Pherozeshah Mehta proposed Dr. Rash Behari 
Ghose to the chair. The motion was seconded by 
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji, and supported by Lala 
Lajpat Rai and others. It was carried unanimously, 
and Dr. Rash Behari, taking the chair, called on Mr. 
Gokhale to move the Resolution appointing a Com- 
mittee to draw up a Constitution for the Congress. 



470 HOW INDIA WKQUGHT 1-QR FREEDOM 

Mr. Gokhale moved over a hundred names of leading 
Congressmen present; Dewan Bahadur Govinda- 
raghava Aiyar seconded, Mr. A. Choudhuri supported. 
Tt wias carried unanimously, Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, 
Messrs. Gokhale and Wacha were appointed Secretaries, 
and Dr. Ghose .dissolved the Convention, the bridge 
which carried the Congress from its old system to the 
new. It has been satfd that the Surat riot shows the un- 
fitness of Indians for Self-Government; it seems to us 
that the quickness of recovery, the prompt action, the 
business-like procedure, were far better proofs of their 
fitness than the conducting of peaceable meetings. 
To meet an unexpected emergency, to grapple with 
it, and to secure the continuity of the Congress 
showed statesmanship and judgment, and we should 
like to know what better procedure could have been 
followed. 

The Convention Committee met at Allahabad on the 
18th and 19th of April, 1908, and drew up a Constitu- 
tion for the Indian National Congress. They also 
drew up a set of Rules for the conduct of meetings. 
Articles I and II are the vital ones, and run as follows : 

Article L The objects of the Indian National Congress 
are the attainment by the people of India of a system of 
Government similar to that enjoyed by the Self-Governing 
Members of the British Empire, and a participation by 
them in the rights and responsibilities of the Empire on 
equal terms with those members. These objects are to be 
achieved by constitutional means, by bringing about a 
steady reform of the existing system of administration, 
jud J>y promoting national unity, fostering public spirit, 
toad developing and organising the intellectual, moral, 
economic and industrial resources of the country. 



TWENTY-THIRD QONGJBJB8S 4m 

[This is the famous " Creed ".] 

Article II. Every delegate to the Indian National 
Congress shall express in writing his acceptance of the 
Objects of the Congress a$ laid down in Article I of 
this Constitution, and his wil^ngness to abide by thia 
Constitution, and by the Rules of the Congress hereto 
appended. 

The Madras Congress of 1908 was held under this 
Constitution, which was formally laid on the table. 
This Constitution, with the Rules, was submitted to 
the Congress at Allahabad in 1910, and a Resolution 
was there passed referring various proposed amend- 
ments to a Sub-Committee, which was ordered to 
report before the end of October, 1911, the report to 
be laid before the Congress of that year. It was so 
laid, and was further amended and adopted by the- 
Congress of Calcutta, in 1911 ; it was still further 
amended, and passed as amended, by the Congress of 
Bankipur in 1912. 

They thus became the Congress Constitution and 
Rules, being accepted by the body which is the onJ 
National Congress in the field, and is accepted as 
the National Congress in India, and in the whole 
world outside India. 

. A few adherents of the Stuarts may deny that the 
acts which placed the G-uelphs on the British Throne 
were constitutional, but the controversy is academi- 
cal. The succession of the Guelphs is a fait accompli. 
So with the National Congress. It was, it is, and it 
will be. Most Indians are grateful to the majority, 
who foiled the revolution of 1907, and carried on tlie 
succession. " Law is silent amid the clash of arms." 



172 sow nrou WROUGHT FOB JPBEEDOM 

Phey did the best they could under abnormal circum- 
itances, and the Nation, by continuing to send up 
its delegates year after year, has confirmed their 



AP attempt to find a path of reconciliation was 
oaade in 1914, and failed. By whose fault it is once 
Qftoreidle to dispute. The Congress, however, appoint- 
ed a Committee to consider amendments to the present 
pule under which. the Left Wing refuses to come in. 
A.t the time of" writing, the Committee has not 
diet, but if it make any amendment, and the Con- 
gress approve it and the Left Wing accept it, it can 
jnly be acted on in 1916. Practical politicians 
work from the status quo, and the Congress door 
.s open to all who accept its present Constitution. It 
should seem reasonable for the Left Wing,to imitate 
she Irish" party, who, while denouncing the Act of 
Union on the platform, accepted it as a fait accompli 
in politics, came in under* it into the Houses of 
Parliament, and then proceeded to fight for Home 
Etule. That is the democratic way of carrying on 
political battles. Above all, in meetings, where a 
President has been duly elected, as at Surat, his 
ruling must be obeyed, otherwise the meeting, as at 
Surat, becomes a mob. The sine qua nan of a Demo- 
cracy is order, under laws made by itself. Dr. Rash 
Behari Ghose had been elected under the tentative 
Constitution of 1906, passed by the whole Congress, 
rod no one had any right to challenge it. That was 
t&e primary unconstitutional action, out of which the 
further trouble grejpj the Congress, adjourned by 



THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS 473 

him as President, met under him again at Madras, 
still the 23rd Congress, composed of a crowd of the 
same delegates and of others added to them by the 
Nation, the final Court of Appeal, thus preserving 
the succession. 

PART II 

The Twenty-third National Congress, adjourned at 
Surat, met at Madras, on the 28th, 29th and 30th 
December, 1908. The Pandal had been erected in 
the Elphinstone Grounds, Mount Road ; it met under 
the Constitution and Rules drawn up by the Com- 
mittee appointed by the National Convention at 
Surat, and the signing of Article I was necessary for 
admission as a delegate. 626 delegates attended, 
distributed as follows : 

Madras 404 

Bombay .. *. . . 134 

United Bengal . 36 

U. P. .. . 23 

C. P. and Berar ... 18 

Panjab ... 7 

Burma . 4 



626 

Dewan Bahadur K. Krishnaswami Rao, C.I.E., 
the Chairman of the Reception Committee, after 
welcoming the delegates, said a few words on the 
reforms proposed by Lord Morley, on which the 
opinion of Congress should be expressed. For the 
first time they met under a Constitution, drawn 
up by the Committee appointed at Surat -, Mr. Hume, 



1 HOW INDIA WEOUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

' William Wedderburn and Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji 
1 approved both the Constitution and the Rules, 
b they were of course subject to modification by 
> Congress. In concluding, the Chairman expressed 
s grief of India for the loss of two great men, 
i Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu, C. I. E., and 
V. Bhashyam lyengar, 0, I. B. He called on 
wab Syed Muhammad to move that the Hon. Rash 
hari Ghose take the Chair. 

The Nawab Sahab proposed the motion, which was 
onded by Eao Bahadur E. N. Mudholjcar, support- 
by Sir Bhalchandra Krishna and carried by 
aultuous applause. 

The President began by alluding to the Surat 
uble, and justifying the course taken to preserve 

Congress. Turning to the condition of India, he 
>ke of the "succession of repressive laws, and 
>ortations under a lawless law " as sapping the most 
>ust optimism ; but now the clouds had broken, and 
resentative Government was to be granted, and 
Lians were to " have an effective voice in directing 

policy of the Government ". " We shall now 
r e something like a constitutional Government in 

place of an autocratic and irresponsible adminis- 
bion." Some unfortunate repressive laws had been 
sed, with the natural result of secret crime ; that 
ich happened in other countries happened in Ipdia, 
I a few began to dally with treason. " Coercion 
L even the appearance of coercion tend to create 
y distrust and suspicion." There had been during 

year some twenty prosecutions for sedition, and 



THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS 475 

as many convictions, and when feeling runs high 
every editor or speaker convicted of sedition is 
regarded as a martyr. Sedition was a vague offence, 
and might be made to cover any political agitation. 
In India, where a man tried for sedition had not the 
defence of a jury, " a prosecution can only be justified 
when the public peace is imperilled by wild writ- 
ings or speeches ". He hoped that, ere long, a 
successor of his in that chair would " be able to 
congratulate the country on the repeal of Regulation 
III of 1818, a barbarous relic from the past an un- 
weeded remnant which ought to have been extirpated 
long long ago ". [Dr. G-hose refers to the odious 
lettre de cachet system, which still stains our legisla- 
tion. But we are not likely to get rid of it till we 
have Home Rule, Autocracy does not readily part 
with its unconstitutional weapons.] 

The President looked forward to the day when a 
successor should announce the gaining of Self-Govern- 
ment, but he thought it far off : 

A younger generation will take up the work, who will, 
I trust, have some kindly thoughts for those who too, in 
their . day, strove to do their duty, however imperfectly, 
through good report and through evil report, with, it may 
be, a somewhat chastened fervour, but, I may say without 
boasting, a fervour as genuine as that which stirs and 
inspires younger hearts. 

The delegates were' then asked to elect their 
delegates for the Subjects Committee, and the Con- 
gress adjourned. 

The second day opened with the reading of a 
message from Mr. Keir Hardie, brought by Dr. Clark, 
M.P., who had come as a delegate. 



476 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

The President then moved Resolution I, tendering 
loyal homage to the King-Emperor, and respectfully 
welcoming the message of His Majesty, confirming 
the Proclamation of 1858. The Resolution was 
carried amid loud applause. 

Resolution II, expressing the deep satisfaction with 
which Lord Morley's Despatch, outlining the Reform 
proposals, had been received, and hoping that the 
Reforms would be worked out in the liberal spirit in 
which they had been conceived, was moved by 
Mr. Surendranath Banner ji. He said that in the early 
days they had only asked for a little expansion of 
the Legislative Councils, but now things had changed; 
Asia was throbbing with new life ; Japan had become 
a World-Power ; China and Persia were seeking re- 
presentative institutions. India hoped the Reforms 
would widen out in the future. In Bengal there was 
a growing feeling of the uselessness of constitutional 
agitation, since no efforts had availed to get rid of 
the Partition, but he still clung to constitutional 
means. And they should all welcome these Reforms, 
as a message of conciliation. They would be able 
to do something under the new conditions. In Bengal 
nine respectable men had been deported : 

To arrest nine respectable persons, to snatch them 
away from their families and detain them in prison 
without a complaint or a charge, and without affording 
them the opportunity of explanation or defence is a 
proceeding abhorrent to minds wedded to constitutional 
methods of procedure and to the canons of law and justice. 

Under the proposed Reforms they would at least 
be able in such cases to challenge the G-overnment 



THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS 477 

in the Council. The Rules to be framed under the 
scheme were all-important. They might make it 
successful, or "bring about its total failure. 

The Hon. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya seconded 
the Resolution, expressing their warm gratitude for 
the instalment of Reform offered to them, though it 
did not go as far as they wished. Let nobody 
imagine the Reforms were final. They must ask for 
more and more. 

Rao Bahadur R. N. Mudholkar supported, and 
pointed to the definite gains in the proposals made. 
Dewan Bahadur L. A. Govindaraghava, in view 
of the opposition to Lord Morley in England, thought 
they should express their view that the proposals 
were conceived in a generous spirit ; the Reforms were 
substantial though not large. Lala Harkishan Lai 
and Mr. Jehangir B. Petit supported, the latter 
laying stress on the work done in England by 
Mr. Gokhale. Mr. M. A. Jinnah, the Rev. Dr. R. A. 
Hume, Pandit Gokarannath Misra and Dr. Clark 
also supported, the latter expressing the hope doom- 
ed to failure that they might in the next Congress 
be as pleased with the Act as they were with the 
outline of the proposals. " The Russian bureaucrat 
had got to go ; the Turkish bureaucrat has got to go ; 
the Indian bureaucrat has got to go also. ... If the 
bureaucrat is bad in Europe, he is bad here also." 
Th Resolution was carried. 

The President then put from the Chair Resolution. 
Ill, expressing detestation of the dseds of violence 
committed, and it was carried. 



478 HOW INDIA WKOUGHT FOR JGMHDBDOM 

Resolution IV brought up once again the ill-treat* 
ment of British Indians in South Africa. [It will be 
noticed that under the rule of another Nation, no 
'grievance is redressed without years of agitation and 
pleading, if redressed at all. Hence the constant 
repetition of the same Resolutions.] It was moved by 
Mr. Mushir Hasan Kidwai, who had been elected 
as delegate of the Johannesburg British Indian Asso- 
ciation and the Hamidia Islamic Society there to 
the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, to 
represent their wrongs. He made an- admirable and 
forcible speech. 

The passion of earth-hunger has been on Europe for 
a long time past and there is hardly a corner of the world 
where the white man has not penetrated and which he 
would not like to make his own. Will the whole world 
then become the white man's and all the coloured men 
have to move away from it ? If the Transvaal is to be 
dubbed a white man's country, why should not then also 
fcgypt, or India, or Algiers ? I fail to see, gentlemen, the 
logic of this arbitrary theory that a white man's country 
should be a forbidden land for coloured men. Nor would 
the argument that the Indians should not be allowed to 
live in a country in which Europeans also live because 
they lower the standard of living, hold water tor a 
moment The necessary corollary of that proposition 
would be, that Asiatics may object to Europeans- and 
Americans living in their midst, as their P influence 
and example would lead them to live in astyle unsuited 
to the circumstances of their country. Would the 
Europeans leave Asia- on the ground that the coloured 

to reniain 



T 

The more you raise the standard of living! 

U Sv Me W 1 *- Tn India the poor 

* 



v - r 

f^ C nld ! 1Ve comforta % on an income of 2 
a month have now to starve on that income, thanks tothe 
^sing of the standard of living. I do no know 



THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS 479 

western moralists would say, but an Eastern would 
unhesitatingly prefer an all-round low standard of living, if 
it would render the ordinary comforts of life accessible in a 
larger degree to the poor masses and make a slender i&come 
suffice for a respectable living. My standard of living, for 
instance, is higher than was that of my grandfather, 
but when I go to my people and my tenants, and see them 
struggling hard for their very existence, living in worse 
houses than they used to and on less sufficient food, I 
stand self -condemned for tlje selfish folly of .spending more 
on my own living than I might. 

He caustically said : 

Just imagine what any section of the Europeans r?- 
sident in China would do, if they were put to similar 
worrying insults by the Chinese Government. 

Mr. C. Y. Chwtamairi, in seconding > pointed to' the 
effect on the public mind in India of the continued 
ill-treatment of Indians in South Africa. The Ee- 
solution was supported by Mr. Ibrahim JSToordien 
Muquadam, Dr. U. L. Desai, Mr. G. K. Gadgil, and 
Dr. Clark, M. P., and carried. 

The Hon. Mr. Krishnan Nair moved Resolution V, 
appealing for the reversal of the Partition of 
Bengal, and it was seconded, by Mr. Ambikacharan 
Mozumdar, from whom we must cull one paragraph 
which is always true of Indian as of other despotisms : 

As regards new facts, well, they are painfully in 
evidence in the unrest which is surging from one end of 
the, country to the other, and marking- its ravages both 
in Upper India as welJ as in the Deccan, and latterly in 
the ugly developments which have disgraced the Indian 
public and blotted the Indian administration. Violence 
and lawlessness we hate j anarchism we detest. But it 
seems impossible not to feel the force of the circumstance 
which has given monstrous birth to the insane bomb- 
maker. And, gentlemen, what has been the remedy 



480 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB FREEDOM 

applied to this state of things Repression, Repression, 
and nothing but Repression. But, gentlemen, if anarch- 
ism has in every age and in every country failed to achieve 
the salvation of any people, repression has likewise no- 
where succeeded in restoring peace and order, and in this 
country repression has so far only succeeded in converting 
prison-houses into martyrdoms. How long, oh, how long, 
will this intolerable' state of things continue ? If the 
Partition is a settled fact, the unrest in India is also a 
settled fact, and it is for Lord Morley and the Government 
of India to decide which should be unsettled to settle the 
question. 

The Resolution was supported by Messrs. Dharm- 
das Suri, Harichandra Vishindas, and was carried. 

Resolution VI accorded the cordial support of the 
Congress to the Swadeshi movement, and was moved 
by Mr. Dipnarrain Singh, who pointed out that the 
Muhammadan weavers in Bengal had, that year* 
been able to resist the famine because of the move- 
ment. The Resolution was seconded by Mr. K. 
Perrazu, supported by Messrs. Iswara Saran, Gr. K. 
Chitale, R. V. Maliajani and carried. 

Mr. V. V. Jogiah moved Resolution VII, a protest 
against the imposition of new Military charges on 
India, the latest of {0300,000, on the recommendation 
of the Homer Commission, the Report of which ,tjie 
Government refused to lay on the table of the House. 
He noted the growth of the expenditure* from nearly 
11 crores and odd in 1857 to nearly 32 and odd in 
3 906-07. Pandif Eambhftja Datta Choudhuri formally 
seconded, the Resolution was carried, and the Con- 
gress rose. 

The third day's proceedings began with an invitoa* 
tion to a garden party frm the Raja, of 



.-A 



THE TWENTY-THIKD CONGBESS 481 

and a telegram from South Africa, nearly 2,000 
Indians having sulfered imprisonment in the Trans- 
vaal. Then came our old Separation of Judicial and 
Executive Functions, as Resolution VIII, moved by 
Dr. Satish Chandra Bannerji, seconded by Mr. R. 
Sadagopachariar, supported by Messrs, Bishunpada 
Chatterji and Govindarao Apaji Patil, and carried. 

Pandit Rambhuj Dutt Choudhuri moved Resolu- 
tion IX, asking that the army might be thrown 
open to Indians m its higher grades. It was seconded 
by Mr. Narayana Menon, supported by Mr. Govinda 
Shai Sharma and carried. 

Next came Resolution X, demanding the repeal of 
the Bengal Regulation III of 1818, and other similar 
Regulations in other Provinces, and asking that 
the recently deported persons might be given au 
opportunity of meeting the charges made against 
them, or else be set at liberty. Mr. Syed Hasan 
Imam moved~the Resolution, the necessity for which 
was, and still is, a disgrace to British rule in India. 
The speaker, after showing that there were no 
circumstances which justified the seizure of peaceable 
citizens and dragging them away from their homes 
without charge or trial, spoke of the nine recent 
arrests and of the previous arrest of Lala Lajpat Rai. 
"Unexplained deportations shook the faith of the 
most loyal in the justice of a law that hides its 
proceedings from public gaze." Babu Bhupendranath 
Basu seconded, as a close personal friend of some of 
those deported; they were his fellow- workers for 
many years. " Are we to be imprisoned, are we to 

38 



4?82 ttow HTDIA WBQTWHT FOR FREEDOM 

bo deported, are we to be arrested, without being 
given even an opportunity of explaining our conduct ? " 
There had jeen lately the Midnapore trial, where 
elderly men some of the highest men in Indian Society, 
had been thrown into prison^ and when they were 
brought to trial it was found that "the whole 
prosecution under which the men were subjected to 
indescribable ignominy was based upon the informa- 
tion of a drunken debauchee picked up in the streets 
of Midnapore/' information that had to be abandoned. 

Mr. P. L. Ba;J Pal supported in a few words, and 
then Dr. Tej Bahadur Sapru pointed out that in no 
other country in the British Empire did such a law 
exist as that which they desired to be repealed. 
The spirit of it wks 

, against the very first principles of English jurispru- 
dence, and it is opposed to all the traditions of the English 
Constitution. I would go further, and say that it 
constitutes a very great menace to our liberty. It stands 
hanging over our heads like the sword of Damocles. 

The Resolution was put and carried. 

Resolution XI expressed the hope that Acts VII 
and XIV of 1908 would not long remain on the 
Statute Book, and was moved by Mr. P. R. 
Sundara Aiyar. Act VII allowed the '"summary 
attachment of newspaper presses, and Act XIV made 
it punishable for any person to subscribe to an 
association that was condemned ; the word " know- 
ingly " was suggested as an amendment before 
" subscribe," but it was rejected. If such legislation 
were necessary, it should only be passed for a short 



THE TWBNTY-THIBD OONGBBSS 483 

period, and brought up for renewal if the necessity 
continued, as in Ireland. Mr. S. Sinha seconded, 
Mr. M. Ramchand supported, and the "Resolution 
was passed. 

The President put from the Chair Resolution XII, 
on legislation in the Central Provinces and Behar, 
Carried. 

Mr. 0. Karunakara Menon moved Resolution XIII, 
asking for an enquiry into the causes of the high 
prices of food-stuffs. It was seconded by Mr. A. C. 
Parthasarathi Naidu and carried. 

Resolution XIV, on Education, was moved by Mr. A. 
Choudhuri, seconded by Rao Bahadur K. Gr. Desai, 
supported by Messrs. Parameshwar Lai and Utamlal 
Trivedi, and Dr. Nilratan Sircar, and carried. 

The President put from the Chair J> aolution XV, 
on Permanent Settlement, and XVI, on the luss sustain- 
ed by the deaths of Messrs. Kalio'ha ran Bannerji, 
Alfred Webb, Bansilal Singh, Pandit Bishambarnath, 
and Rao Bahadur P. Ananda Charlu. Both carried. 

The Hon. Mr. Gokhale then moved Resolution 
XVII, comprising messages of congratulation to 
Mr. A. 0. Hume on the Reforms ; and to Sir William 
Wedderburn on his recovery from serious illness, and 
thanking him for alt his work ; thanking also the 
British Committee. He made a long and eloquent 
speech, dwelling on the new responsibilities imposed 
on them by the Reforms, and on the need to co-oper- 
ate with Government under the new conditions. The 
Resolution was carried without any further speaiking, 
and Dr. Clark responded. 



484 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOB PJH3EDOM 

Kesolution XVIII appointed the members of the 
All-India Congress Committee ; .Resolution XIX 
thanked the Reception Committee j and XX appoint- 
ed Messrs. I). B. "Wacha and the Hon. Mr,- J). -A. 
Khare, General Secretaries. Resolution XXI 
accepted Lahore tor the meeting of the Congress in 
1909. Then the Hon. Mr. V. Krishnaswami Aiyor 
.moved a vote oi' thanks to the Preflidanl and 
Dr. (rhose responded; he sounded a not*- of warning 
for since his presidential speech news hrvd cmii* from 
England of the gathering of orunious doiuU in th 
political sky. 

Our enemies did 1 say our eiiemios P j .night to 
have seid the enemies of the English people, i. l n> <ivi IIPH 
of English rule in India, are trying to tbwnrt Lnrd 
Morley'b Reform scheme. It is therefore OTU Hufcj to 
make organised efforts here, as well as in Si. gland, to 
oottnteract the mischievoxis action of misrhifvoun burraa- 
crats, n ho, even iii their retirement, hi the vr'vy inuae 
of fr^e institutions, have not lost their rti-ac'ti.ni.iry 
instincts, The leopard ziay change his spots, but there 
is no hope, take my word for "it, for th wiin-driyql 
bureaucrat. The fetters are not taken olf his mind even 
in the free atmosphere of England. Once a bm-eaucrat, 
always a bureaucrat. 

The warning proved to be but too true ; the 
Reforms were spoiled. 

The Twenty-third National Congress dissolved. 

RESOLUTIONS 
To the King-Emperor 

I. Eesojved That the Indian National Congress tenders its 
loyal homage to His Gracious Majesty the King-Emperor and 
respectfully -welcomes the message sent by His Majesty to the 
Princes and Peoples of India on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
memorable T*roclamation issued in 1858 by his Illustrious Mother, 
Yietoria te Gk>o*d. 



THE TWVNTY-tHlBb OOtiCtBK&8 485 



Thai this Cniitfroria begs to ivnnrrl lie qefa'pftuilioa. that the 
ioterpvetaulorv placed by It npoa 1he Plodgu uonlained in fchwt 
" Great Charfcet" of 1858 has ^oin uphold by Itta Majesty . 

That this Congress pTatofnlly woicornes thn psvwyu*.cfnapttfc 
ma*le by El^a Majty that the time has come whm r-he principle of 
rppre:enGi.lm iwtitutionH, *vhich trom the flrHt began to be 
gradually r ntwduwd in Jfidin, may )>n prudent!} euiended, and that 
tho rxjiilSv ^atfsfw'iiofl. of tlin olair, tn e.jnpn^ of citizenship and 
< TWv"JT' TSM-' in ltijiisiiiitt)n -md tfrvcTumont .>>ade by important 
is frtdis*, ytoJ'?*rtntin} % vir-is Uiat have bcn fostered and 
"f i'y ?^ifv<h f*iJ', *.v/ll ritwugthen, not impair, existing 



'',a* U"< '"* - ',<< loofrs TOJ ward with confidence to a steady 
-'l i;y tiiw *j i t'uljsnnby andor the Crown in letter and in 
r.;\irif ijj? Ui* s .j 1 ^ ' nwl ftdsurancea contained in the Great Charter 
of JfTS Mjr.d iv FJ IVt'^^'j y's Massage of 1908. 

V'^rto-Morley Beforms 

it "< ..'tv M! -- i' iiit this Congress desires to #ive expression 
i/ S.<". '-- ^ -MI/I j.o-iral satisfaction with which the Reform pro- 
]:. ,K -t. *il,,iw "i "ordMorley's despatch have been received 
1 .ir 'ii,_u>* \ "M - ^* .'v, it places on record its sense of high states- 
"<o ' i , -, Wi r ,. iJiotttefl the action of the Government in the 
mi'ir , .1 id :' i"n<uJd to Lord Morley and Lord Minto its most 
, ji ' 'i'.i f ya? r J.i< '.hunks for their proposals 

TJi' 1 * iflia Owngrt'-iJ K- ot opinion that the proposed expansion of 
fch* 1 >.p(,^4l'J'\<. ('o 1. 1 1' iid the enlargement of their powers and 
fu'jff'MEfi, .n ' v ; pjM'intiiiftjiti t-t 1 Indian members of the Executive 
Hi 'tin*.".'* Witli <}' i-i i wi 1 >n ^ i" H'ich Councils where they do not exist, 
Mid tho forth*-.* <fr 'upiu "d ol Lor pi Self -Government, conscitute 
aJaige niut (^>uv> < it > I inuit ui i he reforms needed to give the 
people of fc u.j (.o'.fntrf i tniL-sutitial share in the management of 
their ftfJuiiVi and tu < iT ii.ji, thf aihniiiiwtration into closer touch with 
iieir svinia ltd ieeluij^. 



this On'Tp'ptMa oxpr^ssrH its confident hope that the details 
of the t tfc$Qtasii joh^n-o will i). k worked out in. the same libewl 
npirit in %i bicl> i** main pj-ovisionN, as. outlined in the Secretary oJP 
* been oonceivod. 



111. Ilesolvod That this Congress places on record its 
Gxuphutiu and ^nquahliud condemnation of the detestable outrages 
and deedti of violep which have been committed recently in some 
parts of fchft counh-y, nnd which are abhorrent to the loyal, humane 
and pe>a.eekwg flatixr^ of His Majesty's Indian subjects of every 



486 HOW INDIA WROUGHT EOK FREEDOM 

Indians in British Colonies 

IV. E*so!ved~That this Congress views with the greatest 
indignation the harsh and humiliating and cruel treatment to which 
British Indians, even of the highest respectability and position 
have been subjected by the British Colonies in South Africa, and 
expresses its alarm at the likelihood of such treatment resulting in 
far-reaching consequences of a mischievous character ealrulatod to 
cause great injury to the best interests of the British Empire, and 
trusts that the Imperial Parliament, when granting the new Consti- 
tution to South Africa, will secure the interests of the Indian 
inhabitants of South Africa. 

That this Congress begs earnestly to press upon the British 
Parliament and the Government of India, the desirability of (leal- 
ing with the Self-Governing Colonies in the same manner in which 
the latter ruthlessly deal with Indian interests, so long aa they 
adhere to the selfish and one-sided policy which they proclaim and 
practise, and persist in their present course of denying to His 
Majesty's Indian subjects their just rights a& citizens of the Empire. 

That this Congress, while aware of the declaration of responsi- 
ble statesmen in favour of allowing the Self-Governing Colonies in 
the British Empire to monopolise vast tracts of undeveloped terri- 
tories for exclusive white settlements, deems it right to point out 
that the policy of shutting the door and denying the rights of full 
British citizenship to a!i subjects of the British Crown, while 
preaching and enforcing the opposite policy m Asia and other parts 
of th'e world, is fraught with grave mischief to the Empire and r as 
unwise as it is unrighteous. 

Partition of Bengal 

V. Eesolved That this Congress earnestly appeals to the 
Government of India and the Secretary of State for India to reverse 
the Partition of Bengal, or to modify it in such a manner as to keep 
the entire Bengali-speaking community under one and the same 
administration. 

That this Congress is of opinion that the rectification of this 
admitted error will restore eontentme&t in the Province of Bengal, 
give satisfaction to the other Province**, ar*d mbtead of impairing, 
will enhance the prestige of Bis Majesty's Government throughout 
the country. 

Swadeshi 

VI. Eesolved That thip Congress aec-ords its most cordial 
Support to the Swadeshi Movement, and calls upon the people of the 
country to labour for its success by making earnest and sustained 
efforts - to promote the growth of industries capable of development 
in the country, and respond to the efforts of Indian producers by 



THE TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS 487 . 

giving preference, wherever practicable, to Indian products over 
imported commodities, even at a sacrifice. 

VII. Resolved That this Congress enters its emphatic protest 
against the fresh burden of 300,000 which the British War Office 
has imposed on the Indian Exchequer for military charges on the 
recommendation of the Romer Committee, the proceedings of which 
the Under-Secretary uf State for India has refused to lay on the table 
of the House of Commons, in contravention of previous practice in 
such matters. 

That this Congress views with the greatest regret the 
repeated imposition of military charges by the British War Office on 
the Indian tax-payer from the date of the Army Amalgamation 
Scheme of 1859, in regard to which imposition the Government of 
India has repeatedly remonstrated. 

That this Congress respectfully urges upon the attention of His 
Majesty's Government the necessity of revising the Army 
Amalgamation Scheme of 1859 in the light of the experience of the 
last fifty years, and the desirability of laying down a fair and 
reasonable principle which shall free the Indian Exchequer from, 
unjust exactions of this character. 

IX. Resolved That this Congress prays that the